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Afghanistan. "Killing you is a very easy thing for us": human rights abuses in southeast Afghanistan.
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Jul. 102 p. (Vol. 15, No. 5(C))This report, based on research conducted from January through June 2003, documents human rights abuses in the southeast of Afghanistan, the most densely populated part of Afghanistan. If allowed to continue with impunity, these abuses will make it impossible for Afghans to create a modern, democratic state. Although many observers have noted the harmful effects of chronic insecurity in Afghanistan, few have sufficiently appreciated the extent to which continuing insecurity, at its heart, is due to policies and depredations of local government actors. Human Rights Watch found evidence of government involvement or complicity in abuses in virtually every district in the southeast. These include the provinces of Kabul, Wardak, Ghazni, Logar, Paktia, Paktika, Laghman, Nangarhar, Kapisa, and Kunar. The three main types of abuse documented in this report are violent criminal offenses—armed robbery, extortion, and kidnappings—committed by army troops, police, and intelligence agents; governmental attacks on media and political actors; and violations of the human rights of women and girls. Many of these violations are preventable, but solutions will require the concerted attention and action of international and Afghan authorities alike, which to date has not been sufficiently forthcoming. The report details specific accounts of the daily abuses suffered by Afghans: farmers in Paghman district in Kabul province staying awake at night in shifts to guard their property from thieving soldiers and police; bus and taxi drivers from Gardez in Paktia province being hijacked or beaten for not paying bribes to soldiers and police; people in Jalalabad being arbitrarily arrested by police or soldiers, accused of bogus crimes or “being a member of the Taliban,” and freed only after they or their family pay a ransom. It documents arbitrary arrests of and death threats against journalists by intelligence agents, police, and army officials, and detentions and intimidation of political opponents by government forces. It explains that many girls in areas such as Ghazni and Paghman are still unable go to school, and why women in areas such as Laghman fear attacks by local armed men if they speak about or promote women’s rights. These abuses are impeding the delivery of humanitarian aid and keeping some refugees and internally displaced persons from returning to their homes. The accumulation of cases, from an array of districts, demonstrates the problem’s pervasiveness and urgency. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme Technical Advisory Group Tenth Meeting, Geneva, March 13-17, 1989. 4 p. (CDD/TAG/89.4)In March 1989, WHO's Technical Advisory Group on Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme met in Geneva, Switzerland to discuss problem solving techniques in national control of diarrheal diseases (CDD) programs. Participants agreed that national programs should solve their own problems based on their own framework and not seek outside technical assistance. They acknowledged, however, that some problems cannot be solved without formal research or they command specific skills, technical assistance, time, and financial resources not available from the national CDD program. An example would be evaluating the effectiveness of different methods for promoting breast feeding. The WHO/CDD Programme has prepared guidelines to facilitate this process which incorporate comprehensive program reviews, health facility surveys, and household surveys. The Programme also offers training courses in problem solving skills and techniques for national planners, health workers, program managers, and supervisors. For a country to make major strides in controlling diarrheal diseases, the CDD program must have 1st recognized and reacted to identified problems. Examples of successful national CDD programs are the Philippines, Indonesia, and Ethiopia. They all identified CDD problems by carrying out a comprehensive review, analyzing data from routine reports and from health facility and/or household surveys, and evaluating clinical management training. Shared identified problems included lack of support for CDD activities, inadequate oral rehydration therapy programs, and meager training for health workers. These 3 national CDD programs all had characteristic features of active problem solving, such as flexibility, high level support, and the inclusion of all concerned in the problem solving process.
Q.A. REPORTS. 1993 Jun; 1-2.In May, 1992, the Regional Directorate of Health (DOH) in Tahoua, Niger, launched efforts to strengthen primary health care services in the region. The DOH organized a workshop for regional leaders to articulate their own vision of high quality health services for the regional health care system. Additionally, managers began applying fundamental quality assurance (QA) concepts and techniques to rectify service deficiencies. Tahoua's regional director and the QAP resident advisor invited technical and administrative directors of regional services and the district medical officers to participate in a workshop to win support for QA. The health managers first examined their individual values, the Tahoua regional health care organization's values, and community values. After viewing videotaped interviews documenting Nigerians' level of satisfaction with health care services, workshop participants recognized that clients have unique perspectives on favorable health care. Hence, the providers included responsiveness to client needs as a key factor in their vision of high quality care. The participants developed possible answers to the three key questions influencing a mission statements: 1) what services are provided; 2) for whom are they provided; and 3) in what fashion are they provided. The responses from all participants resulted in a regional mission statement. Trainers presented QAP's approach to quality improvement: 1) planning for quality assurance; 3) problem solving to correct deficiencies. Workshop participants immediately applied QAP quality improvement concepts by practicing with case studies and by examining actual health system problems. Participants will continue working in teams to devise and test solutions to selected problems. QAP's resident advisor will provide the teams with intensive coaching for effective application of quality improvement methodology. By the end of its two years of technical support, QAP intends to leave a core group of health personnel operating at all levels of Tahoua's primary health care system.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 1991 Sep; 20(3):589-94.Epidemiology is considered under 4 aspects: its contribution to world health; its future role in solving health problems; application of advances in epidemiology; and its social and ethical implications. Epidemiology now encompasses all ill health as affected by development, not just infectious diseases. The WHO uses epidemiologic tools to understand the incidence, prevalence, natural history, causes, effects, and control of disease, as exemplified by the eradication of smallpox and the AIDS prevention program. Now WHO is applying epidemiologic methods of monitoring and evaluation to set goals for health for all by 2000. The major contributions that epidemiologists can make are to warn decision makers about the many world problems before it is too late. This should be done with human rights and social justice in mind, rather than by commercial marketing of health products. Future health care systems must continue to increase efficiency and efficacy of interventions, compatible with political and social reality, and respectful of human rights, freedom, and integrity. WHO is preparing a plan of action to strengthen epidemiologic capabilities of the countries with the greatest need in the next 5 years, to be extended to other needy countries in the future.
An agenda for action in sub-Saharan Africa. A collaborative initiative of the World Bank, UNFPA and IPPF.
INTEGRATION. 1991 Mar; (27):10-7.An Agenda for Action to Improve the Implementation of Population Programs in Sub-Saharan African in the 1990s is a joint project of the World Bank, the UN Population Fund, the IPPF, the WHO and the African Development Bank. The goals of the agenda are to build public consensus and commitment to population activities, to bring together beneficiaries, implementors and policy makers with these groups to improve population program implementation, to share country program experiences, to make African institutions responsible for ("Africanize") the Agenda, or ultimately to include demographic factors in development. 20 African countries are the focus of the Agenda, grouped by region and language. Major issues include socio-cultural and economic roadblocks, poor transportation infrastructure, lack of community participation, no alternatives to early marriage for women, poor political commitment by decision-making or health ministries. Family planning programs can be improved by better contraceptive technology, program design, and human and financial resources for implementing programs. The methods by which the Agenda proposes to reach its goals are to do literature searches of action strategies, in-depth country analyses, inter-country sharing of experiences, analysis of implementation capability based on case studies, and analysis of contraceptive technology assisted by WHO's Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction and the Population Council. The Agenda will be managed by a Population Advisor Committee, which is an African "think tank," and regional Country Group Task Forces, coordinated by the World Bank's Africa Technical Department.
In: Omran AR, Standley CC, ed. Family formation patterns and health--further studies: an international collaborative study in Colombia, Egypt, Pakistan, and the Syrian Arab Republic. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1981. 63-71.The research problems and objectives of the study of family formation patterns and health in Colombia, Egypt, Pakistan, and the Syrian Arab Republic are discussed in this chapter. Due to the close associations between unfavorable socioenvironmental conditions and poor health, it seemed possible that the relationships between factors determining family formation and health would be different in developing than in developed countries. It was also of interest to examine in developing communities the impact that child loss early in the reproductive span of a woman might have on her subsequent fertility. The specific study questions and objectives are outlined. Attention in the discussion is also directed to the organization of the study (collaborating centers, coordination, study organization in each center, writing of the reports, and the timetable); research hypotheses (selection of study variables and indices and statement of the research hypotheses); and the research setting (sampling, controls, study components, research instruments, and data processing and analysis). The responsibility for planning, coordination, and follow-up of the study was shared between the World Health Organization (WHO) Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction and the WHO Collaborating Center for Epidemiological Studies of Human Reproduction in Chapel Hill. The variables selected for study can be classified into 4 categories: sociocultural variables; family formation variables; health variables; and family planning behavior variables. 2 overall hypotheses were considered: health risks for mothers and children increase with high frequency of pregnancies, large family size, short birth intervals, and too young or too old age of mother at the time of pregnancy; and experience of child loss raises subsequent fertility. Family formation patterns and health in 2 or more different population subgroups were compared, each collaborating center selecting its subgroup from different residential areas. The material for the collaborative study was obtained through household surveys, structured interviews with married women under 45 years of age, medical examination of these women, pediatric examination of their children under 5 years of age, and IQ testing of children 8-14 years old.
United Nations, Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1978. 85 p.This manual was written to meet a long-standing need for guidelines for the conduct of research in population communication programs in developing countries. To provide an overview of communication research requirements in developing countries, the various research methods which can satisfy these requirements are discussed. First covered are the nature, types, and areas of population communication research, followed then by a general description of the communication research process, and then technic description is given of the following types of research processes: 1) document analysis (specifically, the historical method, content analysis, and readability research); 2) the case study method; 3) pretesting of communication materials; 4) the survey method; and 5) the experimental method. The section on the nature, types, and areas of population communication research focuses on the role of research in population communication, from policy decision-making for program implementation to many adjunct activities. The section on communication research process is designed to familiarize the reader with procedural guidelines for this type of research. The need to adopt theories to cultural realities is emphasized.
London, IPPF, Feb. 1975. 24 p. plus 14 p.Add to my documents.
Africa-Link, July. 1974; 7-8, 12.The activities of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in family planning programs in its Africa Region are reviewed. The Africa Region received grant funds and commodities totaling $3,094,000 in 1973 and $4,600,000 in 1974 from IPPF. The major priorities for 1974-1976 are to increase the awareness of peoples and governments about population problems and the expansion of fertility control services directly into the community. The free supply of contraceptives by the family planning associations has been encouraged by the IPPF. The most effective means employed by the associations in disseminating family planning information has been through field workers. The lack of government family planning policies in all but 4 of the 15 countries in the Region has hindered the Associations' programs. Other factors frustrating progress include illiteracy, adverse publicity on contraceptive methods, the exclusion of paramedicals from the delivery of family planning services, the lack of effective political direction, governmental curbs on the media, the underdeveloped state of medical and health facilities, and the unwillingness of government officials to allow the integration of family planning services into the health care delivery system. Several countries are supporting the programs by allowing duty-free importation of contraceptives, providing material assistance and the use of facilities, and allowing government medical personnel to participate in family planning training programs. Ghana is the only country yet to have made a financial contribution to the IPPF. An IPPF plan is now prepared that will train government and nongovernment personnel in family planning.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1982. 290 p. (Population Studies No. 76; ST/ESA/SER.A/76)This 3-part report is a result of the work of the Second Expert Group Meeting on Methods of Measuring the Impact of Family Planning Programmes on Fertility, which met in Geneva, Switzerland, in March 1979. The 1st part consists of a report on the meeting, including discussions of the methods, potential fertility, gross and net program effects, direct and residual effects, a prevalence-based model, computerization of principal methods for assessing program effect on fertility, future developments, problems of measurement of program effort, needed research, and recommendations. The 2nd part comprises case studies by national experts of application of methods in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Korea, Thailand, and Tunisia as well as an analysis of issues in the comparative analysis of techniques for evaluating family planning programs presented by the case studies. The 3rd part provides statements on measuring the impact of family planning programs on fertility, submitted by members of the Second Expert Group. Topics covered include potential fertility, changing concepts and data needs, the interpretation of regression analyses, indices of family planning inputs, analytical approaches to the comparison of methodologies, uniform births-averted calculations for 9 countries, the utilization of program input indicators, program relationship to the nonprogram sector, evaluation of integrated service programs, linkages of social change to family planning, and unresolved issues.