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Bangkok, Thailand, The Population Council, Regional Office for South and East Asia, 1985. 30 p.This brochure describes the work of the Population Council in Asia in mid-1985. It focuses on work that is being done within the region under the auspices of the Council's Regional Office for South and East Asia located in Bangkok. The brochure does not describe the work of Council staff based in New York who are conducting research on or in collaboration with colleagues in several Asian countries, with special focus on Bangladesh, China, India, and Indonesia. Information about these and other Council activities can be found in the Council's Annual Reports. The Population Council's program of activities in South and East Asia spans the full range of Population Council interests in the social, health, and biomedical sciences. As of mid-1985, activities managed by the Regional Office for South and East Asia consist of 12 projects falling under 4 broad program categories: Family Planning and Health; Infant and Child Mortality; Social Science Research on Population and Development Interactions; and Contraceptive INtroduction. The objectives, staff, and activites of each project are described. Appendices include 1) a list of publications generated by the projects, 2) a list of specific awards under projects, 3) a Population Council staff list for Asia, and 4) advisory panels for projects. (author's modified)
New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. 38 p. (ST/ESCAP/397.)This document reports on the Policy Workshop on International Migration in Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok, October 15-21, 1985), which was organized and funded by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the UN Fund for Population Activities, and whose objectives were to 1) review the results of 7 studies initiated at a similar conference the preceding year, 2) relate the research findings to government policies for return migrant reintegration, and 3) make and disseminate policy recommendations to ESCAP regional governments. The subjects of the 7 studies concerned 1) decision making processes and the value orientation of return migrants, 2) Korean migrants returning from the Middle East, 3) return migration in Mediterranean basin countries, 4) return migration in Sri Lanka, 5) Thai return migration, 6) Filipino return workers, and 7) return migration's effects on a Tongan village. Conference attendees came from Australia, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tonga, and Italy. The workshop concentrated on migrants returning from jobs in the Middle East, since in 1983, 3.5 million ESCAP overseas workers were employed in that region. The workshop's agenda included 1) return migration measurement, 2) government and private company policies, 3) reintegration of return workers, 4) return migration in Mediterranean basin countries; 5) the village level impact of international migration, and 6) policy formulation for return migrants. The most important recommmendations made by the workshop were that 1) a major study should be undertaken to ascertain the numbers and skills of migrant workers in the Middle Eastern receiving countries, 2) this study should estimate future Middle Eastern labor demand, in terms of volume and skills, and 3) the study should be conducted under appropriate experts appointed by the ESCAP secretariat, and should report their findings as soon as possible.
Populi. 1985; 12(4):22-31.Although the UN's charter (1945) provided for arrangements with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), relations between the 2 have been uneasy, since NGOs are often ignored or not listened to fully. The 1974 World Population Plan of Action delegated NGOs to a peripheral role, but the 1984 Plan both commended their work and recognized the partnership that has developed between governmental and private sector and voluntary organizations in many nations. NGOs include professional organizations, advocacy organizations, and many broadly based organizations for women, youth, churches, education, science, and the environment. This article describes the following NGOs in terms of their growing influence on the UN and how the UN and UNFPA have helped these NGOs make full contributions: 1) the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), founded in 1928 in Paris, was the first NGO accorded consultative status by the Economic and Social Council; 2) the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), founded in 1952, attained consultative status in the mid-1960s, and has been on a partnership basis with the UNFPA since its inception, although, in 1984, it became a target of major US policy change; 3) the Population Council, begun in 1952 by John D. Rockefeller under National Academy of Sciences auspices, has trained thousands of demographers, economists, and social scientists and has made major contributions to the UN's 1954-1984 population conferences; 4) other NGOs such as the Population Reference Bureau, the Population Crisis Committee, the Population Institute; and 5) less specialized NGOs such as the International Association for Maternal and Neonatal Health, and the International Association of Obstetrics and Gynecology. NGOs help give the necessary public support to population efforts, but their diversity can cause coordination problems that must be settled as national levels or by the UN.
Assignment Children. 1985; 69/72:397-414.The recent immunization campaign in El Salvador has been a success despite the civil war. Both the government and the guerrillas agreed that the goal of immunizing children was an ideal transcending all differences, and that immunization should be taken to all parts of the country and all Salvadorian children. The campaign had the personal support of the head of state, the church, UNICEF, PAHO/WHO, ICRC and other organizations who worked with the parties to implement the campaign. The 3 national immunization days, held on February 3, March 3, and April 21, 1985 were transformed into days of tranquillity. This article describes how the campaign was organized and presents an assessment of its achievements. An executive committee was created and both UNICEF and PAHO/WHO took part in its meetings. Specific commissions handled channeling, training, supplies, the cold chain, information and evaluation, and promotion and education. The plan of action proposed that all branches of government and the private sector support the immunization campaign and a national support council was establish for this purpose. The original goal was to immunize 400,000 children under 3 years of age against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, and measles. The goal was extended to cover children under 5 years of age. Funding was provided from both public and private organizations. Reasons the campaign was a success despite war conditions include: the campaign was backed by political commitment; the mechanisms created to implement the campaign functioned smoothly; mobilizing the media generated a change in opinion and attitude. The campaign rested on solid technical and political foundations. It reached 87% of children under 5 in the area.
Populi. 1985; 12(3):34-9.The US Agency for International Development (USAID) in consultation with the government of Kenya agreed in 1983 to prepare a demonstration family planning project, which would assist the private sector as well as other major nongovernment providers of health services to upgrade their health services, train and augment their nursing and other medical staff, provide family planning equipment and free contraceptives, and establish these health facilities as full-time family planning service delivery points. The Family Planning Private Sector Program (FPPS) will assist 30 private sector firms, "parastatal" organizations, and other private and nongovernment organizations that already provide health services to their workers, their dependents, and in many cases the surrounding communities to upgrade their services and add a full-time family planning facility. As some of the firms or organizations have multiple outlets, the program will create 50 or more new family planning delivery points throughout Kenya, thereby also relieving some of the pressure on government facilities. The FPPS sub-projects are to recruit at least 30,000 new acceptors. FPPS has added a guideline that at least 60% of these new acceptors be retained in the program for at least a period of 2 years. The FPPS program has received an enthusiastic reception from employers, the unions, and nongovernment organizations such as the Protestant Church Medical Association and the Seventh Day Adventists. The FPPS team can provide projects with a variety of services and funds for family planning related equipment, supplies, and activities. These include assistance with project design, training existing medical staff in family planning service delivery, the collection of baseline information, and the provision of funds for equipping family planning clinics. The government has encouraged FPPS to be innovative and to introduce family planning services into as wide a variety of health services as possible. As presently designed, the FPPS program is primarily a service delivery program but is beginning to play an increasingly dynamic role in information and education activities about family planning. From the start, the participating projects demanded assistance in spreading the family planning message to the workers, their families, and the community. It is evident that the program has stimulated management, clinic staff, and workers and has generated competition between projects to reach and exceed their targets of both new acceptors and high continuation rates.
Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1985 Dec. 8 p. (Status Report on Population Problems and Programs)In 1985 Brazil's new civilian government took a potentially significant step towards political commitment to a national population program by appointing a national Commission for the Study of Human Reproductive Rights and by accepting large-scale external assistance to implement a nationwide maternal and child health program intended to include family planning services. Brazil's traditional pronatalist policy has been undergoing a change since 1974 and family planning is now viewed as an indispensable element of Brazil's development policy. Several laws which had long impeded the growth of family planning services have been revised or repealed. It is no longer illegal to advertise contraceptives, but abortion is only allowed in restricted circumstances. Approval for voluntary sterilization is easier to obtain. Brazilians who practice family planning obtain services primarily through commercial channels or the private sector. The government and private family planners are faced with a major problem of organizing family planning services for rural areas and the vast city slums. The estimated cost of a national family planning program for Brazil is between US$221 million for 1990 and US$182 to US$324 million for the year 2000. The various aspects of the government program are discussed. The private sector was instrumental in introducing family planning to Brazil. A private non-profit organization was established by a group of physicians to encourage the government to develop a national family planning program and to inform the public about responsible parenthood. This organization (BEMFAM) was given official recognition by the federal government and a number of states and declared a public convenience. Another organization (CPAIMC) was established to provide maternal and child health care in poor urban areas. The sources of external aid, accomplishments to date and remaining obstacles are discussed. Sources of external aid include: UNFPA, USAID, IPPF, the Pathfinder Fund and Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH). A change in popular and official pronatalist attitudes has been effected.
In: Methodological foundations for research on the determinants of health development, by World Health Organization [WHO]. [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Office of Research Promotion and Development, 1985. 1-7. (RPD/SOC/85)Health development planning is part of overall development planning and is influenced by the total development process. Those dealing with health planning may present the health sector's development as the most important aspect of development whereas there may be more urgent problems in other sectors. All socioeconomic plans aim at improving the quality of life. There is some correlation between spending on health programs and the health indices. The health indices are poor in countries which accord low priority to health. A table gives measure of health status by level of GNP/capita in selected countries. No direct correlation appears between income and mortality. This paper examines the functions of health development planning; health development plans; intersectoral collaboration; health information; strategy; financial aspects; implementation, evaluation and reprogramming; and manpower needs. A health development plan usually includes an analysis of the current situation; a review of the immediate past plan and previous plans; the objectives, strategy, targets and physical infrastructure of the plan; program philosophy with manpower requirements; financial implications; and the role of the private sector and nongovernment organizations and related constraints. The main health-related determinants include: education, increased school attendance, agriculture and water, food distribution and income, human resources programs and integrated rural development. The strategy of health sector development today is geared towards development of integrated health systems. Intercountry coordination may be improved with aid from the WHO. Health expenditures in countries including Bangladesh, India and Norway is presented.