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Lancet. Psychiatry. 2015 Jun; 2(6):487-8.Add to my documents.
New York, New York, UNFPA, .  p.Each year, more people are living with HIV than the year before. And each year, more people die of AIDS. This growing global tragedy has many faces: The desperation of a teenage orphan struggling to care for her younger siblings by trading sexual favours for food; The sorrow of a young mother who learns she is HIV-positive at a prenatal clinic; The anguish of an unemployed youth who fears he has acquired HIV, but has no access to counselling, testing or condoms. In the absence of a cure, HIV prevention offers the best hope of reversing the epidemic. Prevention works. Sustained political commitment through intensive programmes in diverse settings has reduced HIV incidence. Advances in treatment are reinforcing prevention efforts by encouraging voluntary testing and reducing the stigma associated with AIDS. Nevertheless, the pandemic is outstripping efforts to contain it and is gaining ground globally. (excerpt)
New York, New York, SIECUS, .  p. (SIECUS PEPFAR Country Profiles: Focusing in on Prevention and Youth)Zambia is home to 11 million people, who represent more than 70 different ethnic groups, many sharing a common language, Bantu. Today roughly 35% of people live in urban areas. Although at one point the country was becoming increasingly urbanized, intense poverty on the rise since the 1970s has seen many people returning to rural areas. Religious beliefs in the country are varied. It is estimated that between half and three-quarters of Zambians practice Christianity, and that between a quarter and one-half practice Islam or Hinduism. A small minority practice indigenous faiths. Zambia gained its independence from Britain in 1964, and then was under one-party rule until the early 1990s. President Levy Mwanawasa was elected in 2001, although opposition parties claim the elections were marred by irregularities. Mwanawasa, however, has actively worked to rectify the perception of corruption in the government. For example, he lifted his predecessor Frederick Chiluba's immunity from investigation and prosecution regarding allegations of corruption. The next elections are scheduled for 2006. (excerpt)
New York, New York, SIECUS, .  p. (SIECUS PEPFAR Country Profiles: Focusing in on Prevention and Youth)Uganda is home to over 26 million people, comprising at least 18 different ethnic groups. The largest group, the Baganda people, make up 17% of the population. Today, an increasing number of people practice some form of Christianity, roughly 66% of the population, with an equal number subscribing to Roman Catholic and Protestant teachings. Of the remaining 34%, half practice Islam and half practice traditional, indigenous religions. Uganda is struggling to emerge from a turbulent and violent political history. President Yoweri Museveni seized power through a military rebellion in 1986. In 1996, he became the country's first directly elected president and was re-elected in 2001. He is also the chair of the National Resistance Movement (NRM), the only fully and freely functioning political organization in the country. Although there are seven organizations that could be characterized as political parties, Museveni has declared that the NRM is not a political party but a movement that "claims the loyalty of all Ugandans."2 Presidential elections are scheduled for February 2006, and although the constitution limits presidents to two terms in office, Musevini is campaigning to alter the constitution to permit him to run for a third term. (excerpt)
New York, New York, SIECUS, .  p. (SIECUS PEPFAR Country Profiles: Focusing in on Prevention and Youth)The United Republic of Tanzania, which consists of the mainland and the island of Zanzibar, is home to 36.8 million people. The vast majority (99%) are native Africans, of which 95% are Bantu (an ethnic group consisting of more than 130 tribes). While mainland Tanzanians hold a variety of beliefs (35% Muslim, 35% indigenous, and 30% Christian), more than 99% of the inhabitants of Zanzibar practice Islam. Tanzania was formed through the merger of Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964, after the two nations gained independence from U.N. trusteeship administered by Britain. In 1995, one-party rule came to an end with the first democratic elections held in the country in nearly 30 years. Since that time, two contentious elections have been conducted, with the ruling party declaring victory despite claims of voting irregularities by international observers. (excerpt)
New York, New York, SIECUS, .  p. (SIECUS PEPFAR Country Profiles: Focusing in on Prevention and Youth)South Africa is home to over 44 million people. South Africa's population is diverse-- the country officially recognizes 11 different languages and is home to a variety of ethnic groups and religions. Until 1991, South African law divided the population into four major racial categories: African (black), white, coloured, and Asian. Although this law has been abolished, many South Africans still view themselves and each other according to these categories. Black Africans from various ethnic groups comprise about 79% of the population. White people of European descent comprise about 10% of the population. Coloured people, who are mixed-race people primarily descending from the earliest settlers and the indigenous peoples, comprise about 9% of the total population. Asians, who descend from Indian workers brought to South Africa in the mid-19th century to work on the sugar estates in Natal, constitute about 2.5% of the population and still live primarily in the KwaZulu-Natal Province. Over half of South Africans identify as Christian, and 28.5% hold traditional, indigenous and/or animist beliefs. South Africans who identify as Muslim and Hindu (60% of whom are Indian) represent 2% and 1.5% of the population, respectively. (excerpt)
New York, New York, SIECUS, .  p. (SIECUS PEPFAR Country Profiles: Focusing in on Prevention and Youth)The Republic of Rwanda is home to approximately 8,441,000 people. More than 90% of the population lives in rural areas, in part because lack of economic opportunities and violence are driving people from urban areas. Rwanda's population is comprised of two main ethnic groups -- the Hutus (84%) and the Tutsis (15%). Rwandans are largely Christian (56.5% Roman Catholic, 26% Protestant, 11.1% Adventist), with a small minority holding Islamic beliefs (4.6%). Rwanda gained independence from the Britain in 1962 and has recently experienced dramatic governmental upheaval and civil war, beginning in 1990 and culminating in the 1994 genocide of approximately 800,000 people. During the conflict, roughly two million refugees fled to neighboring countries. While most refugees have returned to Rwanda, many continue to live in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC), Uganda, and Zambia. Conversely, Rwanda shelters nearly 38,000 refugees from the DROC, as well as over 4,000 internally displaced persons. With much of the population uprooted and in light of the real and perceived political dominance of Rwanda's ruling party, attempts at ethnic reconciliation have been complicated. In the aftermath of the 1994 genocide, however, Rwanda has been able to hold local, legislative, and presidential elections. In 2003, Rwandans, in addition to adopting a new constitution, overwhelmingly supported the election of President Paul Kagame, who was originally appointed to the office in 2000 by members of Parliament. The next presidential election is scheduled for 2008. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2004 Dec.  p.There is an urgent need to define at country level an essential package of interventions that can be delivered through health services to meet the needs of young people. This document summarizes the evidence for effective action, and encourages policy makers and programmers to turn concern and commitment into effective and sustainable action. It is based on an understanding that HIV infects people when they are young, but AIDS affects and kills people at an age when they would be parents and workers who sustain society and domestic and family life. Helping young people to protect themselves against HIV and AIDS protects people now and in the future. It protects the future of family life and the economic prospects of countries in development. (excerpt)
The role of the health sector in supporting adolescent health and development. Materials prepared for the technical briefing at the World Health Assembly, 22 May 2003.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2003. 15 p.I am very pleased to be here, and to be part of the discussion on Young Peoples Health at the World Health Assembly, for two reasons: because of the work we have been doing in adolescent health over the past years together with the Member States of the European Region of WHO, the work in cooperation with other UN agencies, especially UNICEF, UNFPA, and UNAIDS on adolescent health and development. Secondly, because Youth is a priority area of work of German Development Cooperation, and of the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, where I am working presently. Indeed, we have devoted this years GTZ´s open house day on development cooperation to youth I would also like to take this opportunity to remember the work of the late Dr. Herbert Friedman, former Chief of Adolescent Health in WHO, whose vision of the importance of working for and with young people has inspired many of the national plans and initiatives which we will hear about today. In many countries of the world, young people form the majority of populations, and yet their needs are being insufficiently met through existing health and social services. The health of young people was long denied the public, and public health attention it deserves. Adolescence is a driving force of personal, but also social development, as young people gradually discover, and question and challenge the adult world they are growing into. (excerpt)
UNFPA fifth country programme of assistance to the government of Kenya, 1997 to 2001. Framework for the reproductive health sub-programme.
[Unpublished] 1997 Dec. xiii, 32 p.This project between the UN Population Fund and Kenya's Ministry of Health proposes to strengthen technical and institutional capacity at all levels in the effective provision of reproductive health (RH) services during 1997-2001. The aims are to increase quality and accessibility of RH by a specific percentage, to reduce maternal mortality by 20%, to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality by 30%, and to increase contraceptive prevalence by 20% in selected districts and Nairobi slums. The aims are also to provide youth-appropriate RH services, to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, and to intensify IEC activities in support of RH services and other activities. This proposal describes the background, justification, and health reforms in Kenya; the RH achievements and lessons learned; selected issues to be addressed in the national RH program; goals; strategies and activities; monitoring and evaluation; the institutional framework; related activities and funding sources; and the summary budget. The budget will be shared between the Government (60%) and implementing nongovernmental organizations (40%). About 10% will be directed to IEC. The total summary budget is US$13 million. The main strategy for preventing STIs and HIV/AIDS is to integrate the education within day-to-day activities of health staff and to train service providers (SPs) at all levels. Surgical gloves and male-friendly services will be provided to all SP points. Technical support will be provided by advisers in Addis Ababa, selected national consultants, and field office program staff.