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  1. 1
    313682
    Peer Reviewed

    Long-acting and permanent contraception: An international development, service delivery perspective.

    Jacobstein R

    Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2007 Jul-Aug; 52(4):361-367.

    Recent scientific findings about long-acting and permanent methods of contraception underscore their safety, effectiveness, and wide eligibility for individuals who desire them. This has led to new guidance from the World Health Organization to inform national policies, guidelines, and standards for service delivery. Although developing countries have made much progress in expanding the availability and use of family planning services, the need for effective contraception in general (and long-acting and permanent methods in particular) is large and growing because the largest cohorts in human history are entering their reproductive years. More than half a billion people will use contraception in developing countries (excluding China) by 2015, an increase of 200 million over levels of use in 2000. The health, development, and equity rationales that historically have underpinned and energized the international family planning effort remain valid and relevant today. Despite the other compelling challenges faced by the international health community, the need to make family planning services more widely available is pressing and should remain a priority. (author's)
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  2. 2
    110241

    Contraceptive implants: friend or foe?

    PHNFLASH: ELECTRONIC NEWSLETTER ON POPULATION, HEALTH, AND NUTRITION. 1995 Oct 25; (93):1.

    Many contraceptive implant specialists provided an overview of current contraceptive implant technology and practice to the staff of the World Bank on July 18, 1995. The Director of the UNDP/UNFPA/World Health Organization/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction informed the audience about the history of implant technology. The chief investigator of many clinical trials of contraceptive implants in Chile discussed the mechanisms of action of implants and the benefits and disadvantages of the various types of implants that are available or under development. The only contraceptive implant on the market is Norplant, which more than 3 million women currently use. Most Norplant users live in Indonesia, followed by users in the US. Providers insert the 6 progestin-releasing rods in the upper arm, which provides protection from pregnancy for 5 years. Norplant acceptors may request removal of rods at any time. Many people are concerned that Norplant users may not have timely access to removal of the implants when they want them to be removed. Another concern is the potential for coercion since Norplant requires assistance of a medical provider to start and end use. Many women's groups in developing countries share these concerns and have protested against Norplant. As a result, developers of contraceptive implants and representatives of women's groups have met to discuss these concerns. More discussions will be needed to make sure that developers adequately address these concerns.
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