Your search found 32 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Working together to provide generics for health.

    Beck EJ; Reiss P

    Antiviral therapy. 2014; 19 Suppl 3:1.

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  2. 2

    AIDS is not a business: A study in global corporate responsibility -- securing access to low-cost HIV medications.

    Flanagan W; Whiteman G

    Journal of Business Ethics. 2007 Jun; 73(1):65-75.

    At the end of the 1990s, Brazil was faced with a potentially explosive HIV/AIDS epidemic. Through an innovative and multifaceted campaign, and despite initial resistance from multinational pharmaceutical companies, the government of Brazil was able to negotiate price reductions for HIV medications and develop local production capacity, thereby averting a public health disaster. Using interview data and document analysis, the authors show that the exercise of corporate social responsibility can be viewed in practice as a dynamic negotiation and an interaction between multiple actors. Action undertaken in terms of voluntary CSR alone may be insufficient. This finding highlights the importance of a strong role for national governments and international organizations to pressure companies to perform better. (author's)
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  3. 3

    Brazilian leadership in the context of the UNGASS Declaration of Commitment in HIV / AIDS.

    Bermudez XP; Seffner F

    Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:101-108.

    The present article focuses on the subject of leadership in the United Nations Declaration of Commitment in HIV/AIDS, discussing the advancements, challenges, and limitations to the action of major social forces acting to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Brazil. The national policy on AIDS was characterized by the illustrative Brazilian experience in summoning multiple government, civil society, and private sector initiatives to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The synergy between different partners needs to be enhanced and efforts in the field of scientific and technological development must be articulated in order to minimize the effects of technological dependence. These actions are aimed at the sustainable production of drugs and other products, with the perspective of improving the fulfillment of the constitutional precept of health as a universal right. (author's)
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  4. 4

    WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations. Thirty-second report.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations


    The WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations reports that several national and regional drug regulatory authorities have adopted guidelines for good manufacturing practices for drugs similar to those recommended by the Committee. Annex 1 discusses these practices and makes up most of the Committee's 32nd report. The report also presents provisional guidelines on inspection of pharmaceutical manufacturers. It reviews the WHO Certification Scheme on the Quality of Pharmaceutical Products Moving in International Commerce. The Committee-endorsed scheme depends on a more effective exchange of information to more rigorously control all international trade of pharmaceuticals. Chapter 6 looks at the international pharmacopoeia and related activities, including quality specifications for drug substances and dosage forms, validation of analytical procedures, a simple test methodology, national laboratories for drug surveillance and control, and quality control of products derived from medicinal plants. The report discusses and lists the International Chemical Reference Substances and International Infrared Reference Spectra. it also addresses stability of dosage forms and extemporaneous preparations. Annex 4 presents guidelines to guarantee the quality of pharmaceutical and biological drugs prepared by recombinant DNA technology. Another annex looks at validation of analytical procedures used to examine pharmaceutical materials. The last annex discusses the protocol for a proposed study on the quality of some drugs at the point of use in developing countries. WHO has already asked Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Uganda, and Tanzania in Africa, Bangladesh and Myanmar in Asia, and Guatemala and Peru in the Americas to participate.
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  5. 5

    The state of food and agriculture 1990. Ninety-eighth Session, Rome, 19-30 November 1990.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. Council

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990 Aug. ii, 84 p. (CL 98/2)

    In a world review encompassing the world economic environment, recent trends in food and agricultural production, agricultural trade, food availability and nutrition, external assistance to agriculture and food aid, fisheries, and forestry are treated. The regional review deals with developing country regions of Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near East, Eastern Europe and the USSR, and developed market economies. Agricultural output was faltering in the 2nd part of the 1980s, especially in North America where it declined by an annual average of .7% during 1986-89, but also in Oceania. It stagnated in western Europe, and increased slightly in eastern Europe and the USSR. In Asia growth was sustained, in Latin America and the Caribbean production lagged behind population increase, in the Near East the market did not progress, and in Africa production fell behind the levels of the early 1980s. During 1986-89 global cereal production increased marginally because of 1/2 of the growth of 1981-85 in developing countries. It increased 3% annually in eastern Europe and the USSR. In the Far East cereal output was promising despite an earlier slump of paddy output. Per caput cereal production did not increase in any other developing regions compared with the levels of 1981-85. In 49 of 72 developing countries food production fell behind population growth compared with 1985-89. There was a pronounced decrease in 80% of African countries, in 65% in the Near East, Asia, and the Pacific, while in Latin America and the Caribbean per caput production stayed the same. Food production surpassed population growth in countries experienced a decline of per caput production. In 1990 the prospects are promising for another bountiful cereal harvest to meet projected consumption provided bad weather does not intervene.
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  6. 6

    The state of food and agriculture 1990. Ninety-eighth session, Rome, 19-30 November 1990. Supplement 1.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. Council

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990 Oct. 24 p. (CL 98/2-Sup.1)

    World agricultural production estimates for 1990 indicate an increase of around 2.4% (2.6% for food), significantly above the depressed average growth rates of 1986-88. Similar to 1989 the global increase in food and agricultural production in 1990 is expected mainly in North America and Eastern Europe and the USSR. In Latin America and the Caribbean, the overall shortfall occurred because of severely reduced crops in Brazil and in some Andean and Caribbean countries. In Africa, especially poor food output is expected in Liberia, Zambia, Morocco, Botswana, and Senegal. In Sudan food output is projected to rise significantly from the depressed 1989 production, but the heavy production setbacks of earlier years would not be offset. Similarly, in Ethiopia domestic food supply prospects are worrisome. Food production is expected to surpass population growth in India, but per capita output may significantly fall in Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, and the Republic of Korea. On the other hand, production is forecast to be well above population growth in Myanmar, Laos, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Viet Nam, Pakistan. In China prospects for 1990 range from bountiful crops for oilcrops and sugar, but slow growth in livestock production. World cereal output is currently forecast at a record level of 1941 million tons in 1990, approximately 66 million more than in 1989. Wheat production is expected to increase 27% in North America and reach record levels in the USSR. Wheat crops are likely to be significantly larger than in 1989 in China, Pakistan, Egypt, and Argentina; close to the 1989 peak in India; definitely improved from the drought-reduced 1989 harvest in Turkey; but modest in Mexico and Brazil. World production of coarse grain is projected to increase by 1.5% to 12.7 million tons, mainly in North America, the USSR, and Turkey. World rice (paddy) production in 1990 would exceed the high level of 1989 at over 515 million tons.
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  7. 7

    FAO yearbook, 1995. Vol. 49. Production. FAO annuaire, 1995. Vol. 49. Production. FAO anuario 1995. Vol 49. Produccion.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1996. xxxvii, 235 p. (FAO Statistics Series No. 133)

    This UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Yearbook is a compilation of statistical data on basic agricultural products and related information in all countries and territories of the world. Presented in tabular form, information included in the Yearbook consists of data series on area, yield and production of numerous crops; on livestock numbers and products; and on population, land use, irrigation and farm machinery. Moreover, the Yearbook provides index numbers that highlight trends in food and agricultural production across all countries and continents. The statistical information presented is based primarily on data provided to the Statistics Division of FAO by countries through questionnaires or official statistical publications. In the absence of official data, FAO makes an estimate based on the best information available.
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  8. 8

    From Nairobi to Beijing. Second review and appraisal of the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    New York, New York, United Nations Publications, 1995. XXI, 366 p.

    This document contains the second review and appraisal of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies (NFLS) for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000 undertaken by the UN in preparation for the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW). The book opens with an overview and an introductory section presenting the UN mandates and resolutions that pertain to this review. Section 1 then provides an overview of the current global economic and social framework in terms of 1) trends in the global economy and in economic restructuring as they relate to the advancement of women, 2) the gender aspects of internal and external migration, 3) trends in international trade and their influence on the advancement of women, and 4) other factors affecting the implementation of the NFLS. Section 2 discusses the following critical areas of concern: 1) the persistent and growing burden of poverty on women, 2) inequality in access to education and other means of maximizing the use of women's capacities, 3) inequality in access to health and related services, 4) violence against women, 5) the effects of armed or other kinds of conflict on women, 6) inequality in women's access to and participation in the definition of economic structure and policies and the productive process, 7) inequality between men and women in the sharing of power and decision-making, 8) insufficient mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, 9) lack of awareness of and commitment to recognized women's human rights, 10) insufficient use of the mass media to promote women's contributions to society, and 11) lack of adequate recognition and support for women's contribution to managing natural resources and safeguarding the environment. The final section details international action to implement the NFLS.
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  9. 9

    Concluding remarks.

    Uitto JI

    In: Population, land management, and environmental change. UNU Global Environmental Forum IV, edited by Juha I. Uitto and Akiko Ono. Tokyo, Japan, United Nations University, 1996. 84-7.

    Human population is growing at an unprecedented rate, doubling since the 1950s. Every year, 90 million people are added to the world's current level of more than 5.6 billion people. The most likely scenario forecast by the UN puts world population at 10 billion in the year 2050. Such rapid population growth places enormous pressure upon agricultural production on a global scale and the ability of the Earth to feed its inhabitants. There is evidence that crop yield increases realized in the green revolution have reached or will soon reach their limits, with most farmers already using improved varieties and techniques. With little new arable land available to clear, farmers will likely have to rely upon existing land or move to increasingly marginal areas. The latter approach increases the vulnerability of farm land to erosion and is often associated with the loss of topsoil and the encroachment of deserts. The Fourth United Nations University (UNU) Global Environmental Forum was largely based upon the research work conducted in the international collaborative research program on "People, Land Management, and Environmental Change (PLEC)," conducted under the auspices of the UNU. PLEC is aimed at a systematic field-level analysis of sustainable land management and agrotechnology, and the maintenance of biological diversity in small-farm regions in the tropical and subtropical parts of the world.
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  10. 10

    [Severe food shortages menace numerous countries in 1994] Des penuries alimentaires graves menacent de nombreux pays en 1994.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    POP SAHEL. 1994 May; (20):37.

    At the threshold of 1994 at least 20 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Europe, and the Near East were familiar with severe food shortages which threaten millions of persons with hunger and malnutrition. Existing food products exist in enough quantity to feed 5.4 millions of persons worldwide, but the problem comes with distributing them to persons who are famished and malnourished, according to the Director General of the UN's Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). War, civil strife, and economic chaos exacerbate the situation in eight countries that are in danger of food shortages. FAO estimates that there are almost 790 million persons with chronic malnutrition in the developing world, of which 190 million are children suffering from protein energy malnutrition. Some 190 million persons suffer from hidden hunger, diseases due to dietary micronutrient deficiency which can slow mental and physical growth and lead to blindness and other serious disorders. In 1993, global production of cereals fell dramatically by 4% (1.88 billion tons), putting stress on the serious regional food shortages and imposing higher prices on international markets. The harvest decline also means that global cereal stocks will be reduced in 1994. General stocks are going to stay in the order of 17-18% of annual consumption, the minimum percentage to guarantee global food security. To avoid a larger puncture in the safety net that represents global cereal stocks for global food security, a minimum increase of about 65 million tons, or 3% of global cereal production, is necessary in 1994. This depends largely on 1994 atmospheric conditions. A blow to an increase in cereal production would have serious effects on international cereal prices which are already high in response to the restructuring of supplies in 1993-1994 and on food security perspectives, particularly for countries with food shortages. FAO has estimated differences in the world supply of various cereals.
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  11. 11

    No daily bread ... or butter, for that matter.

    POPULI. 1994 Feb; 21(2):6.

    The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has predicted that serious food shortages looming in at least 20 countries will result in starvation and malnutrition of millions of people. Global cereal production dropped by 4% in 1993, boosting prices on world markets. FAO asked for increased food aid to Africa after several states suffered reductions in their harvests in 1993, and their stocks were depleted to precariously low levels. Political strife in Angola, Burundi, Liberia, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone forced farmers off their lands and jeopardized their harvests. In other areas of fighting, notably Bosnia and the Caucasus region, nearly 1 million people mare expected to need emergency food aid to avert starvation. Afghanistan and Tajikistan also face food shortages, as does Iraq, where the nutritional status of the population is declining. World cereal production dropped to an estimated 1.88 billion tons, and a minimum increase of about 65 million tons or 3% of total production is needed to forestall further depletion in 1994. Worldwatch institute has warned that the growth in global production of food is undergoing a massive slowdown. Oceanic fisheries have not expanded output since 1989 after multiplying catches more than four-fold since 1950. According to UN estimates, all 17 of the world's major fisheries have exceeded their limits and 9 are in decline. Per capita seafood catch dropped 9% from 1989 to 1993. Asia has produced more rice every year, however, consumption has surpassed production 3 years in a row prior to 1994. In 1993, the world price of rice doubled. It is uncertain whether Asian rice farmers will be able to expand production to catch up with consumption and build up depleted stocks. Farmers are unlikely to be capable of continued expansion of production to feed the projected additions to the world's population.
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  12. 12

    China to ban unreliable IUD.

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1993; 2(4):5.

    After years of hesitancy, due to financial and manufacturing problems, the Chinese Government has finally moved to replace the steel ring IUD with the Copper T. The steel ring, used by some 60 million women, has been pronounced unreliable by the WHO and is blamed for some 30% of the country's 10 million annual abortions. It will no longer be manufactured. China has received financial and technical assistance from the UNFPA to establish 2 factories to produce the Copper T 220 and next year it will expand this capacity, as well as starting production of the Copper T 380-A. The introduction of the newer IUD is likely to prevent the following events during the next 10 years: 55,600 pregnancies, 18,400 live births, 35,600 induced abortions, 16.300 maternal deaths. 365,000 infant deaths, and 28,800 child deaths. The cheaper IUD was used by more than 40% of Chinese women using modern contraception, making it the country's most common contraceptive method. (full text)
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  13. 13

    Nature's medicinal bounty: don't throw it away.

    Akerele O

    WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1993; 14(4):390-5.

    About 80% of the world's people depend largely on traditional plant-derived drugs for their primary health care (PHC). Medicinal plants serve as sources of direct therapeutic agents and raw materials for the manufacture of more complex compounds, as models for new synthetic products, and as taxonomic markers. Some essential plant-derived drugs are atropine, codeine, morphine, digitoxin/digoxin, and quinine/artemisinin. Use of indigenous medicinal plants reduces developing countries' reliance on drug imports. Costa Rica has set aside 25% of its land to preserve the forests, in part to provide plants and other materials for possible pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. The Napralert database at the University of Illinois establishes ethnomedical uses for about 9200 of 33,000 species of monocotyledons, dicotyledons, gymnosperms, lichens, pteridophytes, and bryophytes. Sales of crude plant drugs during 1985 in China equaled US$1400 million. Even though many people use medicinal plants, pharmaceutical firms in industrialized nations do not want to explore plants as sources of new drugs. Scientists in China, Germany, and Japan are doing so, however. Screening, chemical analysis, clinical trials, and regulatory measures are needed to ensure safety of herbal medicines. WHO has hosted interregional workshops to address methodologies for the selection and use of traditional medicines in national PHC programs. WHO, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, and the World Wide Fund for Nature developed guidelines for conservation of medicinal plants. Their 2-pronged strategy includes prevention of the disappearance of forests and associated species and the establishment of botanical gardens. WHO's Traditional Medicine Programme hopes that people will apply known and effective agroindustrial technologies to the cultivation and processing of medicinal plants and the production of herbal medicines and the creation of large-scale networks for the distribution of seeds and plants.
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  14. 14

    Industrial restructuring for sustainable development: three points of departure.

    Simonis UE

    In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 168-88.

    Man's envisaged economic conversion is integration of ecology and economy through reduction in resource input of production which results in a reduction of emissions and wastes that adversely affect the natural environment. Some industrial nations, the UN Environment Programme, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development already use environmental indicators of adverse effects of production (e.g., emission data). We know less about the environmental significance of input factors in industrial production and which indicators contribute environmentally significant information about the structure of the economy, however. Using data from 31 countries, not including the US, an economist demonstrates that delinking of energy, steel, and cement consumption and weight of freight transport from the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) results in environmental gratis effects (rate of usage of input factors having a negative impact on the environment stays lower than the growth rate of GDP). It appears that the trend in developed countries is industrial restructuring. The conventional environmental policy is react-and-cure strategies on air and water pollution, noise, and waste. This costly policy needs to be improved by comparing environmental expenditures with data on environmental damage, identifying problems before ecosystems are destroyed, and incorporating cost-effective preventive measures. Environmental impact assessments are a means to accelerate technical knowledge and public awareness. Environmental standard setting should be a continuous process. Economy as it now exists indicates disharmony with nature (i.e., natural raw materials are swapped for produced waste materials polluting the environment). We should incorporate the external effects of production within our conscious or subconscious guiding principles, return the costs to the economic units that cause the environmental problem, and include the ecological viewpoint into all investment and economic decision making. We have yet to adapt a throughput economy (systematic reduction of depletable resources and generation of pollution emissions and wastes through recycling and clean technology).
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  15. 15

    A crisis to be overcome.

    Arita I

    WORLD HEALTH. 1993 Mar-Apr; 46(2):10-1.

    The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) has achieved a global vaccination coverage rate of about 80%, resulting in a sizable decline in the incidence of EPI diseases. Despite this achievement, increased demand for vaccines, ensuring quality control, and introducing new vaccines have caused a vaccine crisis. A worldwide system does not yet exist to handle the increased demands for vaccines. The global strategy to eradicate poliomyelitis has changed from just administering the oral polio vaccine to infants to now administering it to older children, resulting in the increased demand of the vaccine. EPI runs time-limited programs to eliminate neonatal tetanus by 1995 and to reduce measles deaths by 95%, but the global vaccine supply system may not be able to meet the increased demand. Regulatory control of vaccines produced in many developing countries is inadequate. For example, EPI does not know the quality of 40 of 60 vaccines produced in developing countries. Further, independent regulatory authorities have not assured the quality of about 60% of EPI vaccines. The Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI) aims to address these obstacles. It is concentrating on developing ways to introduce new vaccines. One component of CVI is the Vaccine Independence Initiative which includes full production of EPI vaccines, production sharing, quality control sharing, a revolving fund, and other support for vaccine procurement. CVI plans to conduct feasibility studies in the development of full protection and quality control of 6 antigens and/or production sharing in 11 developing countries with more than 50% of the world's total infant population. Some of the studies' criteria include large market size, production experience, possible quality control, and political commitment. The most critical part of EPI is assurance of the needed number of quality vaccines.
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  16. 16

    Partners for progress.

    Arnold R

    WORLD HEALTH. 1993 Mar-Apr; 46(2):23-5.

    Many groups showing commitment and action to achieve a common goal are needed to overcome technical, logistic, economic, and sociological obstacles to a successful vaccination campaign. The Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI) was founded to accomplish that goal through such cooperation. The vaccine industry supports CVI. Vaccines may be made from a live, but attenuated, pathogen; a killed pathogen; a fragment of the pathogen; or using recombinant techniques to change other organisms. Patents provide manufacturers the security they need to undertake vaccine research and development. A prototype vaccine is first tested in an animal model. After animal research shows it to be safe, efficacious, and suitable, it is tested in humans through extensive clinical trials. During clinical trials, scientists try to develop an economic production method, resulting in consistent quality standards. The shrinking pharmaceutical sector, high costs of securing quality standards, the costs and risks of research, and the liability risks in the market are responsible for higher prices for vaccines. CVI, its supporters, and countries must realize that new vaccines cannot cost just a few cents a dose. Yet, the economic, social, and humanitarian benefits afforded by new and improved vaccines will transcend the costs. Presently, several vaccine developers and producers are collaborating with CVI in the earlier stages of technical development. Collaboration agreements must be fair to all groups to succeed. Industry should see a return on investment to help it to continue and to please shareholders. The investment depends on the extent to which groups purchase supplies. Safeguards should be in place to protect governments, international agencies, or donors from paying for improper tasks or from being charged unreasonable prices.
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  17. 17

    The promise of CVI.

    Hill TM

    WORLD HEALTH. 1993 Mar-Apr; 46(2):26-7.

    Vaccines can prevent various infectious childhood diseases, yet each year about 140 million newborns or their mothers do not receive these vaccines and, thus, are at risk of developing such diseases as neonatal tetanus, measles, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, whooping cough, and tuberculosis. The public health community faces the challenges of vaccinating these 140 million children each year. One of the leading obstacles is keeping the vaccines cold from production to inoculation, referred to as the cold chain. WHO's global immunization program (EPI), begun in 1974, has prevented more than 3 million deaths from the 6 EPI diseases each year. UNICEF has invested more than US$600 million in EPI, including cold chain. sterilization, and injection equipment; monitoring and evaluation; and high quality, low costs vaccines (> 6100 million doses to almost 100 countries) since the early 1980s. The Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI) is dedicated to promoting and coordinating research and development of new and improved vaccines and to strengthening capacity and systems to secure high quality, affordable vaccines for EPI in developing countries. UNICEF is heading up the promotion and coordination of the research component. Higher prices, increasing volume requirements, and a reduced resource base are preventing EPI from providing enough vaccines to achieve disease eradication goals and from expanding. A task force recommends that CVI support the largest with appropriate technical capacity in vaccine production and help the smaller countries purchase vaccines. It should support middle-income countries either with achieving independence in vaccine production or in procurement. Specialists in vaccine production and quality control, vaccine demand, economics. and management are visiting Bangladesh, China, Egypt, View Nam, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, and the Philippines to prepare a plan to increase production levels to meet national requirements and specific proposals for donor support for each country.
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  18. 18

    World development report 1993. Investing in health.

    World Bank

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993. xii, 329 p.

    The World Bank's 16th annual World Development Report focuses on the interrelationship between human health, health policy, and economic development. WHO provided much of the data on health and helped the World Bank on the assessment of the global burden of disease found in appendix B. Following an overview, the report has 7 chapters covering health in developing countries: successes and challenges; households and health; the roles of the government and the market in health; public health; clinical services; health inputs; and an agenda for action. Appendix a lists and discusses population and health data. The report concludes with the World Development Indicators for 127 low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries in tabular form. All developed and developing countries have experienced considerable improvements in health. But developing countries, particularly their poor, still experience many diseases, many of which can be prevented or cured. They are starting to encounter the problems of increasing health system costs already experienced by developed countries. The World Bank proposes a 3-part approach to government policies for improving health in developing countries. Governments must promote an economic growth that empowers households to improve their own health. Growth policies must secure increased income for the poor and expand investment in education, particularly for girls. Government spending on health must address cost effective programs that help the poor, such as control and treatment of infectious diseases and of malnutrition. Governments must encourage greater diversity and competition in the financing and delivery of health services. Donors can finance transitional costs of change in low income countries.
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  19. 19

    Saving our planet: challenges and hopes. The state of the environment (1972-1992).

    United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]

    Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP, 1992. [8], 200 p. (UNEP/GCSS.III/2)

    Current knowledge and issues between 1972-92 on the environment, development activities, human conditions and well being, perceptions and attitudes, and challenges and priorities for action are addressed. 10 major environmental issues are discussed: atmospheric pollution, ozone depletion, climate change, marine pollution, freshwater resources and water quality, land degradation and desertification, deforestation and degradation of forests, loss of biological diversity, environmental hazards, and toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes. Development activities that impinge on the environment are agriculture and food production, industry, energy use and production, transport, and tourism. The human conditions affected by management of population, the environment, and development are population growth, human settlements, human health, and peace and security. The historical changes that have occurred in 20 years are reported. Government's and individual's changes in perceptions and attitudes to environmental changes are also represented. 20 years after the Stockholm conference, there are still gaps in the understanding of the environment. Governments are limited in their ability to estimate the cost of repair, or to gauge the cost of failing to take rapid action to stop the degradation. There is a lack of confidence in the capacity of national and international managerial systems to apply what is known or to mobilize effective action. There has been a squandering of the world's stock of productive natural resources and a degradation of the environment; the geopolitical map has changed. The planning and implementation of development programs must change significantly; the global economy must be restructured. International cooperation is crucial. Multinational forums have not been successful in concrete action which promotes global economic recovery. National governments have been able to proceed from good intentions to more positive actions. There is growing concern about conflicts between international trade and environmental objectives. Regulatory measures by 1995 are needed for reforestation, marine pollution, hazardous waste removal, chemical risk assessment, environmental emergencies technology transfers, environmental impact assessment, and policies of environmental agreements which lead to major deterioration; by 2000 a means of compliance and verification of environmental treaties will be required. Goals for assessment and management are identified as well as the development of global costs for further degradation and additional resources.
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  20. 20

    Local production of oral rehydration salts.

    Tomaro J

    [Unpublished] 1990 May. [2], 12 p. (PRITECH Field Implementation Aid)

    Control of Diarrheal Disease (CDD) programs need to move more and more toward self-sufficiency. Thus they want a reliable supply of low cost, locally produced oral rehydration salts (ORS). 2 obstacles hinder the process: low demand and an inadequately developed pharmaceutical industry. It takes about US$200,000 to begin ORS production. In 1987, pharmaceutical plants in developing countries made 75% of all ORS produced. In Indonesia, for example, 12 private and parastatal manufacturers can produce ORS, but low demand is forcing some to decrease production. In Bangladesh, however, only 1 parastatal and 1 private company produces all ORS used in the country, but they cannot keep up with demand. Other developing countries producing their own ORS include Costa Rica, Tunisia, Zambia, Mali, Egypt, and Ghana. Any group that considers local ORS production must first examine various factors including an assessment of potential demand, the extent that diarrhea is treated with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), and the government's position on ORS production and distribution. The group should contact the local UNICEF office to gain its support and guidance. It should also work with WHO and Ministry of Health officials and speak with the chief pharmacist or head of the pharmacy board. This group also needs to consider economic factors such as pricing and costs of importing raw materials. It should also see to a detailed cost analysis and market research. The group also needs to determine production capability in the country which includes the ability of companies to adhere to the international Good Manufacturing Practices code. In the beginning of project development, the group must consider ORS promotion with ORS production, e.g., it should scrutinize the potential producer's record for marketing and organize field research. The group can obtain technical assistance from UNICEF, UNIDO, and USAID funded projects such as PRITECH, PATH, HEALTHCOM, and SOMARC.
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  21. 21

    The World Bank atlas. 25th anniversary edition.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 36 p.

    This atlas presents social, economic, and environmental statistics for 200 economies throughout the world, including statistics for 15 economies throughout the world, including statistics for 15 economies of the former Soviet Union. The following social/demographic indices are presented: population growth rate, 1980-1991; under-5 mortality rate, 1991; daily calorie supply/capita, 1989; illiteracy rate, 1990; and female labor force, 1991. GNP/capita, 1991; GNP/capita growth rate, 1980-91; and shares of agriculture, exports, and investment in GDP in 1991 comprise the economic data. Finally, GDP output/kilogram energy used, 1990; annual water use and annual water use/capita, 1970-87; forest coverage, 1989; and change in forest coverage, 1980-89, are presented as economic indicators. All figures are reported in color graphic format. Technical notes and World Bank structure and functions are discussed in closing sections. The text also cautions that the differing statistical systems and data collection methods and capabilities employed internationally demand that caution be taken against directly comparing statistical coverages and definitions.
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  22. 22

    Food production and the birth rate are in a new race.

    Lewis P

    NEW YORK TIMES. 1992 May 10; 4.

    English demographer Thomas Malthus argued that poverty and famine would control population. Accordingly, demographers expected famine to ravage populations of developing countries in the 1950s. Instead, revolutionary increases in the capacity to produce food were achieved, thereby allowing cultivated lands to support a doubling of the population to 5 billion by 1990. This green revolution largely eradicated endemic famine in Asia and Africa. Crop yields are now, however, increasing more slowly or declining in many areas of the developing world. Lack of water, deteriorating soil, and urban encroachment have forced farmers to scale back cultivation. Pessimists hold that we are nearing the maximum carrying capacity of the Earth and that the world cannot support another doubling of population. In contrast, others note that only few areas in the world are producing close to their theoretical capacities. Either way, large families may not be able to afford food when and if the second green revolution takes place. Developing country governments must try to both increase agricultural productivity within environmentally sustainable limits and help the rural poor to increase their incomes. Recognizing the need to reduce family size and population growth, the UN is launching a decade-long crash family planning program. If this effort fails, current 5.4 billion population may reach 10 billion by 2050 and level out at 11.5 billion after 2150. 97% of this growth is expected in developing countries.
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  23. 23

    Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)

    The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.
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  24. 24

    Quality assurance of vaccines.

    Sizaret P; Magrath DI

    In: Vaccines for fertility regulation: the assessment of their safety and efficacy. Proceedings of a Symposium on Assessing the Safety and Efficacy of Vaccines to Regulate Fertility, convened by the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Geneva, June 1989, edited by G.L. Ada, P.D. Griffin. Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1991. 173-84. (Scientific Basis of Fertility Regulation)

    Biologicals specialists at WHO review quality assurance of vaccines at the national level for participants in a symposium on vaccines to regulate fertility. National control authorities (NCA) authorize a company to manufacture biological products only after it convinces the NCA that it will comply with good manufacturing practices (GMP) and WHO requirements for manufacturing establishments and control laboratories. Experts periodically inspect the facilities to assure that the company abides by GMP, WHO, and national regulations. NCA makes a decision to permit product use after successful evaluation for a set period of time (licensing). The manufacture must renew its license. Licensing involves a review of manufacturer's data on production methods and laboratory tests. The manufacturer does not need to conduct some tests for each production lot including data on characterization of banks of seeds (cells, bacteria, and viruses), details on production methods, and principal harmlessness of the product. The NCA also reviews test data from each production batch at the bulk level, at the final bulk and/or at the final product level, and at the final product level. Bulk level tests may include tests for neurovirulence and for the absence of virulent mycobacteria. Purity tests are carried out at the final bulk and/or at the final product level. Tests for potencies of live vaccines, the absence of contamination, and adjuvant content are final product level tests. Results of clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of the product also accompanies requests for licensing. After granting a license, the NCA must define release modalities (free release, partial free release, or release after the NCA has issued a release certificate). It must also operate a postmarketing surveillance system to prevent the unexpected from happening.
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  25. 25

    Contraceptive needs and logistics management.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. [2], 46 p. (Report)

    This report provides an overview of the Follow-up Consultative Meeting on Contraceptive Requirements in Developing Countries in the 1990s, a meeting convened by UNFPA on May 31, 1991. Over 40 representatives from donor countries, developing countries, intergovernmental organizations, and nongovernmental organizations attended the consultative meeting. The report first summarizes the proceedings and then presents 4 technical papers that were prepared for the meeting. The meeting itself focused on the following agenda items: 1) country-specific estimates of contraceptive requirements, including current status, methodological problems, and future plans and options; 2) program needs for logistics management of contraceptives; 3) options for local production of contraceptives; 4) coordinated procurement of contraceptives; and 5) future resource needs for contraceptives. As it was pointed out during the meeting, just to maintain the developing world's combined contraceptive prevalence of 51% will require providing contraceptives to an additional 108 million married women of reproductive age. A recurring theme at the meeting was the impact of AIDS on the logistics management of contraceptives. The report provides a summary of the discussions and conclusions reached by the participants. The 2nd section of the report contains the following papers presented at the meeting: County-Specific Estimates of Contraceptive Requirements, Programme Needs for Logistics Management of Contraceptives, Options for Local Production of Contraceptives, and Coordinated Procurement of Contraceptives.
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