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Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2017 Apr. 302 p.Gender equality is a core development objective in its own right and also smart development policy and business practice. No society can develop sustainably without giving men and women equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their families, communities, and countries. And yet, critical gender gaps continue to exist in all countries and across multiple dimensions. The gender module of the World Bank’s ADePT software platform produces a comprehensive set of tables and graphs using household surveys to help diagnose and analyze the prevailing gender inequalities at the country level and over time. This book provides a step-by-step guide to the use of the ADePT software and an introduction to its basic economic concepts and econometric methods. The module is organized around the framework proposed by the World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. It covers gender differences in outcomes in three primary dimensions of gender equality: human capital (or endowments), economic opportunities, and voice and agency. Particular focus is given to the analysis and decomposition techniques that allow for further exploring of gender gaps in economic opportunities.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 2013.  p.Malnutrition in all its forms imposes unacceptably high costs on society in human and economic terms. Addressing malnutrition requires a multisectoral approach that includes complementary interventions in food systems, public health and education. Within a multisectoral approach, food systems offer many opportunities for interventions leading to improved diets and better nutrition. Agricultural production and productivity growth remain essential for better nutrition, but more can be done. Both traditional and modern supply chains offer risks and opportunities for achieving better nutrition and more sustainable food systems. Consumers ultimately determine what they eat and therefore what the food system produces. Better governance of food systems at all levels, facilitated by high-level political support, is needed to build a common vision, to support evidence-based policies, and to promote effective coordination and collaboration through integrated, multisectoral action. (Excerpts)
New York, New York, UN-OHRLLS, .  p.Roughly a quarter of the world’s countries are classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs), who remain the most vulnerable and weakest segment of the international community, of these 34 are in Africa, 15 in Asia-Pacific and one in the Caribbean. It is now clear that without achieving a huge acceleration in their development efforts, few global development targets can be met. The AIDS pandemic is worsening the prospects of LDCs as many of the hardest hit countries are facing massive financial and human resource constraints. These countries by definition have limited resources to generate sufficient economic and social development, and as such are at greater risk. HIV/AIDS is eroding these limited resources and affecting the most productive people so urgently needed for development. In other words, HIV/AIDS affects the present and future human and institutional capacities of countries and consequently their capacity to generate economic and social development. (excerpt)
Development Bulletin. 2002 Dec; (60):8-12.Land is the key to resolving many of the conflicts and problems of Melanesia. Solutions have to involve ways that will work for the majority of the people of the region. A characteristic of the Melanesian South Pacific is that control of the land and virtually all other natural resources is not held exclusively by the state. Only small percentages of the region’s land resources have been alienated to the state. In Papua New Guinea (PNG) it is less than 3 per cent; in the Solomon Islands about 12 per cent, and in Vanuatu all land was deemed to return to its customary owners at independence. These natural resources are held in various combinations of customary group rights and customary individual rights. These rights continue to operate within a range of customary land tenure and land use systems. National constitutions of these countries specifically recognise the validity of these customary systems within the modern state; the majority of citizens want them to continue. Such determination in the face of significant continuing outside as well as internal pressures implies that there is much about these customary tenure systems that is not appreciated by outside forces that try to undermine and destroy them. Why are these systems so important and how can other activities link up with such customary institutions? With these customary rights come expectations and responsibilities in value systems that channel and direct both social and economic behaviour patterns of people living within those systems. Over time the strong links between rights and responsibilities have begun to fade and integrated patterns of beliefs, values and behaviour have become less integrated and more diffuse. Critical areas such as leadership, for example, have taken on new characteristics, expectations and behaviour patterns to such an extent that many modern leaders act with virtual impunity within their ‘fiefdoms’, especially in dealings with natural resources. The conjunction between land, people and governance in Melanesia must underlie efforts to resolve Melanesia’s current problems and malaise. To speak constructively about ‘South Pacific Futures’ the critical importance of land in these societies must be addressed to find forward-thinking ways to resolve Melanesian dilemmas. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. xv, 57 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers No. 103)This paper proposes a series of operational guidelines on how to provide agricultural extension services in a cost-effective way to women farmers. All small-scale farmers, regardless of gender, face constraints, but the focus here is on women farmers in order to foster a better understanding of the particular gender-related barriers confronting women and the strategies needed to overcome them. Attention is concentrated on Sub-Saharan Africa in view of the crucial role of women in agriculture throughout the sub-continent. Worldwide operational guidelines for agricultural extension for women farmers are planned for later this year. The recommendations have been gleaned from the experiences of African governments, the World Bank and other donors, and researchers. Ongoing pilot programs have provided useful guidance about what can work to integrate women fully into the agricultural extension system and what problems are likely to emerge in different socioeconomic environments. This is, however, an ongoing process: it is a relatively new field and much remains to be learned. It will be especially important to test alternative approaches over the next few years. This paper will then be revised to incorporate new lessons of experience. This paper is organized as follows: Chapter 1 addresses the question of why women need help -- the role women have in agriculture, especially in Africa, and the particular constraints they face in terms of access to resources and information. Chapter 2 examines the information needed to modify extension systems to better reach women farmers, to modify the focus of research to address women's activities and constraints, and to monitor and evaluate programs. Ways to collect such data are also suggested. Chapter 3 deals with the transmission of the extension message to women farmers -- the role of the extension agents and the importance of gender, the use of home economists and subject matter specialists, and the use of contact farmers and groups. The final Chapter examines the formulation of the message to be delivered, and the linkage between extension and agricultural research and technology. (excerpt)
FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT. 1996 Dec; 8-11.Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.
Hanoi, Viet Nam, UNICEF, 1990. XX, 185 p.This document states the concern for the children of Vietnam, the government's policy goals for children, and the implications for the UNICEF program of cooperation. It presents the findings from a situation analysis of women and children in Vietnam in terms of the water and food supply, sanitation, primary health care, nutrition, early childhood development, basic general education, and women in development. The issues for children are directly addressed in subchapters on infant and child mortality, preventable diseases, immunization programs, disease control programs, health policy and infrastructure, nutritional status, anthropometric status and nutrient deficiencies, disabilities, juvenile delinquency, neglected children, school enrollment and drop-out rates, literacy training, and child care services. Women are profiled in terms of the family, ethnic affiliation, demographic characteristics, health, nutrition, education, employment, and women's groups. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and future UNICEF cooperation is given. The conclusion is drawn that the status of women has improved to a great extent. Further effort should be directed to women's and children's health, nutrition, and education. Government policies of economic liberalization are identified as useful in increasing support for social services, particularly educational and health services. Women's roles as mothers and wage earners or laborers are considered likely to deteriorate in the short term. Recommendations are made to improve the situation of women through increased roles for women in decision making and though improvement in the management of women's groups. The aim is identified as improvement in women's health and economic status. Health improvements are identified as better access to family planning and the reduction of maternal mortality. Research recommendations are made to provide better information on women's health and nutrition status, women's role in agriculture and forestry, and the conditions of ethnic minority women.
In: Population transition in south Asia, edited by Ashish Bose and M. K. Premi. Delhi, India, B. R. Publishing, 1992. 19-27.The author notes that, despite recent UN estimates of falling global population growth rates, "the realities in both the developing and developed regions point to increasing, not decreasing, demographic pressures on resources and productive capacities. Global and regional potentialities for attaining rising levels of living in the face of prospective increases in numbers appear to be diminishing, not expanding....[He finds that] population policy, both in the industrially advanced and developing regions, can no longer be regarded as a peripheral part of development programming efforts." (EXCERPT)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1987. xi, 62 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 61)The problem of desertification in the Sahelian and Sudanian Zones (SSZ) of West Africa is addressed. Desertification is defined as the process of sustained decline in biological productivity of arid and semiarid land. Desertification is complex and poorly understood and is caused by the interaction between drought and human abuse. Better management is a viable long term solution. In the SSZ, there is variable rainfall and low fertility soil, and resources are overexploited by humans. The focus of discussion is on defining the nature of the problems and the geographic features of the SSZ; the problem is complex and multifaceted and includes population pressure. The nature of and pressures on traditional production systems (agrosylvicultural, agrosylvipastoral, and sylvopastoral) are described as well as the carrying capacities of traditional production systems. Past development activities and common weaknesses of development activities are reviewed with reference to the agricultural, livestock, and forestry sectors. The elements of a strategy for better resources management are delineated. Some general observations are made. Actions are defined with reference to pressure on 1) carrying capacity (CC) in areas where the ratio of population (RP) does not exceed CC, where RP slightly exceeds OC, and where RP greatly exceeds CC; the issue of irrigation increasing carrying capacity is dealt with. Other elements are 2) upgrading competence in research and training, 3) reducing demand (population and wood), and 4) the policy environment (land law and incentives). Implications for actions are indicated for the members of the Comite Inter-Etats de Lutte contre la Secheresse dans le Sahel, governments, financiers in general, and for the World Bank group in particular. A statistical appendix is provided with information on land distribution, soil suitability, population and distribution by a number of factors, and carrying capacity. Elementary erosion techniques and research orientations also are provided.
From empty-world economics to full-world economics: recognizing an historical turning point in economic development.
In: Population, technology, and lifestyle: the transition to sustainability, edited by Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, Salah El Serafy. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1992. 23-37.The human economy has moved from an era in which manmade capital was the limiting factor in economic development to the present when remaining natural capital has become the limiting factor. Natural capital is the stock from which comes natural resources. As human populations have grown and many countries have developed economically, manmade capital has been developed and accumulated to exploit often unowned natural capital and resources as if they had no price. No self-interested social class exists to protect these resources from overexploitation. Current levels of extracting and harvesting natural capital are simply not sustainable. This concept of full-world economics, however, is not accepted as academically legitimate by those of the empty-world school. Neoclassical economics considers factors of production to be substitutable and not complementary; this is not the case for the world's stock of natural capital. Assuming that natural capital has become the limiting factor, economic logic dictates the need to maximize its productivity and increase its supply. Investment and technology should therefore focus upon preserving and restoring natural capital while improving the productivity of natural capital more than manmade capital. Population growth must be reduced in developing countries and both population growth and per capita resource use must be constrained in more developed countries. Supporting these objectives, the World Bank, the UN Environment Program, and the UN Development Programme have started a biospheric infrastructure investment called the Global Environment Facility. It will provide concessional funding for programs investing in the preservation or enhancement of the protection of the ozone layer, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, protection of international water resources, and protection of biodiversity. These issues will gain prominence in development bank lending policies.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. iii, 23 p.Both current and future returns toward the goal of alleviating poverty and boosting economic growth may be realized from investments in nutrition. While incomes remain low, population well-being and human productivity benefit from such direct investment. Increased productivity among the labor force and students are essential in establishing a solid foundation for social and economic development. Specifically, direct investment in nutrition helps reduce child and maternal mortality faster than as yet unrealized trickle effects from eventual overall economic development. While the World Bank invests to develop food crop production and incomes, its direct nutritional aid is also booked. World Bank direct nutrition operational expenditures grew from US$50 million in total projects costs for fiscal 1987-89 to US$900 million in fiscal 1990092; US$1.2 billion are expected for fiscal 1993-95. Country experiences are reviewed in programs which target food transfer programs, provide essential services to those at risk, supply critical micronutrients, use a multifaceted approach, and build nutrition programming capacity. The World Bank can help by investing in nutrition projects, nutrition components in other sectoral projects, structural and sectoral adjustment operations; providing policy advice and analytic work on country or regional nutrition situations; and collaborating in nutrition operations with other donors and nongovernmental organizations. Overall, experience shows that the provision of nutrition is central to development; resources are available; timely, targeted, low-cost responses are effective; micronutrients can not be ignored; education is recommended to change nutritional behavior over the long term; and programs should be kept focused, simple, and flexible. Strong technical training and frequent supervision along with monitoring and evaluation are also called for.
In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 484-97. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)The issues dealing with the interrelationships between population growth, food supply, and agricultural development are summarized. Focus is directed to past trends in food supplies, food consumption and nutritional requirements, future demand, future food supplies, agricultural employment, and rural development policies. A table included in the annex gives population growth rates, food production rates, food demand rates of growth, dietary energy supply, and protein supply by country. Meeting the nutritional needs of population growth is possible. Supply and demand vary between countries; supplies are unevenly distributed. Increased production alone will not solve the problems of poverty. Food production must meet nutritional and employment needs. Food production declined slightly during the 1960s due in many cases to policy, but in developing countries it occurred in spite of policy. In 34 countries, food production failed to keep pace with population growth. Population growth accounts for 70% of the demand for food increases. Between 1952 and 1972, in 54 out of 85 developing countries food production increased less than demand. Balancing supply with demand was unaffected by the rate of population growth. 1965-66 brought bad weather and declines in production; 1967-70 is associated with the "green revolution" and increased production. In 1971-72, bad weather again prevailed and food production declined in absolute terms as well as in relation to population growth. Imported food has created dependency relationships. Nutrition is a measure of total availability of dietary energy; developing countries during the 1960s had a 3% deficit while developed countries were 20% above requirements. In 1970, 62 developing countries had overall dietary energy deficits. Insufficient food supply affects poorer families and particularly pregnant and lactating women and children. 10 million children under 5 years of age suffer from severe malnutrition, 80 million from moderate malnutrition, and 120 million from milder forms of malnutrition, or about 50% of all the children in the developing world. 14% of the population excluding Asian economies have insufficient food intake to meet energy needs. Reducing the rate of population growth is essential.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1991. 29 p.The 1991 World Bank Atlas provides 1990 statistics in 1 table for 185 countries on the following: gross national product (GNP) and rate, population and growth rate, GNP/capita and real growth rate, agriculture's share of gross domestic product (GDP), daily calorie supply/capita, life expectancy at birth, total fertility rate (TFR), and school enrollment (%) and literacy (%). Charts in 6 colors depict GNP/capita, the population growth rate between 1980-90 and ranking by country, GNP/capita growth rate between 1980-90 and ranking by country, GDP share in agriculture and ranking, daily calorie supply/capita in 1988 and ranking, life expectancy at birth and ranking, TFR and ranking, and illiteracy rate in 1985 and ranking. The ranking is of GNP/capita from lowest to highest by country against the indicator and the trend line.
FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT. 1992 Mar; 30-1.The Green Revolution of the 60s can not be expected to continue to feed the world as its population continues to grow. Innovations in plant varieties, chemical inputs, and irrigation did result in more food; however, the cost of this innovation was loss of soil and fertility, poisoning of ground water, waterlogging, and salination of fields. If the world's food production system is to be sustainable and environmentally safe as well as capable of producing 50% more food in the next 20 years, then a lot of research must still be done. Now, instead of 2 international research centers, there are 17. All these centers are operated under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Another 12 center are currently being set up or cooperating with CGIAR. The scientists are also being asked to develop cost and labor effective ways to improve the soil and conserve water. This change of priorities has come about partly from external pressure, but mostly from: the realization that agricultural productivity must continue to grow at unprecedented rates for the next 4 decades; chemical inputs are often to expensive, unavailable, or dangerous, there is very little room for expanding irrigation; national /agricultural research and extension centers have become underfunded, overly politicized, and ineffective; developing countries can not rely solely upon their fertile land to feed their people, they must bring marginal land into production. To accomplish all this, the World Bank must take a leadership role. It is the only organization with enough money and political power to effectively bring everyone together.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1990 Oct; 80(10):1188-92.Health trends since 1950 in both developed and developing countries are classified and discussed in terms of causative factors: socioeconomic development, cross-national influences and growth of national health systems. Despite the vast differences in scale of health statistics between developed and developing countries, economic hardships and high military expenditures, all nations have demonstrated significant declines in life expectancy and infant mortality rates. Social and economic factors that influenced changes included independence from colonial rule in Africa and Asia and emergence from feudalism in China, industrialization, rising gross domestic product per capita and urbanization. An example of economic development is doubling to tripling of commercial energy consumption per capita. Social advancement is evidenced by higher literacy rates, school enrollments and education of women. Cross-national influences that improved overall health include international trade, spread of technology, and the universal acceptance of the idea that health is a human right. National health systems in developing countries are receiving increasing shares of the GNP. Total health expenditure by government is highly correlated with life expectancy. The view of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund that health care should be privatized is a step backward with anti-egalitarian consequences. The UN Economic Commission for Africa attacked the IMF and the World Bank for promoting private sector funding of health care stating that this leads to lower standards of living and poorer health among the disadvantaged. Suggested health strategies for the future should involve effective action in the public sector: adequate financial support of national health systems; political commitment to health as the basis of national security; citizen involvement in policy and planning; curtailing of smoking, alcohol, drugs and violence; elimination of environmental and toxic hazards; and maximum international collaboration.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1988. 30 p. (FAO Project INT/86/PO8)The objectives of this activity module, produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, include making members of community groups aware of relationships between population and agricultural production in various ways. The basic concept of the relationship between rapid population growth and increased demand for agricultural products is emphasized through 3 activities. Activity 1 directs a group leader in methods that make participants aware of the land as the most precious resource. The effects of rapid population growth on the availability of land for agricultural production are discussed, as are suggestions about increasing production without increasing the amount of land used. Activity 2 links spacing plants with spacing children, using a group discussion and chart preparation activity, to highlight the importance of spacing children. In the 3rd activity a group agricultural project designed to teach members about improved agricultural techniques and generate income, is planned and implemented. Background information is provided for the group leader with each activity.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1988. 33 p. (FAO Project INT/86/PO8)The objectives of this activity module for community groups, produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, include developing an awareness of the relationships between population factors and employment, income, and the quality of life. Also examined are factors that influence decisions about rural-to-urban migration and how development and utilization of resources may increase future employment opportunities. The basic concepts of the relationship between rapid population growth and land use and between lessened employment opportunities and crime, are illustrated through 3 activities. Activity 1 instructs a group leader on conducting a group discussion on the employment/income expectations of the members. Subjects covered include lack of experience, lack of training, lack of capital, lack of education, and sexual stereotypes, all of which hinder productive employment. Activity 2 is designed to provoke discussion about rural-to-urban migration by having participants draw the house they would like to have someday. In the 3rd activity, an income-generating project for a youth group--making roofing tiles from rubber tires--is planned and implemented. Background information about the aims and objectives of each activity, and how it relates to African life, is provided for the group leader.
The ECOP-ILO Population Education Program: a report on program implementation (January 1985 - December 1986).
[Unpublished] . 11 p.A 2-year (Jan. 1985 - Dec. 1986) Population Education Project was carried out by the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) with the objectives of informing employers of the importance of population and family life education and assisting them in the provision of family life education programs and family planning services for their workers. ECOP undertook a preliminary survey of 269 companies, which showed that: 1) Only 49 had family planning programs; 2) Only 37 of the others had any interest in having one; 3) Only 8.7% of the workers were acceptors; 4) Only 45 companies had clinics; 5) Only 7 had incentive schemes to motivate the workers; and 6) 98% of the 210 respondents felt that ECOP should not be involved in family planning. To accomplish its objectives ECOP held 22 population education seminars, attended by 98 company representatives over the 2-year period. With the assistance of the Population Center Foundation (PCF) ECOP established an In-Plant Family Planning Program, which determined the existing knowledge, attitude and practice of workers; recruited and trained clinic staffs and volunteers; disseminated information; and delivered family planning commodities and services. The ECOP also approved an incentive scheme to encourage employers to support the program. The ECOP Population Unit participated in the 1986 Philippine International Trade Fair by setting up exhibits, showing audiovisual presentations, and distributing ILO handbooks on population education. The ECOP project officer attended an inter-country population workshop in Tokyo. The ECOP recommended that the participating companies meet to discuss the project's accomplishments, implement incentive plans, assist in setting up family planning programs, join with family planning agencies to provide services, devise ways of making men aware of their responsibilities in family planning, and study the productivity of workers who practice family planning.
In: Tras nuevas raices: migraciones internas y colonizacion en Bolivia [by] Carlos Garcia-Tornell, Maria Elena Querejazu, Jose Blanes, Fernando Calderon, Jorge Dandler, Julio Prudencio, Luis Lanza, Giovanni Carnibella, Gloria Ardaya, Gonzalo Flores [and] Alberto Rivera. La Paz, Bolivia, Ministerio de Planeamiento y Coordinacion, Direccion de Planeamiento Social, Proyecto de Politicas de Poblacion, 1984 Apr. 51-251.A study of colonization programs in Bolivia was conducted as part of a larger evaluation of population policy. The 1st of 8 chapters examines the history of colonization programs in Bolivia and the role of state and international development agencies. It sketches the disintegration of the peasant economy, and presents 5 variables that appear to be central to colonization processes: the directedness or spontaneity of the colonization, the distance to urban centers and markets, the diversification of production, the length of time settled, and the origin of the migrants. The 2nd chapter describes the study methodology. The major objective was to evaluate government policies and plans in terms of the realistic possibilities of settlement in colonies for peasants expelled from areas of traditional agriculture. Interviews and the existing literature were the major sources used to identify the basic features and problems of colonization programs. 140 structured interviews were held with colonists in the Chapare zone, 43 in Yapacari, and 51 in San Julian. The 3 zones were selected because of their diversity, but the sample was not statistically representative and the findings were essentially qualitative. The 3rd chapter examines the relationships between the place of origin and the stages of settlement. The chapter emphasizes the influence of place of origin and other factors on the processes of differentiation, proletarianization, and pauperization. The 4th chapter examines the productive process, profitability of farming, the market, and reproductive diversification. The next chapter analyzes the technology and the market system of the colonists, the dynamics of the unequal exchange system in which they operate, and aspects related to ecological equilibrium and environmental conservation. The 6th chapter concentrates on family relationships and the role played by the family in colonization. Some features of the population structure of the colonies are described. The 7th chapter assesses forms of organization, mechanisms of social legitimation, and the important role of peasant syndicates. The final chapter summarizes the principal trends encountered in each of the themes analyzed and makes some recommendations concerning the colonization program, especially in reference to the family economy and labor organizations.
FRONT LINES. 1987 Sep; 27(8):8-9, 11.The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.
Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, . 52,  p.The 1984 review of the International Labour Organisation's (ILO) Regional Office in Asia and the Pacific attempts to bring out new developments, trends, and issues of the ILO programs and to illustrate broad issues with concrete and specific profiles whenever possible. The special theme of this year's issue is production and productivity improvement; this issue includes an account of ILO's assistance to governments and to employer's and workers' organization in productivity enhacement programs. The ILO program in 1984 has endeavored to assist member countries in their efforts to offset the adverse social and labor impact of the recent economic recession. Studies have been undertaken on labor migration, which in some countries may offer a relief to ailing economies. The energy sector has been another important area of concern--in particular, manpower, training, and the social implications of verious energy resources such as coal, biogas, electricity, and geothermal energy. Today workers must be equipped with the kind of vocational skills which will permit them to change occupations, often several times in their lifetime. Rural labor forces in developing countries, steeped in millenia of traditional values, must be able to face the technological advances of the 21st century. The ILO continues to provide assistance to its tripartite constituents, within the framework of the respective countries' priorities, in the development of human resources, raising living standards, improving working conditions and the environment, and the promotion of full employment. This year, for the 1st time, a full-time Adviser on International Labour Standards is providing countries advisory services on all aspects of ILO international standards setting activities. Further, new offices were opened in Colombo in November 1984 and Bejing in January 1985.
Report of the Director-General. Growth and adjustment in Asia: issues of employment, productivity, migration and women workers.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 1985. iv, 127 p.This report presents the activities of the International Labour Office (ILO) in Asia for the 5 years since the ILO's Ninth Asian Regional Conference of 1980. The economic recession has severely affected socioeconomic development in many states. Per capita income has fallen in a number of poorer developing countries, due to rapid population growth. The impact of the recession has varied greatly; the average rate of growth of South East Asian economies in the 1980s was higher than those of other regions. However, the recession has inevitably brought about a fall in tax receipts and thus increased budget deficits. Technical cooperation remains a major means for the ILO to achieve its goals, but its technical cooperation program faces severe funding constraints now. Regional projects now promote technical cooperation among developing countries (TCDC). This report 1) highlights the major development issues of the 1980s in Asia, 2) reviews ILO operations in the region for 1980-1984, 3) summarizes TCDC activities and identifies the ways of promoting TCDC in the region, 4) considers the issues of Asian migrant workers and female employment, and 5) formulates conclusions. An appendix reports on actions taken on the conclusions and resolutions adopted by the Ninth Asian Regional Conference.
[Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, 1979 Dec. 13 p. (A.I.D. Project Impact Evaluation Report No. 2)In 1964, hybrid maize was released for commercial production in Kenya. An aggressive private firm, the Kenya Seed Company, reproduced the seed, distributed it, and promoted it throughout the country via a network of private storekeepers. Hybrid maize allowed Kenya to feed itself and to industrialize rapidly at the same time in the face of a very rapid increase in population. Hybrid maize made it possible for Kenya to earn foreign exchange from the export of cash crops by reducing the demand for land for food crops. There were, however, limits to this success: 1) an indigenous maize research capacity has not been created in Kenya; 2) a substantial number of the country's poor have not been able to participate directly in achieving the increased yields; and 3) the policies of the government have not changed sufficiently to allow the full economic benefits of the technology to filter through the existing marketing systems to smallholders. The Agency for International Development (AID) played a role in the success of the hybrid maize. AID shares responsibility for the successful diffusion of the seed to neighboring countries in Eastern Africa. Several lessons were learned from the observations of Kenyan maize growers: 1) simplicity and viability were the decisive technical factors in the success of hybrid maize; 2) the private sector was crucial in its diffusion; 3) equity cannot be expected; 4) long term continuity of foreign experts was basic to the success of the breeding program; 5) foreign advisors do not automatically create an institutional capacity to perform agricultural research; 6) pragmatism should surround AID support for regionalism; and 7) too many lessons should not be drawn from the Kenyan experience.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the Sudan population and housing census of 1983: project SUD/79/P01.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1985 Mar. xi, 40 p.Since the evaluation report of the 1973 Census of Sudan made recommendations on how to improve census implementation for the 1980 round, UNFPA felt it to be important to see if the 1983 census took them into account and if it achieved better results. The project document included 3 objectives concerning data collection and analysis: the availability of accurate and up-to-date information on the total population of Sudan, on the components of population growth, and on demographic, social and economic characteristics; and 2 objectives concerning institution building: the availability of trained statistical personnel and the strengthening of data processing facilities. 2 of the 5 objectives have been achieved--up-to-date information on the total population of Sudan and for all recognized civil sub-divisions is available and a new computer facility with adequate capacity and configuration has been installed and is in operation. The caliber of staff in the census office is high, and the training program overall was adequate. The census communication campaign emphasized the use of mass media. Overall, the publicity for the census was considered by the Mission to have been good. Although the enumeration took longer than scheduled in some areas, the observance of the enumeration timetable can be considered satisfactory. Data preparation and electronic processing have been severely delayed due to the low productivity of the computer staff. The strong points of the project were the high priority given to the census by the government; the better planning for the 1983 census as compared with the 1973 census; and the high quality of technical assistance provided by UN advisors. Weak points have been the lack of long-term resident advisors in general census organization, cartography and data analysis; the delay in the provision of government and UNFPA inputs; and the loss of trained personnel from the Department of Statistics, particularly in data processing.
Assessment and implementation of health care priorities in developing countries: incompatible paradigms and competing social systems.
Social Science and Medicine. 1984; 19(4):373-84.This paper addresses conceptual issues underlying the assessment and implementation of health care priorities in developing countries as practiced by foreign development agencies coping with a potentially destabilizing unmet social demand. As such, these agencies mediate the gap between existing health care structures patterned around the narrow needs of the ruling classes and the magnitude of public ill-health which mass movements strive to eradicate with implications for capitalism at large. It is in this context that foreign agencies are shown to intervene for the reassessment and implementation of health care priorities in developing countires with the objective of defending capitalism against the delegitimizing effects of its own development, specifically the persistence of mass disease. Constrained by this objective, the interpretations they offer of the miserable state of health prevailing in developing countries and how it could be improved remains ideological: it ranges between "stage theory" and modern consumption-production Malthusiansim. Developing countries are entering into a new pattern of public health which derives from their unique location in the development of capitalism, more specifically in the new international division of labor. Their present position affects not only the pattern and magnitude of disease formation but also the effective alleviation of mass disease without an alteration in the mode of production itself. In the context of underdevelopment, increased productivity is at the necessary cost of public health. Public health improvement is basically incompatible with production-consumption Malthusianism from which the leading "Basic Needs" orientation in the assessment and implementation of health care priorities derives. Marx said that "countries of developing capitalism suffer not only from its development but also from its underdevelopment." (author's modified)