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Your search found 15 Results

  1. 1
    012326

    The involvement of U.S. pharmaceutical manufacturers in developing countries.

    Kingham JJ

    In: National Council for International Health [NCIH]. Pharmaceuticals and developing countries: a dialogue for constructive action. Washington, D.C., NCIH, 1982 Aug. 21-6.

    The Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association (1972) has endorsed the underlying objective of the Action Program on Essential Drugs which is to provide and improve access to needed drugs and vaccines through public sector programs--government programs--to people in the least developed countries who are now unserved or underserved. Additionally, the industry has endorsed the concepts embodied in primary health care. Although the industry has an important role in these efforts, the principal issues and responsibilities involve public policy decisions, not the private sector. The private sector is an important factor but not the final authority in determining policy directions. Governments have a particular responsibility to set priorities and allocate resources. There has been too much emphasis on the supply of drugs and not enough on the need to improve the health infrastructure. Unless a distribution and delivery system exists, drugs are of little use. In most instances the resources required to establish this infrastructure are far greater than those needed to purchase drugs. The industry feels strongly that any efforts on the part of the World Health Organization (WHO) and national governments to implement this action program should not interfere with existing private sector operations. Industry has expressed its concern about the action program in several different ways. Possibly the most recent and significant one is through the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. Issues have been raised recently concerning the industry's marketing practices for the 3rd world, i.e., the sale of drugs overseas which are not sold in the US and labeling differences between the US and the developing countries. The fact is that the health conditions, disease incidence, and medical judgment of public health and drug authorities vary substantially from country to country. This is the result of different levels of sanitation, nutrition, medical infrastructure, the dispersion of doctors and pharmacists, racial characteristics and other factors. It is arrogant and paternalistic to insist that 1 country's decisions in this area are somehow superior to another's. It is also potentially dangerous in health terms to assert that the standards of 1 particular country should be applied to all. In 1976 the International Federation adopted a policy statement on the international labeling of drugs. The Association position is that the important information concerning side effects and indications should be communicated in the developing countries.
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  2. 2
    264850

    Financing of programs.

    McComie V

    Forum. 1982 Feb; 4(2):2-6.

    Traditionally, approaches to population policy have been largely conditioned by economic theories. The population dictum held that increased economic development would assure improved human development. Population control, along with increased economic productivity were seen to be the major determinants in increasing the quality of life for all. Later, a changed philosophy emerged with the realization that the issue was not a simple one--human factors had to be considered, and economic goals should not be sought at the expense of social dislocation. In particular, education, health, human rights and other interrelated factors were considered integral to the development of population policy. Education was singled out as the key to informed and effective adoption of a rational population policy. The problem of funding for population policy implementation remains a delicate one. Logically, it must take the form of a balancing out of the inequities in economic resources within the society. More and more it is apparent that help must come from within--everyone must regard this problem as his own. In an era of international "stagflation," countries cannot be dependent on international aid. Most importantly, throughout the process of planning and development it must be kept in mind that the need, 1st and foremost, is to upgrade the human condition without regard for personal standing.
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  3. 3
    265236

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Ghana: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 107 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Ghana, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes the type of study (original data or literature review), its methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate provides a summary of the study.
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  4. 4
    265237

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Nepal: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 49 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Nepal, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes the type of study (original data or literature review), its methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate a summary of the study is provided.
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  5. 5
    265239

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Sri Lanka: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 53 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Sri Lanka, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes each study in terms of type, (original data or literature review), methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate, a summary is provided.
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  6. 6
    265240

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Pakistan: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 62 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Pakistan, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes each study in terms of type (original data or literature review), methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate a summary is provided.
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  7. 7
    265242

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Tanzania: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 83 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Tanzania, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Programs and Policies, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes each study in terms of type (original data or literature review), methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate a summary is provided.
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  8. 8
    265244

    Maternal and infant nutritional reviews. Tunisia: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 79 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Tunisia, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutritional and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes each study in terms of type (original data or literature review), methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate a summary is provided.
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  9. 9
    265246

    Maternal and infant nutrition reviews. Morocco: a guide to the literature.

    International Nutrition Communication Service [INCS]

    Newton, Mass., Education Development Center, INCS, 1982. 56 p.

    A literature review on maternal and infant nutritional status in Morocco, limited to documents available in the US. The information is organized according to a Maternal and Infant Nutritional Review system which categorizes information under the following 6 major headings: 1) Nutrition and Health Status, 2) Dietary Beliefs, 3) Dietary Practices, 4) Nutritional Status Correlations, 5) Nutrition and Health Policies and Programs, and 6) Commentaries. An annotated bibliography is included which describes the type of study (original data or literature review), its methodology, sample characteristics, location, and where appropriate provides a summary of the study.
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  10. 10
    048509

    Financial and technical assistance in the field of population.

    Benedick RE

    [Unpublished] 1982. 13 p.

    Overview of financial and technical assistance provided by international agencies, individual governments and private foundations to promote population control during the last 3 decades, especially in the developing countries of Asia, with specific recommendations for future assistance. Distribution of spending by region, major giver, and kinds of assistance with dollar amounts show Asia the largest recipient at 60%, Latin America at 20%, Africa at 12%, and the Middle East at 8%. Monetary support from within developing countries is rising as their population programs mature. Recommendations from past ECAFE and other conferences include strengthening research and training, improving communication and dissemination of information, expanding international cooperative activities, and increasing financial resources for population programs, especially family planning services. Resulting successful activities are described along with details of technical cooperation among developing countries. Fertility decline has been accelerated by family planning programs, especially with national and local commitment and planning, public and private cooperation, involvement of women, training of large numbers of workers and effective communications. Future assistance should emphasize regional collaboration, integration of population and development aid, training, biomedical research, social science research, demographic data, contraceptive availability and distribution, and diplomatic activity.
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  11. 11
    014374

    The next hundred years.

    Population. 1982 Apr; 8(4):1.

    In a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) sponsored forum in March 1982 the importance of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in population work was reaffirmed. According to Rafael M Salas, Executive Director of UNFPA, NGOs will help decide the shape of population programs over the next century. The international conference on population which is to be held in 1984 will devote considerable attention to NGO views and special submissions may be requested. The 1984 conference will mark the 10th anniversary of the World Population Conference held in Bucharest. The conference is expected to review the World Population Plan of Action adopted at Bucharest and assess policies and programs in its light. The Plan may be modified to take account of the considerable progress made in the intervening decade and of future needs. Population policies and programs would remain a matter for national decision. Population growth remains a problem. Over 80% of the developing world's population live in countries whose policy is to lower birthrates. Population distribution and the growth of cities also are emerging as prime concerns. There has been no increase in the level of population assistance for the last 5 years despite growing unmet needs. UNFPA can respond to only half the requests made, even though the level of requests is kept down by the knowledge that resources are limited. As developing countries' interest has grown, they have been committing more and more resources to population programs so that aid now accounted for only about 15% of what was spent on population work. NGOs have a tradition of innovation according to Salas and can frequently work in areas where government is not yet involved. They are typically in close touch with the community so that they are aware of local and group sensitivities. They can show what approach will be most effective for a given group. In these ways, NGOs could be particularly valuable to governments and to organizations like UNFPA, redefining population issues so that they may be both understood and approached in the same way by all concerned.
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  12. 12
    265788

    Family planning activities in Mexico.

    Alarcon F

    In: Martinez Manautou J, ed. The demographic revolution in Mexico 1970-1980. Mexico City, Mexican Institute of Social Security, 1982. 17-97.

    Provides summaries of Mexican demographics, with tables showing annual growth rate (1900-1980), demographic growth rates, crude birth and mortality rates, life expectancy at birth by sex (all for 1940-1980), marital status of women and average age at 1st union (1979), rural and urban population with age distribution (1940-1980), fertility rates overall and broken down by urban and rural groups (1971-1979) and specific age groups (1971 and 1979). Discusses population policy development which has changed from formally pronatalist in the 1940s to a gradual realization of the need for slower growth. Relevant laws and regulations are briefly noted. Policy is viewed in the context of international movements (notably the World Action Plan for Population). The National Plan for Family Planning is summarized and placed in the context of overall development and planning and coordination of overall health services. Organizations within the health sector which provide family planning services are briefly described. The coordination of the national family planning program is based organizationally on the general sense of family planning in 3 dimensions: health, demography, and family and community development; it has 2 types of general objectives: intrinsic, at the family level, and extrinsic, at the social level. Family planning activities are developed according to multidisciplinary, micro and macrosocial, and coordinated activity perspectives. The organization of the coordination office of the national program and the composition of the National Plan are detailed, including establishment of common bases for family planning, coordinated intrasectoral programming, and participation of international organizations.
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  13. 13
    025933

    Food and agricultural development.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination

    Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 8 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)

    The Task Force of the US Agency for International Development (US AID) sets forth the overall objectives, policy decisions, and programming implications for food and agricultural assistance funded from Development Assistance, Economic Support Fund, and PL 480 budgets. The objective of US food and agricultural assistance is to enable developing countries to become self-reliant in food through increased agricultural production and greater economic efficiency in marketing and distribution of food products. Improved food consumption is gained through expanded employment to increase purchasing power, increased awareness of sound nutritional principles, and direct distribution of food from domestic or external sources to those facing severe malnutrition and food shortages. Policy elements to accomplish these objectives include 1) improving country policies to remove constraints on food production; 2) developing human resources and institutional capabilities, including research on food and agriculture problems; 3) expanding the role of private sectors in developing countries and private sector in agricultural development; and 4) employing available assistance instruments and technologies in an integrated and efficient manner. A sound country policy framework is fundamental for agricultural growth and should 1) rely on free markets, product incentives, and equitable access to resources; 2) give priority to complementary public sector investments that complement and encourage rather than compete with private sector growth. Private and voluntary organizations (PVOs) can also offer low-cost approaches to agricultural development that take local attitudes and conditions into account. Under appropriate conditions, US AID will finance a share of recurrent costs of food and agricultural research, education, extension or related institutions, provided that policy and institution frameworks assure effective utilization and the country is making maximum and/or increasing domestic resource mobilization efforts.
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  14. 14
    118854

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the Swaziland family planning programme.

    Ryder B; Burton J; Frieiro L

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1982 Dec. xi, 44, [10] p. (Project SWA/75/P01)

    The long range objective of this project (1976-1981) was to improve and enhance the health and welfare of mothers and children, especially in rural areas. In assessing Project achievements and the degree to which progress toward the long term objective has been accomplished, the Evaluation Mission found that the immediate objectives had, to a large degree, been met within the general framework of the Ministry of Health's (MOH) development program. Service delivery points in governmental, mission private and industrial/plantation health facilities are now widely distributed throughout Swaziland. The integration of preventive and curative is clearly in place in the rural health clinics and health centers. Analysis of service statistics data indicates that a large % of pregnant women attend antenatal clinics. Family planning services are now offered in 86 clinics with 27,094 clinic attendances recorded for 1981. The pill is the most popular method, followed by condoms, injectables and IUDs. An adequate though incipient health education program is functioning. The MOH strengthened the health infrastructure for, and has in place a program of, maternal child health (MCH) and family planning (FP). The strong points of the program are the government's commitment to MCH/FP, the general strategy, the training component, the number and quality of staff involved in service delivery, the number of service delivery points and the system of recruitment and the employment of Rural Health Motivators (RHM). Weak points, which appear to have hindered a more effective program performance, are planning and management, the lack of solid socio-anthropological knowledge to base, the lack of a focal point for FP, supervision at all levels and the lack of monitoring and evaluation which, if properly undertaken, could have led to changes and adjustments in the program. Future activities supported by the United Nations Fund for Population in the organization and management of family planning activities within the MCH program and within other government and voluntary organizations. UNFPA should help the government prepare a new proposal for UNFPA assistance to family planning activities in the country and should consider supporting supervision and training activities.
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  15. 15
    012512

    Nutrition.

    U.S. Agency for International Development. Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Agency for International Development, May 1982. 12 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)

    Estimates indicate that 600 million people in less developed countries (LDCs) are in danger of not getting enough to eat. This policy paper reviews the justifications for US investment in improving nutrition in LDCs and sets out some policy guidelines for USAID programs. The objective of the nutrition policy is to maximize the nutritional impact of USAID's economic assistance. The policy recommendations are to place the highest priority on alleviating undernutrition through sectoral programs which incorporate nutrition as a factor in decision making. This can be effected through identifying projects based upon analysis of food consumption problems; this is especially appropriate in formulating country development strategies, especially in the areas of agriculture, rural development, education and health. USAID will give increasing attention, through research, analysis, experimental projects, and programs, to improve the ability to utilize the private sector whenever feasible to implement the policy, and to target projects to at-risk groups with the design of overcoming or minimizing constraints to meeting their nutritional needs. It will also monitor the impacts of development projects and strengthen the capacity of indigenous organizations to analyze and overcome nutrition problems.
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