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New York, New York, UNFPA, 1995. ix, 115 p. (Technical Report No. 23)This report contains the results of a 1994 UN Population Fund (UNFPA) mission to Bangladesh undertaken on behalf of the UN's Global Initiative on Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs. After presenting an executive summary, the report opens with an introductory chapter which describes the UNFPA Global Initiative, Bangladesh's population and family planning (FP) policies, policy strategies, the structure of the national FP program, the delivery of FP services, and donor assistance. Chapter 2 covers contraceptive requirements and reviews the longterm projection methodology as well as projects to meet government objectives for the year 2005. The third chapter deals with logistics management in terms of distribution channels and contraceptive supply systems. Chapter 4 discusses various aspects of contraceptive manufacturing including taxes and duties and quality assurance. The next chapter looks at the role of nine nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector (private practitioners, private corporations, and the social marketing company). This chapter also covers the sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention activities undertaken by NGOs and coordination and collaboration between NGOs and the government. Chapter 6 is concerned with the use of condoms for STD/HIV/AIDS prevention, and chapter 7 provides a financial analysis of the allocations and expenditures of the government program, the World Bank-assisted program, the UNFPA-assisted program, and the program supported by the US Agency for International Development. This chapter also considers financial aspects of program performance, contraceptive requirements, contraceptive consumption and costs, and sustainability.
In: Evaluation and development: proceedings of the 1994 World Bank conference, edited by Robert Picciotto and Ray C. Rist. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. 83-92. (World Bank Operations Evaluation Study)This paper presents an introduction to the law of public institutions and the way in which the law shapes institutions that provide goods and services to the public. This introduction serves to help evaluators distinguish basic institutional types and understand how institutional choices can affect performance, capacity, accountability, and potential life cycles. The second part of this paper outlines the legal framework that helps to determine the quality of public institutions. It distinguishes between agencies of government and private instrumentalities of government. The law governing each of these types of institution differs with the legal framework that applies to private companies that serve private goals. The third part of this paper reviews some of the ways that the legal framework helps to determine the external environment, capacity and incentives, nature of service to public purposes, and life cycles of each type of institution. The final and concluding part of this paper suggests aspects of the legal framework of an institution that deserve scrutiny in an assessment of its quality.
Mumbai, India, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, IPP V Directorate, 1995. , 50 p.This report presents a human perspective on development that reveals the daily lives of people affected by the Bombay and Madras World Bank Urban Slums Family Welfare Project. Chapter topics focus on interactions between workers and clients at a health post and cultural barriers and rebuffs, the uniqueness of the program, innovative outreach schemes, patterns of persuasion, piloting the program in New Bombay, and key program staff. The author concludes that slum dwellers are adjusting to some aspects of modernity, such as watching television, but are also retaining negative traditional health practices and beliefs. For example, only 30% of slum dwellers knew about measles as a treatable disease. Most understand measles as a supernatural phenomenon and respond by asking the gods for help. This project was helpful in addressing cultural orthodoxy that prevents health-seeking behavior by offering training, management information systems, and communications. The constant program monitoring allowed for an immediate correction of deficits. During 1988-94, the unprotected couple ratio declined from 72% to 44.5%. Effective temporary couple protection rates (CPRs) increased from 4% to 19.5%. Effective permanent CPRs increased from 24% to 36%. In Madras, CPRs increased, but the birth rate did not decline. In Mumbai, the crude birth rate declined from 23.2 to 19.8 in 1993, which is significantly lower than the national target for the year 2000. The absolute number of births also declined. The project frugally spent funds. Infrastructure was available at the program start. Future government funding is hoped for.
Mainstreaming the environment. The World Bank Group and the environment since the Rio Earth Summit, Fiscal 1995.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. xv, 301 p.Almost all countries of the world agreed with the idea of environmentally sustainable development at the Rio De Janeiro Earth Summit. This report summarizes World Bank activities that directly deal with improving the environment. Part 1 reviews World Bank activities during 1993-95 at the national, regional, and global levels and intellectual efforts toward making development environmentally and socially sustainable. Part 2 focuses on activities in the social sectors, followed by agricultural, energy, transportation, and urban development sectors, which comprise about 60% of Bank activity. Part 2 also discusses activities that did not specifically focus on the environment. Activities include education, health, and nutrition projects and other projects such as irrigation projects, which could adversely affect the environment. Some projects, such as energy projects, are trade-offs between protecting the environment and promoting economic development and poverty reduction. Part 3 illustrates the private sector's role in environmental protection and explains how the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) contribute to environmental sustainability. Both the Bank and the IFC screen operations for their environmental impact. Environmental assessments are available for some projects. The Bank's Public Information Center has since 1994 disclosed environmental information on its projects. This report includes the positive progress to date and discusses areas in need of improvement. The current approach of the Bank includes an emphasis on grassroots participation and implementation, on the incorporation of environmental issues into sectoral and national strategies, and on people and social structures.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. , 11,  p. (Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 008-GU-01-015; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-Q-08-3032)As part of a series of activities designed to reduce morbidity and mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under the age of 5 in Guatemala, a consultant from the BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) program visited Guatemala in 1995 to analyze, modify, and field test the protocol developed by the USAID Mission to document the degree to which drugs prescribed for pneumonia are available in the community through the private sector. This field report provides background information and describes the current situation in Guatemala in terms of availability of drugs in the public sector through the Ministry of Health, the Drogueria Nacional, municipalities, and the Pan American Health Organization. Relevant activities in the private sector are also described, including the for-profit businesses as well as services provided by UNICEF, the European Union, and nongovernmental organizations. A brief overview of one health area gives an example of the current situation. The result of this consultancy visit was the determination that the situation merited adjustment of the originally requested study and that the survey as designed would likely require modification and application within target communities. Included among the appendices is the original protocol developed for assessing community drug availability.
The International Dialogue on Micronutrient Malnutrition: Forum on Food Fortification, 6-8 December, 1995, Ottawa, Canada.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995.  p. (Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 56 011; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)The International Dialogue on Micronutrient Malnutrition: Forum on Food Fortification, convened in Ottawa, Canada, in 1995, promoted partnership between the private and public sectors aimed at eliminating global malnutrition through strategies such as food fortification and supplementation. Participants agreed on the goal of eliminating micronutrient malnutrition by the year 2000, with an emphasis on iodine, iron, and vitamin A deficiencies. Achievement of this goal will entail, for each country, a needs assessment and discussion of the role of micronutrient fortification, establishment of a hierarchy of foods to reach the maximum population at risk, and dialogue to provide a link for technology and information exchange. The public sector will assist in the development of standards, provide incentives, and contact industry, while the private sector will provide scientific research and development, conduct market research, develop appropriate products, and disseminate and market the products; the role of international organizations will be to provide financial support and serve as liaison between the public and private sectors.