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The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.
Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
IPPF AND CAIRO PLUS 5. 1998 Aug; (3):1.The 20-year Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 both recognizes the vital role played by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in population and development, and calls for greater and more structured cooperation between these groups. Indeed the language on the role of NGOs and civil society was the strongest to have ever come out of a UN conference and reflects an extraordinary level of participation by NGOs in the conference and its 3-year preparatory process. NGOs will be fully involved in the 5-year review process of the ICPD participating in both the NGO Forum and International Forum in the Hague in February 1999, as well as providing input into the UN Commission on Population and Development in March 1999 and UN General Assembly Special Session in June 1999. (full text)
ZEITSCHRIFT FUR BEVOLKERUNGSWISSENSCHAFT. 1993; 19(3):263-8.Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have long been active in international population studies and programs and have participated in the shift in emphasis from data collection techniques to understanding population dynamics and establishing policies. NGOs are now playing an important role in the preparatory activities for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Indeed, NGOs are the subject of an entire chapter in the final draft document of the ICPD. NGOs have been very instrumental in implementing the plan of action which grew out of the last UN population conference, by working in partnership with local governments as catalysts for change and by channeling a third of the total expenditures for population assistance to appropriate programs. At least 135 international NGOs are currently undertaking important population activities. Foremost among these NGOs are the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the Population Council, and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. NGOs have been extremely involved in the planning process for the ICPD where they have participated in general debate, presented official statements, and enjoyed access to closed-door drafting sessions. The ICPD will synthesize the work of thousands of attendees from NGOs and from national governments. Many controversial items will be discussed and decided upon, as the delegates work to point the way to a better future for mankind.
Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
Tellus. 1984 Jul; 5(2):8-11, 25-8.Since the formulation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in Bucharest in 1974, about 80% of governments have endorsed family planning and fertility control. There has been a growing awareness by governments that population planning must be an integral part of general policy formulation. This article describes the issues of central concern to the 1984 International Population Conference in Mexico, highlighting those which result from new global developments over the past decade. Immigration, particularly by exiles and refugees from political persecution, are contributing much more to population instability than foreseen by the WPPA. Internal migration and massive population shifts from rural to urban areas are of increasing concern to governments in developing nations. In developed countries, there has been an emergence of anxiety over zero population growth. The role of privately sponsored programs for population control is much less prominent, as governments take more responsibility for formulating population policy. A report from a meeting of 90 such nongovernmental organizations held in 1983 was reluctantly accepted as an official document at the conference in Mexico. The Canadian Task Force on Population has identified 5 issues of special concern: status of women, the environment, aging, immigration, and family planning. The Task Force includes among its objectives the encouragement of a comprehensive population policy for Canada, focussing both on Canada's special concerns and on its place in the global community. For example, acid rain and improper soil conservation are threatening Canada's status as one of the few viable "bread baskets" for the world. The growing bulge in the population over age 65 will impose economic strain in the future. Sex education for adolescents in inadequate, with only 1/2 of Canadian schools addressing sex and sexuality in the curriculum.
[Unpublished] 1983 Oct. 4 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Papers E/ECA/POP/8)During the 2nd session in 1981, the Economic and Social Council of the U.N. decided to convene in 1984 an International Conference on Population focusing on questions of highest priority and contributing to and reviewing the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974. Preparatory activities for the Conference had as a principal goal, the preparation of 2 documents which would serve as the basis for its discussions. The 1st document is a review and appraisal of progress made towards achieving the goals and recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action. The 2nd document sets forth specific recommendations for further implementation of the Plan of Action. 4 expert group meetings were held, 1 for each of the demographic issues of the highest priority identified by the Population Commission: 1) economic, social, demographic and political factors related to family and fertility; 2) population distribution and development strategies with reference to rural development, urbanization, and internal and international migration; 3) economic, social, demographic and political factors linked to health and mortality; and 4) interrelationships between population, resources, environment and development. 10-15 experts were invited to each meeting along with other selected inter and nongovernmental organizations concerned with population. In general, expert groups were asked to attach importance to practical implications of each of the topics on their agenda. The Population Division prepared a background report reviewing the theme of each meeting and the Secretariat commissioned a series of papers on specific issues by individual experts. It is thought that the proceedings of the 4 expert group meetings will be published in the future. The Population Division also carried out a survey among governments concerning their appraisal of their country's demographics trends and population policies. Also, the Population Division prepared its 4th biennial report on the monitoring of population trends and projections of populations. Topics included population size, mortality, fertility, urbanization, distribution, internal and international migration, interaction between populations, resources, environment and development and the integration of demographic factors in development planning and policy making. A series of consultations are also being held in other regions to help ensure the substantive contribution of the regional commissions to the Conference.