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[New York, New York], UNICEF, 2017 May. 20 p.As part of a series highlighting the challenges faced by children in current crisis situations, this UNICEF Child Alert examines the impact of the reforms, economic growth and national reconciliation process in Myanmar. It also looks at the investments in children’s health, education and protection that Myanmar is making, and shows how children in remote, conflict-affected parts of the country have yet to benefit from them.
Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Draft 1.0. Submitted to the Executive Board (138th Session).
[Unpublished] .  p.In May 2014, the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA67.24 on Follow-up of the Recife Political Declaration on Human Resources for Health: renewed commitments towards universal health coverage. In paragraph 4(2) of that resolution, Member States requested the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop and submit a new global strategy for human resources for health (HRH) for consideration by the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly. 2. Development of the draft Global Strategy was informed by a process launched in late 2013 by Member States and constituencies represented on the Board of the Global Health Workforce Alliance, a hosted partnership within WHO. Over 200 experts from all WHO regions contributed to consolidating the evidence around a comprehensive health labour market framework for universal health coverage (UHC). A synthesis paper was published in February 2015(1) and informed the initial version of the draft Global Strategy. 3. An extensive consultation process on the draft version was launched in March 2015. This resulted in inputs from Member States and relevant constituencies such as civil society and health care professional associations. The process also benefited from discussions in the WHO regional committees, technical consultations, online forums and a briefing session to Member States’ permanent missions to the United Nations (UN) in Geneva. Feedback and guidance from the consultation process are reflected in the draft Global Strategy, which was also aligned with, and informed by the draft framework on integrated people-centred health services. 4. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 is primarily aimed at planners and policy-makers of WHO Member States, but its contents are of value to all relevant stakeholders in the health workforce area, including public and private sector employers, professional associations, education and training institutions, labour unions, bilateral and multilateral development partners, international organizations, and civil society. 5. Throughout this document, it is recognized that the concept of universal health coverage may have different connotations in countries and regions of the world. In particular, in the WHO Regional Office for the Americas, universal health coverage is part of the broader concept of universal access to health care.
Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007 Nov; 110(5):999-1002.Family planning plays a pivotal role in population growth, poverty reduction, and human development. Evidence from the United Nations and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations supports this conclusion. Failure to sustain family planning programs, both domestically and abroad, will lead to increased population growth and poorer health worldwide, especially among the poor. However, robust family planning services have a range of benefits, including maternal and infant survival, nutrition, educational attainment, the status of girls and women at home and in society, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, and environmental conservation efforts. Family planning is a prerequisite for achievement of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals and for realizing the human right of reproductive choice. Despite this well-documented need, the U.S. contribution to global family planning has declined in recent years. (author's)
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2004 Nov.  p.The Global Coalition on Women and Aids brings together a wide range of partners - civil society groups, networks of women living with HIV and AIDS, governments, and UN agencies - who work together to lessen the devastating impact of AIDS on women and girls worldwide. Almost half of the adults living with HIV and AIDS today are women. Over the past two years, the number of women and girls infected with HIV has increased in every region of the world, with rates rising particularly rapidly in Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America. In sub-Saharan Africa, women and girls already make up almost 60% of adults living with HIV. Launched in early 2004, the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS works at global and national levels to highlight the effects of AIDS on women and girls and to stimulate concrete and effective action to prevent the spread of HIV. Coalition partners seek to address some of the fundamental gender inequalities that fuel the epidemic. Efforts are focused on preventing new HIV infections, promoting equal access to care and treatment, ensuring universal access to education, addressing legal inequities, reducing violence against women, and valuing women's care work within communities. (excerpt)
Right to education during displacement: a resource for organizations working with refugees and internally displaced persons.
New York, New York, Women' s Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006.  p.This resource is the first in a series of tools that identifies everyone's right to education, with a focus on refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons (IDP). This version is designed for use by local, regional and international organizations, United Nations (UN) agencies, government agencies and education personnel working with displaced communities. Is it mean to serve as: an awareness raising tool to encourage humanitarian assistance agencies to implement education programs - and donors to found them; training and capacity-building resource for practitioners and others working with displaced populations on international rights around education; and a call to action for organizations and individuals to promote access and completion of quality education for all persons affected by emergencies. (excerpt)
Oxford, England, Oxfam International, 2006. 122 p.This report shows that developing countries will only achieve healthy and educated populations if their governments take responsibility for providing essential services. Civil society organisations and private companies can make important contributions, but they must be properly regulated and integrated into strong public systems, and not seen as substitutes for them. Only governments can reach the scale necessary to provide universal access to services that are free or heavily subsidised for poor people and geared to the needs of all citizens -- including women and girls, minorities, and the very poorest. But while some governments have made great strides, too many lack the cash, the capacity, or the commitment to act. Rich country governments and international agencies such as the World Bank should be crucial partners in supporting public systems, but too often they block progress by failing to deliver debt relief and predictable aid that supports public systems. They also hinder development by pushing private sector solutions that do not benefit poor people. The world can certainly afford to act. World leaders have agreed an international set of targets known as the Millennium Development Goals. Oxfam calculates that meeting the MDG targets on health, education, and water and sanitation would require an extra $47 billion a year. Compare this with annual global military spending of $1 trillion, or the $40 billion that the world spends every year on pet food. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . 17 p.The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS (GCWA) was launched by UNAIDS and partners in February 2004 in response to rising rates of HIV infection among women globally, and a growing concern that existing AIDS strategies did not address social and economic inequalities that make women particularly vulnerable to HIV. The GCWA is structured as an informal, global alliance of civil society groups, networks of women living with HIV, and UN organizations with four key goals: to raise the visibility of issues related to women, girls and AIDS; to highlight strategies to strengthen women's access to HIV prevention and care services; to build partnerships for action; and, in so doing, to scale up efforts that will lead to concrete, measurable improvements in the lives of women and girls. The GCWA focuses on women and AIDS rather than gender and AIDS. This is deliberate. Whilst acknowledging that gender inequalities fuel and sustain the epidemic, the profound changes required in attitudes, behaviour and societal structures may well take generations. In the meantime, nearly two-thirds of young people living with HIV are adolescent girls. The GCWA seeks to include but move beyond gender-based analyses to action. It seeks to work with men and women, with existing allies, as well as new partners in the women's movement to prevent women from becoming infected and to live full lives, even when infected or profoundly affected by HIV. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2002 Mar-Apr; 4(1):2.More than 70 nongovernmental organizations have endorsed a declaration in support of a global event on population and development in 2005, which was prepared by the executive board of Population 2005 in February 2002. The statement was presented to the United Nations Commission on Population and Development at its 35th session in New York in April. The declaration reads as follows: In its Program of Action, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 set three sets of specific goals for: 1) provision of family planning and other reproductive health services 2) reduction of infant, child and maternal mortality, and 3) universal access to primary education, with particular attention to the girl child. (excerpt)
In: Thematic compilation of General Assembly and Economic and Social Council resolutions, [compiled by] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]. Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2003 Feb 1. 515-538.The provisions reproduced below call upon States to ensure access for refugee and displaced women to emergency relief, health programmes, counselling services, and material assistance. GENERAL ASSEMBLY RESOLUTIONS: Calls upon all States and donors providing immediate relief to refugees and displaced persons to endeavour to lessen the special vulnerability of women in these circumstances, by ensuring their access to emergency relief and to health programmes, and. their active participation in decision making in centres or camps for refugees or displaced persons; Further calls upon all States and donors assisting in the rehabilitation, resettlement or repatriation of refugees and displaced persons to recognize the pivotal role of the mother in the family, and thus in the provision of family welfare, to ensure women's rights to physical safety and to facilitate their access to counselling services and material assistance. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. vii, 64 p.This report grows out of our shared belief that the world must respond to the HIV crisis confronting women. It highlights the work of the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS—a UNAIDS initiative that supports and energizes programmes that mitigate the impact of AIDS on girls and women worldwide. Through its advocacy and networking, the Coalition is drawing greater attention to the effects of HIV on women and stimulating concrete, effective action by an ever-increasing range of partners. We believe this report, with its straightforward analysis and practical responses, can be a valuable advocacy and policy tool for addressing this complex challenge. The call to empower women has never been more urgent. We must act now to strengthen their capacity, resilience and leadership. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., PAHO, 2003.  p.Around the world, efforts to reduce poverty and enhance development have had greater success where women and men have relatively equal opportunities. In much of Latin America, however, women’s low social status, poor health, and subordination to men persist. Governments in the region increasingly acknowledge the need to promote gender equity in health and other aspects of development, but the data to monitor disparities between men and women—and progress in closing the gaps—have not been readily available. This data sheet profiles gender differences in health and development in 48 countries in the Americas, focusing on women’s reproductive health, access to key health services, and major causes of death. Its objective is to raise awareness of gender inequities in the region and to promote the use of sex-disaggregated health statistics for policies and programs. This effort is consistent with the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals, adopted by 189 member countries at the UN Millennium Summit (2000), which focus on achieving measurable improvements in people’s lives, including greater gender equality. The data sheet also provides basic population and development indicators and information on other factors that influence health, including education, employment, political participation, and risk factors. Staff of the Pan American Health Organization and the Population Reference Bureau compiled this information using data from official national sources as well as data collected by specialized international agencies. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Jul; 81(7):539-545.Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions’ work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions’ efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. (author's)
In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 1-25.This document is the first chapter in a book complied by the UN Gender Working Group (GWG) that explores the overlay of science and technology (S&T), sustainable human development, and gender issues. The introduction defines these three domains and notes that the mandate of the GWG was to make S&T policy recommendations to national governments, suggest improvements to the UN system, and advise other organizations. The next section presents the GWG's diagnosis of gender inequity in education and careers in S&T and the gender-specific nature of technical changes. Section 3 describes the following: 1) improving gender equity in S&T education, 2) removing obstacles to women in S&T careers, 3) making science responsive to the needs of society, 4) making the S&T decision-making process more "gender aware," 5) relating better with local knowledge systems, 6) addressing ethical issues in S&T, and 7) improving the collection of gender-disaggregated data for policy makers. Section 4 reviews the conclusions the GWG made about the performance of the UN system and sets forth eight recommendations drawn from these conclusions. The chapter recommends that 1) all countries adopt a Declaration of Intent on Gender, Science, and Technology for Sustainable Human Development and 2) each country establish an ad hoc committee constituted with equitable participation of women and men and with the involvement of end users and stakeholders that will be charged with making recommendations on the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, each country should publish progress reports and all donor countries and agencies should help these national ad hoc committees target financial support to projects that enable countries to implement the recommendations of their committees.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1992 Jun.  p.This compendium provides statistical profiles for 136 UNICEF countries on the status of children. Statistics pertain to basic population, infant and child mortality, and gross national product data; child survival and development; nutrition; health; education; demography; and economics. Official government sources are used whenever possible. The nine major sources include the UN Statistical Office, UNICEF, the UN Population Division, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the World Bank, Demographic and Health Surveys, and UNESCO. Statistics rely on internationally standardized estimates, and whenever standardized estimates were unavailable, UNICEF field office data were used. Some statistics may be more reliable than others. Countries are divided into four groups for under-five mortality: very high (140 deaths per 1000 live births); high (71-140/1000); middle (21-70/1000); and low (20/1000 and under). The median value is the preferred figure, but the mean is used if the range in data is not extensive. Data are footnoted by definitions, sources, explanations of signs, and individual notation where figures are different from the general definition being used. Comprehensive and representative data are used where possible. Data should not be used to delineate small differences. Countries with very high child mortality include Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Yemen.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 74 p.The introduction to the 1995 Annual Report of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) notes that, during the year, the UNFPA operated in 150 countries and represented the largest single source of population assistance. At the request of developing countries, the UNFPA helps to improve reproductive health care, to promote sustainable development, and to provide data on population. The $3.5 billion dispersed since the UNFPA's inception in 1969 has come solely from voluntary contributions from 167 nations. In 1995, 85 nations contributed $313 million. Another aim of the fund is to promote the goals of the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), which seek to expand the availability of education, reduce infant and child mortality, and increase access to reproductive health care, including family planning. This annual report highlights the ways in which the fund exercised its mandate during 1995. Graphs detail UNFPA assistance by major function, by geographical region, by country/intercountry category, and by executing agency. Activities in the core program areas are summarized, as are the ICPD follow-up efforts. Regional reviews are provided for Africa South of the Sahara, the Arab States and Europe, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. In addition, interregional and nongovernmental organization programs are described. The report ends with a consideration of the increased future resource requirements needed from donor countries to implement the ICPD Program of Action. Appendices include such 1995 data as an income and expenditures report, a record of government pledges and payments, project allocations, executive board decisions, and resolutions.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 1986 Jun; 12(2):49-53.The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was adoptedin in 1979 by the UN Gereral Assembly and came into force in 1981. By May 1986, 87 countries had ratified and in so doing become states parties to it. The Forward looking Strategies for implementing the goals of the UN decade for women outline measures that countries must take by the year 2000 to achieve equality between men and women. The Strategies was adopted by over 150 countries in 1985 in Nairobi and endorsed subsequently by UN General. This article discussedes how the Convention and the strategies can be used to promote family planning (FP), reproductive rights, and maternal health. The covention requires states parties to ensure equal access of men and women to health and FP services. The article outlines the many practices and policies that enhigbit equal access to FP services. For example, in some nations, husbands but not wives are allowed to obtain contraceptives without spousal authorization; in others unmarried men but not unmarried women may obtain contraceptives. The strategies recognize that adolescent pregnancy has adverse effects on the morbidity and mortality of mothers and children and requires nations to provide contraceptives on an equal basis to adolescent men and women. The article concludes by explanining that states parties to the convention must report to the committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, established by the convention, on steps they have taken to eliminate discriminatory practices in health care and FP specifically and other fields generally, and outlines what FP organizations can do to assist in that reporting process. (author's modified)
Report on the evaluation of the UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Indonesia (INS/79/P20 and INS/83/P02) and of the role of women in three other UNFPA-supported projects in Indonesia (INS/77/P03, INS/79/P04, and INS/79/P16).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Apr. vi, 52 p.The Evaluation Mission analyzes and assess the 2 United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)-supported Women, Population and Development Projects and the role of women in 3 other UNFPA-assisted projects in Indonesia. The Mission concluded that the family planning and cooperative/income generation scheme as evolved in the 2 projects has contributed to increasing contraceptive acceptance and continuation and to a shift from the less reliable to the more reliable contraceptive methods. The projects have also assisted women and their families to expand their income generating activities, raise their incomes, and improve the family's standard of living. The Mission recommends that: 1) more diversified income producing activities be encouraged; 2) product outlets be identified and mapped and appropriate marketing strategies devised; 2) loan repayment schedules be carefully examined; 4) data collection, monitoring and evaluation be streamlined and strenghthened; and 5) the process of the entire rural cooperatives/income generation scheme be more comprehensively documented. In the 3 other projects, which are addressed to both men and women, the needs and concerns of women have not been adequately taken into account and/or the participation of women in all phases of the projects and their access to project benefits have not been equal to men. The Mission therefore recommends that special consideration be given to women's concerns in the design and formulation of all projects. The Mission ascertained that non-women specific projects tend to perpetuate existing discriminatory or unequal access to, and control of, resources by women unless specific consideration is accorded to them.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.