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Your search found 8 Results

  1. 1
    311458

    Voluntary counseling and testing: operational guidelines, 2004.

    India. National AIDS Control Organization [NACO]

    [New Delhi], India, NACO, 2004. [84] p.

    Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is the process by which an individual undergoes confidential counseling to learn about his/her HIV status and to exercise informed choices in testing for HIV followed by further appropriate action. A key underlying principle of the VCT intervention is the voluntary participation. HIV counseling and testing are initiated by the client's free will. Counseling in VCT consists of pre-test and post-test counseling. During pre-test counseling, the counselor provides to the individual / couple an opportunity to explore and analyze their situation, and consider being tested for HIV. It facilitates more informed decisions about HIV testing. After the individual / couple has received accurate and complete information they reach an understanding about all that is involved. In the event that, after counseling, the individual decides to take the HIV test, VCT enables confidential HIV testing. Counseling is client-centered. This promotes trust between the counselor and the client. The client is helped to identify and understand the implications of a negative or a positive result. They are helped to think through the practical strategies for coping with the results of the HIV test. Post-test counseling further reinforces the understanding of all implications of a test result. Counseling also helps clients to decide who they should share the HIV test result with, and how to approach that aspect. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    300918

    Corporate strategy on HIV / AIDS.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. Bureau for Development Policy. HIV / AIDS Group

    New York, New York, UNDP, Bureau for Development Policy, HIV / AIDS Group, [2004]. 8 p.

    Twenty years on, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to spread without respite. Almost 40 million people are living with HIV and AIDS, half of them women. The impact of HIV/AIDS is unique because it kills adults in the most productive period of their lives, depriving families, communities, and nations of their most productive people. Adding to an already heavy disease burden in poor countries, the epidemic is deepening poverty, reversing human development, worsening gender inequalities, eroding the capacity of governments to provide essential services, reducing labour productivity, and hampering pro-poor growth. The epidemic is quickly becoming the biggest obstacle to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    300059

    Globalization and health policy in South Africa.

    McIntyre D; Thomas S; Cleary S

    Perspectives on Global Development and Technology. 2004; 3(1-2):131-152.

    This paper considers influences of globalization on three relevant health policy issues in South Africa, namely, private health sector growth, health professional migration, and pharmaceutical policy. It considers the relative role of key domestic and global actors in health policy development around these issues. While South Africa has not been subject to the overt health policy pressure from international organizations experienced by governments in many other low- and middle-income countries, global influence on South Africa's macroeconomic policy has had a profound, albeit indirect, effect on our health policies. Ultimately, this has constrained South Africa's ability to achieve its national health goals. (author's)
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  4. 4
    282828

    The use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests.

    Bell D

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2004. 19 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADC-611)

    Misdiagnosis of malaria results in significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid, accurate and accessible detection of malaria parasites has an important role in addressing this, and in promoting more rational use of increasingly costly drugs, in many endemic areas. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer the potential to provide accurate diagnosis to all at risk populations for the first time, reaching those unable to access good quality microscopy services. The success of RDTs in malaria control will depend on good quality planning and implementation. This booklet is designed to assist those involved in malaria management in this task. While this new diagnostic tool is finding its place in management of this major global disease, there is a window of opportunity in which good practices can be established by health services and become the norm. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    275761

    National spending for AIDS 2004. Prepublication draft.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Global Resource Tracking Consortium for AIDS

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jul. [82] p.

    In monitoring resource flows for HIV and AIDS, it has proven easier to collect information on donor governments, multilateral agencies, foundations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) than to obtain reliable budget information on domestic outlays for HIV and AIDS in affected countries. As a result, UNAIDS has focused significant efforts on strengthening the capacity of countries to monitor and track expenditures for HIV and AIDS. This report summarizes the latest information available on HIV-related spending in 26 countries. Seventeen of the countries are from the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. Resource tracking in the LAC region, as well as in Thailand, Burkina Faso and Ghana has benefited from the leadership of the Regional AIDS Initiative for Latin America and the Caribbean (SIDALAC), which helped implement the National AIDS Account (NAA) approach. Beginning with pilot projects in three countries in 1997–1998, NAA has now been extended throughout the region, in large part due to the provision of extensive technical assistance by countries involved in the early pilot projects. NAA uses a matrix system that describes the level and flow of health expenditures on AIDS. The NAA model: a) identifies key actors in HIV and AIDS activities; b) uses existing data or makes estimates for specific services or goods purchased; c) analyses domestic (public and private) and international budgets; d) determines out-of-pocket expenditures; and e) assesses the financial dimensions of the country’s response to AIDS. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    274801

    Investing in a comprehensive health sector response to HIV / AIDS. Scaling up treatment and accelerating prevention. WHO HIV / AIDS plan, January 2004 - December 2005.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 72 p.

    This document discusses the context for the work being undertaken in WHO’s HIV/AIDS programme. It analyses the epidemiological situation and includes the most recent estimates of antiretroviral coverage, the global strategic framework and current challenges to translating this into results at the country level (Section 1 – Background). Section 2 describes the comparative advantages offered by WHO, the functional areas of activity within the HIV/AIDS area of work for 2004–2005 and the specific focus of the programme on scaling up antiretroviral therapy and accelerating HIV prevention. Section 3 describes how WHO is structured and how resources and capacity are being reoriented to support country-level action. Section 4 illustrates how WHO works within the United Nations system and with other partners. Section 5 outlines the resources required in 2004–2005 for WHO to accomplish its stated contribution to HIV/AIDS. Section 6 describes the mechanisms for technical and managerial oversight of the HIV/AIDS programme. The WHO HIV/AIDS Plan is not a detailed work plan. Rather, it provides an overall framework to guide the departments responsible for HIV/AIDS in preparing such work plans at the country, regional and headquarters levels of WHO. These work plans are now being developed and will define the specific tasks and activities required to bring the WHO HIV/AIDS Plan to fruition, together with timelines and resource requirements. Joint planning sessions between headquarters, regional and country offices integrate the work of the three levels to ensure that all priority needs are addressed and that gaps in resources are identified. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    195613
    Peer Reviewed

    Access to clean water and sanitation pose 21st-century challenge for millions.

    Voelker R

    JAMA. 2004 Jul 21; 292(3):318-320.

    Earlier this year, Epidemiologists from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found a silver lining in the midst of a cholera outbreak they were investigating in Zambia’s capital city, Lusaka. They discovered that up to 25% of the city’s households use a low-tech, lowcost method to disinfect and safely store water for drinking, bathing, food preparation, and hygiene. “That’s a great success—a large segment of the population is using this preventive measure,” says Pavani Kalluri, MD, a medical epidemiologist at the CDC, as she discuses the Safe Water System (SWS). But the program’s success is not measured only in terms of how many households have adopted it. A host of collaborators, from large international organizations to health ministers and local entrepreneurs, joined the CDC in the field to test the Safe Water System, launch it nationally, and use social marketing efforts to convince Zambians of the vast benefits of safe water. The Safe Water System illustrates how the developed world’s financial and technical resources can work in tandem with local authorities in resource poor nations where millions become ill and die each year from waterborne diseases. Now, one of the main questions facing government officials and public health and development experts is how to galvanize more of these diverse partnerships as a way to meet international goals for clean water and adequate sanitation. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    186035

    The Alma Ata Declaration and the goal of "Health for All" 25 years later: keeping the dream alive.

    Werner D

    Health for the Millions. 2004 Jan; 30(4-5):23-27.

    In 1978, a potential breakthrough in global health rights took place at an international conference organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in Alma Ata in erstwhile USSR(now Almaty in Kazakhstan). In this Alma Ata Declaration, 134 countries subscribed to the goal of 'Health for All by the Year 2000'. They affirmed WHO's broad definition of health as 'a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being'. The world's nations--together with WHO, UNICEF, and other major funding organizations--pledged to work towards meeting people's basic health needs through the comprehensive and remarkably progressive primary healthcare (PHC) approach. Principals and methods garnered from the barefoot doctors' methodology in China and from experiences of small, struggling community-based health programmes in The Philippines and countries of Latin America. The linkage of many of these enabling initiatives to social transformation movements helps explain why the concepts underlying PHC have been praised as well as criticized for being 'revolutionary'. (excerpt)
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