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  1. 1
    375990

    Private sector: Who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report. Summary of recommendations.

    Independent Accountability Panel for Every Woman, Every Child, Every Adolescent

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 12 p.

    This report presents five recommendations, which are addressed to governments, parliaments, the judiciary, the United Nations (UN) system, the UN Global Compact, the Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) partners, donors, civil society and the private sector itself. Recommendations include: 1) Access to services and the right to health. To achieve universal access to services and protect the health and related rights of women, children and adolescents, governments should regulate private as well as public sector providers. Parliaments should strengthen legislation and ensure oversight for its enforcement. The UHC2030 partnership should drive political leadership at the highest level to address private sector transparency and accountability. 2) The pharmaceutical industry and equitable access to medicines. To ensure equitable, affordable access to quality essential medicines and related health products for all women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should strengthen policies and regulation governing the pharmaceutical industry. 3) The food industry, obesity and NCDs. To tackle rising obesity and NCDs among women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should regulate the food and beverage industry, and adopt a binding global convention. Ministries of education and health should educate students and the public at large about diet and exercise, and set standards in school-based programmes. Related commitments should be included in the next G20 Summit agenda. 4) The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners. The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners should strengthen their monitoring and accountability standards for engagement of the business sector, with an emphasis on women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. They should advocate for accountability of the for-profit sector to be put on the global agenda for achieving UHC and the SDGs, including at the 2019 High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development and the Health Summit. The UN H6 Partnership entities and the GFF should raise accountability standards in the country programmes they support. 5) Donors and business engagement in the SDGs. Development cooperation partners should ensure that transparency and accountability standards aligned with public health are applied throughout their engagement with the for-profit sector. They should invest in national regulatory and oversight capacities, and also regulate private sector actors headquartered in their countries.
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  2. 2
    375989

    Private sector: who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report.

    Independent Accountability Panel for Every Woman, Every Child, Every Adolescent

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 80 p.

    In line with the mandate from the UN Secretary-General, every year the IAP issues a report that provides an independent snapshot of progress on delivering promises to the world’s women, children and adolescents for their health and well-being. Recommendations are included on ways to help fast-track action to achieve the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health 2016-2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals - from the specific lens of accountability, of who is responsible for delivering on promises, to whom, and how. The theme of the IAP’s 2018 report is accountability of the private sector. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will not be achieved without the active and meaningful involvement of the private sector. Can the private sector be held accountable for protecting women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health? And if so, who is responsible for holding them to account, and what are the mechanisms for doing so? This report looks at three key areas of private sector engagement: health service delivery the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines the food industry and its significant influence on health and nutrition, with a focus NCDs and rising obesity.
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  3. 3
    394406
    Peer Reviewed

    A New World Health Era.

    Pablos-Mendez A; Raviglione MC

    Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Mar 21; 6(1):8-16.

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  4. 4
    337665

    A practical guide for engaging with mobile network operators in mHealth for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; United Nations Foundation

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015. [36] p.

    The field of mobile health (mHealth) is experiencing a real need for guidance on public-private partnerships among players as diverse as the mobile industry, technology vendors, government stakeholders and mHealth service providers. This guide provides a practical resource for mHealth service providers (e.g. developers and implementers) to partner more strategically with one of these critical players -- the mobile network operators (MNOs). Despite the growing literature on how to develop partnerships, there is a lack of clear, practical strategies for the health community to engage with MNOs to better scale up mHealth services. This document distils best practices and industry-wide lessons by providing key motivators, challenges and recommendations for mHealth service providers to engage with MNOs for scaling up their initiatives. (Excerpts)
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  5. 5
    350467
    Peer Reviewed

    Virological failure and HIV type 1 drug resistance profiles among patients followed-up in private sector, Douala, Cameroon.

    Charpentier C; Talla F; Nguepi E; Si-Mohamed A; Belec L

    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2011 Feb; 27(2):221-30.

    The rate of virological failure was assessed in 819 patients followed up by the private sector of Douala, the economic capital of Cameroon, and treated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. In addition, genotypic resistance testing was carried out in the subgroup of 75 selected patients representative of the 254 patients in virological and/or immunological failure receiving a first-line (83%) or second-line (17%) regimen. Overall, 36% of patients treated by antiretroviral drugs (ARV) were in virological failure, as assessed by plasma viral load above 3.7 log(10) copies/ml under treatment for more than 6 months. According to the immunological status, 17% of patients showed a CD4 T cell count under 200 cells/mm(3) and 37% under 350 cells/mm(3), indicating either ongoing immunorestoration or immunological failure under treatment. Twenty percent of patients in virological failure showed wild-type viruses susceptible to all ARV, likely indicating poor adherence. However, 80% of them displayed plasma virus resistant at least to one ARV drug, mostly to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) class (80%), followed by the non-NRTI class (76%) and the protease inhibitor class (19%), thus reflecting the therapeutic usage of ARV drugs in Cameroon as recommended by the WHO. Whereas the second-line regimen proposed by the 2009 WHO recommendations could be effective in more than 75% of patients in virological failure with resistant viruses, the remaining patients showed a resistance genotypic profile highly predictive of resistance to the usual WHO second-line regimen, including in some patients complex genotypic profiles diagnosed only by genotypic resistance tests. In conclusion, our observations highlight the absolute need for improving viral load assessment in resource-limited settings to prevent and/or monitor therapeutic failure.
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  6. 6
    345013

    Essential medicines for mothers and children: a key element of health systems. Access to medicines and public pharmaceutical policy.

    Joncheere K

    Entre Nous. 2009; (68):14-15.

    Medicines, when used appropriately, are one of the most cost effective interventions in health care. European countries spend an important part of their health budget on medicines, from 12% on average for the EU countries to more than 30% for the Newly Independent States (NIS) countries. Whereas in EU countries the larger part of the medicines expenditures are publicly funded through taxes and/or social health insurance, in the NIS and in the south eastern European countries it is often the patients who have to pay directly for the drugs themselves. This means that many patients simply do not get the drugs they need because they cannot afford them, and also may force families to incur enormous expenses as they sell their belongings in order to pay for their drugs and their health care.
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  7. 7
    328215

    Repositioning family planning: Guidelines for advocacy action. Le repositionnement de la planification familiale: Directives pour actions de plaidoyer.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa; Population Reference Bureau [PRB]. Bringing Information to Decisionmakers for Global Effectiveness [BRIDGE]; Academy for Educational Development [AED]. Africa's Health in 2010

    Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], 2008. 64 p.

    Countries throughout Africa are engaged in an important initiative to reposition family planning as a priority on their national and local agendas. Provision of family planning services in Africa is hindered by poverty, poor access to services and commodities, conflicts, poor coordination of the programmes, and dwindling donor funding. Although family planning enhances efforts to improve health and accelerate development, shifting international priorities, health sector reform, the HIV/AIDS crisis, and other factors have affected its importance in recent years. Traditional beliefs favouring high fertility, religious barriers, and lack of male involvement have weakened family planning interventions. The combination of these factors has led to low contraceptive use, high fertility rates in many countries, and high unmet needs for family planning throughout the region. Family planning advocates must take action to change this situation. Family planning, considered an essential component of primary health care and reproductive health, plays a major role in reducing maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality and transmission of HIV. It contributes to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the targets of the Health-for-All Policy for the 21st century in the Africa Region: Agenda 2020. In recognition of its importance, the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa developed a framework (2005-014) for accelerated action to reposition family planning on national agendas and in reproductive health services, which was adopted by African ministers of health in 2004. The framework calls for increase in efforts to advocate for recognition of "the pivotal role of family planning" in achieving health and development objectives at all levels. This toolkit aims to help those working in family planning across Africa to effectively advocate for renewed emphasis on family planning to enhance the visibility, availability, and quality of family planning services for increased contraceptive use and healthy timing and spacing of births, and ultimately, improved quality of life across the region. It was developed in response to requests from several countries to assist them in accelerating their family planning advocacy efforts.
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  8. 8
    326315

    Public-private partnerships: Managing contracting arrangements to strengthen the Reproductive and Child Health Programme in India. Lessons and implications from three case studies.

    Bhat R; Huntington D; Maheshwari S

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007. [30] p.

    Strengthening management capacity and meeting the need for reproductive and child health (RCH) services is a major challenge for the national RCH program of India. Central and state governments are using multiple options to meet this challenge, responding to the complex issues in RCH, which include social, cultural and economic factors and reflect the immense geographical barriers to access for remote and rural population. Other barriers are also being addressed, including lessening financial burdens and creating public-private partnerships to expand access. For example, the National Rural Health Mission was initiated in order to focus on rural populations, although departments of health face a number of challenges in implementing this initiative. In this document, we focus on a key area: the development of management capacity for working with the private sector. We synthesize the lessons learnt from three case studies of public-private partnerships in RCH: two are state initiatives, in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, and the third is the national mother nongovernmental organization scheme. The case studies were conducted to determine how management capacity was developed in these three public-private partnerships in service delivery, by examining the structure and process of partnerships, understanding management capacity and competence in various public-private partnerships in RCH, and identifying the means for developing the management capacity of partners. (author's)
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  9. 9
    323734

    Public policy and franchising reproductive health: current evidence and future directions. Guidance from a technical consultation meeting.

    Huntington D; Sulzbach S; O'Hanlon B

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2007. [30] p.

    To assist policymakers and researchers to take advantage of lessons learned in the area of private-provider networks, particularly franchises, and to explore the types of policy options available to facilitate a greater role for the private sector, the World Health Organization's Department of Reproductive Health and Research, in collaboration with the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Private Sector Partnerships-One project, convened a technical consultation from 7 to 9 December, 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland. The meeting, entitled "Public Policy and Franchising Reproductive Health: current evidence and future directions", brought together experts in private-provider networks and franchises as well as in public policy. The consultation: reviewed the evidence to date on the performance and impact of health networks and franchises in low- and middle-income countries; explored public policy options that can facilitate and support the delivery of reproductive health through private-provider networks and health franchises in low- and middle-income countries. This Guidance Note is based on the proceedings of the meeting and offers policymakers and researchers the latest evidence on private-provider networks and franchises, lessons learned in the field, and policy recommendations on how to mobilize private-provider networks and health franchises to help address reproductive health care needs in developing countries. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    322277

    Vendor-to-vendor education to improve malaria treatment by drug outlets in Kenya.

    Tavrow P; Shabahang J; Makama S

    Bethesda, Maryland, Center for Human Services, Quality Assurance Project, 2002 Feb. 16 p. (Operations Research Results; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-96-90013)

    Private drug outlets have grown increasingly important as the main source of malaria treatment for residents of malaria endemic areas. Unfortunately, the quality of information and the quantity and quality of drugs provided is often deficient. The World Health Organization has included the private sector in its Roll Back Malaria strategy, but has noted that it is notoriously difficult to change private sector practices without burdening the governments of developing countries. In the Bungoma district of Kenya, the Quality Assurance Project (USA) teamed up with the Bungoma District Health Management Team and African Medical and Research Foundation to test an innovative, low-cost approach for improving the prescribing practices of private drug outlets. The intervention, called Vendor-to-Vendor Education, involved training and equipping wholesale counter attendants and mobile vendors with customized job aids for distribution to small rural and peri-urban retailers. The job aids consisted of: (a) a shopkeeper poster that described the new malaria guidelines, provided a treatment schedule, and gave advice on the appropriate actions to take in various scenarios; and (b) a client poster that depicted the five approved malaria drugs and advised clients to ask for them. The training of wholesalers began in April 2000. (author's)
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  11. 11
    320191
    Peer Reviewed

    Involvement of IMA in tuberculosis control.

    Chugh S

    Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 2007 Apr; 105(4):198, 212.

    Tuberculosis has been declared to be a global emergency and the HIV/AIDS is fuelling the epidemic. To contain the disease for its re-emergence a massive funding was earmarked. Widespread implementation of the DOTS strategy specially in countries of high TB burden is a major progress in global TB control. As a sizeable section of TB patients contact a private health provider, so the policy makers of health envisaged the idea for Public-Private Partnership mix model to contain the disease and hence the role of IMA with its two lacs members has definite role to play to stop the menace. The Stop TB strategy is designed to achieve the targets set for the period 2006-2015. Members of IMA have got a life time chance to prove to the people and to the power that they are not lagging behind in providing a service to the nation and there lies the strength of the IMA. (author's)
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  12. 12
    319047
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluating the potential impact of the new Global Plan to Stop TB: Thailand, 2004 -- 2005.

    Varma JK; Wiriyakitjar D; Nateniyom S; Anuwatnonthakate A; Monkongdee P

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Aug; 85(8):586-592.

    WHO's new Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 advises countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) to expand case-finding in the private sector as well as services for patients with HIV and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The objective of this study was to evaluate these strategies in Thailand using data from the Thailand TB Active Surveillance Network, a demonstration project begun in 2004. In October 2004, we began contacting public and private health-care facilities monthly to record data about people diagnosed with TB, assist with patient care, provide HIV counselling and testing, and obtain sputum samples for culture and susceptibility testing. The catchment area included 3.6 million people in four provinces. We compared results from October 2004-September 2005 (referred to as 2005) to baseline data from October 2002-September 2003 (referred to as 2003). In 2005, we ascertained 5841 TB cases (164/100 000), including 2320 new smear-positive cases (65/100 000). Compared with routine passive surveillance in 2003, active surveillance increased reporting of all TB cases by 19% and of new smear-positive cases by 13%. Private facilities diagnosed 634 (11%) of all TB cases. In 2005, 1392 (24%) cases were known to be HIV positive. The proportion of cases with an unknown HIV status decreased from 66% (3226/4904) in 2003 to 23% (1329/5841) in 2005 (P< 0.01). Of 4656 pulmonary cases, mycobacterial culture was performed in 3024 (65%) and MDR-TB diagnosed in 60 (1%). In Thailand, piloting the new WHO strategy increased case-finding and collaboration with the private sector, and improved HIV services for TB patients and the diagnosis of MDR-TB. Further analysis of treatment outcomes and costs is needed to assess this programme's impact and cost effectiveness. (author's)
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  13. 13
    318282

    Public-private mix for TB care and control. Focus on Africa. Report of the fourth meeting of the Subgroup on Public-Private Mix for TB Care and Control, 12-14 September 2006, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Sheikh K; Lal SS; Lonnroth K; Uplekar M; Yesudian HM

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Stop TB Department, 2007. 27 p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2007.378)

    The Subgroup on Public-Private Mix for DOTS Expansion (PPM Subgroup) was established by the global Stop TB Partnership's DOTS Expansion Working Group (DEWG) to help promote and facilitate active engagement of all relevant public and private health care providers in TB control. The members of the Subgroup include representatives from the private sector, academia, country TB programme managers, policy-makers, field experts working on the issue, international technical partners and donor agencies. At the first meeting of the Subgroup in November 2002, generic regional and national Public-Private Mix (PPM) strategies were developed and endorsed. The Subgroup's second meeting, which was held at the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia in New Delhi in February 2004, reviewed the growing evidence base emerging from numerous PPM initiatives. This meeting also broadened the scope of PPM to include the involvement of public sector providers not yet linked to national tuberculosis programmes (NTPs). Consequently, PPM has since stood for the engagement of all public and private health care providers through public-private, public-public and private-private collaboration in TB control. The third meeting of the Subgroup, held in Manila in April 2005, identified barriers and enablers for scaling up and sustaining PPM, and discussed how to mainstream PPM into regular TB control planning and implementation. The Subgroup's current fourth meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, in September 2006 had PPM for TB control in Africa as the main focus. The problems related to the HIV epidemic, human resources for health and health sector reforms pose special challenges to countries in Africa. The meeting examined how successful PPM approaches within Africa could be scaled up and how approaches applied in other regions could be adapted to African settings. Based on a global overview, the African experience in diverse country settings and field visits to examine working PPM models and after a great deal of deliberations and discussions, the Subgroup made recommendations which are presented in Section 6 of the report. A large part of the funding for the meeting was provided by USAID's Tuberculosis Control Assistance Program (TB CAP). (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    312461

    Engaging all health care providers in TB control. Guidance on implementing public-private mix approaches.

    Uplekar M; Lonnroth K

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Stop TB Department, 2006. 52 p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2006.360)

    A great deal of progress has been made in global tuberculosis control in recent years through the large-scale implementation of DOTS. It has been acknowledged though that TB control efforts worldwide, although impressive, are not sufficient. The global TB targets -- detecting 70% of TB cases and successfully treating 85% of them, and halving the prevalence and mortality of the disease by 2015 as part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) -- are likely to be met only if current efforts are intensified. Among the important interventions required to reach these goals would be a systematic involvement of all relevant health care providers in delivering effective TB services to all segments of the population. Therefore, engaging all health care providers in TB control is an essential component of WHO's new Stop TB strategy¹ and the Stop TB Partnership's Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    311458

    Voluntary counseling and testing: operational guidelines, 2004.

    India. National AIDS Control Organization [NACO]

    [New Delhi], India, NACO, 2004. [84] p.

    Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is the process by which an individual undergoes confidential counseling to learn about his/her HIV status and to exercise informed choices in testing for HIV followed by further appropriate action. A key underlying principle of the VCT intervention is the voluntary participation. HIV counseling and testing are initiated by the client's free will. Counseling in VCT consists of pre-test and post-test counseling. During pre-test counseling, the counselor provides to the individual / couple an opportunity to explore and analyze their situation, and consider being tested for HIV. It facilitates more informed decisions about HIV testing. After the individual / couple has received accurate and complete information they reach an understanding about all that is involved. In the event that, after counseling, the individual decides to take the HIV test, VCT enables confidential HIV testing. Counseling is client-centered. This promotes trust between the counselor and the client. The client is helped to identify and understand the implications of a negative or a positive result. They are helped to think through the practical strategies for coping with the results of the HIV test. Post-test counseling further reinforces the understanding of all implications of a test result. Counseling also helps clients to decide who they should share the HIV test result with, and how to approach that aspect. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    301999

    Tuberculosis care and control [editorial]

    Hopewell PC; Migliori GB; Raviglione MC

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Jun; 84(6):428.

    Tuberculosis care, a clinical function consisting of diagnosis and treatment of persons with the disease, is the core of tuberculosis control, which is a public health function comprising preventive interventions, monitoring and surveillance, as well as incorporating diagnosis and treatment. Thus, for tuberculosis control to be successful in protecting the health of the public, tuberculosis care must be effective in preserving the health of individuals. There are three broad mechanisms through which tuberculosis care is delivered: public sector tuberculosis control programmes, private sector practitioners having formal links to public sector programmes (the public--private mix), and private providers having no connection with formal activities. In most countries, programmes in both the public sector and the public--private mix are guided by international and national recommendations based on the DOTS tuberculosis control strategy -- a systematic approach to diagnosis, standardized treatment regimens, regular review of outcomes, assessment of effectiveness and modification of approaches when problems are identified. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    299642
    Peer Reviewed

    A human rights approach to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.

    Seuba X

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 May; 84(5):405-411.

    Since the first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was adopted in 1977, it has become a popular tool among health professionals and Member States. WHO's joint effort with the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has resulted in the inclusion of access to essential medicines in the core content of the right to health. The Committee states that the right to health contains a series of elements, such as availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of health goods, services and programmes, which are in line with the WHO statement that essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of health systems in adequate amounts at all times, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and information, and at a price that the individual and the community can afford. The author considers another perspective by looking at the obligations to respect, protect and fulfil the right to health undertaken by the states adhering to the International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and explores the relationship between access to medicines, the protection of intellectual property, and human rights. (author's)
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  18. 18
    299615

    Public health, innovation and intellectual property rights: unfinished business [editorial]

    Turmen T; Clift C

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 May; 84(5):338.

    The context for this theme collection is the publication of the report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health. The report of the Commission -- instigated by WHO's World Health Assembly in 2003 -- was an attempt to gather all the stakeholders involved to analyse the relationship between intellectual property rights, innovation and public health, with a particular focus on the question of funding and incentive mechanisms for the creation of new medicines, vaccines and diagnostic tests, to tackle diseases disproportionately affecting developing countries. In reality, generating a common analysis in the face of the divergent perspectives of stakeholders, and indeed of the Commission, presented a challenge. As in many fields -- not least in public health -- the evidence base is insufficient and contested. Even when the evidence is reasonably clear, its significance, or the appropriate conclusions to be drawn from it, may be interpreted very differently according to the viewpoint of the observer. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    299619
    Peer Reviewed

    Acess to AIDS medicines stumbles on trade rules.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 May; 84(5):337-424.

    Developing countries are failing to make full use of flexibilities built into the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) to overcome patent barriers and, in turn, allow them to acquire the medicines they need for high priority diseases, in particular, HIV/AIDS. First-line antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV/AIDS have become more affordable and available in recent years, but for patients facing drug resistance and side-effects, second-line ARV drugs and other newer formulations are likely to remain prohibitively expensive and inaccessible in many countries. The problem is that many of these countries are not using all the tools at their disposal to overcome these barriers. Medicines protected by patents tend to be expensive, as pharmaceutical companies try to recoup their research and development (R&D) costs. When there is generic competition prices can be driven down dramatically. The TRIPS Agreement came into effect on 1 January 1995 setting out minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, including patents on pharmaceuticals. Under that agreement, since 2005 new drugs may be subject to at least 20 years of patent protection in all, apart from in the least-developed countries and a few non-WTO Members, such as Somalia. Successful AIDS programmes, such as those in Brazil and Thailand, have only been possible because key pharmaceuticals were not patent protected and could be produced locally at much lower cost. For example, when the Brazilian Government began producing generic AIDS drugs in 2000, prices dropped. AIDS triple-combination therapy, which costs US$ 10 000 per patient per year in industrialized countries, can now be obtained from Indian generic drugs company, Cipla, for less than US$ 200 per year. This puts ARV treatment within reach of many more people. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    299623
    Peer Reviewed

    Essential medicines and human rights: what can they learn from each other?

    Hogerzeil HV

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 May; 84(5):371-375.

    Most countries have acceded to at least one global or regional covenant or treaty confirming the right to health. After years of international discussions on human rights, many governments are now moving towards practical implementation of their commitments. A practical example may be of help to those governments who aim to translate their international treaty obligations into practice. WHO's Essential Medicines Programme is an example of how this transition from legal principles to practical implementation may be achieved. This programme has been consistent with human rights principles since its inception in the early 1980s, through its focus on equitable access to essential medicines. This paper provides a brief overview of what the international human rights instruments mention about access to essential medicines, and proposes five assessment questions and practical recommendations for governments. These recommendations cover the selection of essential medicines, participation in programme development, mechanisms for transparency and accountability, equitable access by vulnerable groups, and redress mechanisms. (author's)
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  21. 21
    292494
    Peer Reviewed

    WHO official warns of crisis in supply of low cost AIDS drugs.

    Zarocostas J

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Nov 12; 331(7525):1104.

    By 2010, poor developing countries will continue to suffer from a shortfall in supplies of low cost antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for patients with HIV/AIDS unless rational measures are taken quickly, a top World Health Organization official has warned. “We’re going to reach a crisis in terms of supply very very soon . . . of [antiretrovirals] throughout the developing world because the scale-up is happening very very quickly,” Dr Jim Yong Kim, WHO’s outgoing director for HIV/AIDS, told the BMJ. The issue now for the public health world, he said, in the aftermath of the recent summit of the G8 (the world’s most industrialised countries) in Scotland, was that a potential eight to 10 million people will need treatment. In July, the leaders of the G8 agreed at the Gleneagles summit “to provide as close as possible to universal treatment for AIDS by 2010.” (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    282828

    The use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests.

    Bell D

    Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2004. 19 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADC-611)

    Misdiagnosis of malaria results in significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid, accurate and accessible detection of malaria parasites has an important role in addressing this, and in promoting more rational use of increasingly costly drugs, in many endemic areas. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer the potential to provide accurate diagnosis to all at risk populations for the first time, reaching those unable to access good quality microscopy services. The success of RDTs in malaria control will depend on good quality planning and implementation. This booklet is designed to assist those involved in malaria management in this task. While this new diagnostic tool is finding its place in management of this major global disease, there is a window of opportunity in which good practices can be established by health services and become the norm. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    274801

    Investing in a comprehensive health sector response to HIV / AIDS. Scaling up treatment and accelerating prevention. WHO HIV / AIDS plan, January 2004 - December 2005.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 72 p.

    This document discusses the context for the work being undertaken in WHO’s HIV/AIDS programme. It analyses the epidemiological situation and includes the most recent estimates of antiretroviral coverage, the global strategic framework and current challenges to translating this into results at the country level (Section 1 – Background). Section 2 describes the comparative advantages offered by WHO, the functional areas of activity within the HIV/AIDS area of work for 2004–2005 and the specific focus of the programme on scaling up antiretroviral therapy and accelerating HIV prevention. Section 3 describes how WHO is structured and how resources and capacity are being reoriented to support country-level action. Section 4 illustrates how WHO works within the United Nations system and with other partners. Section 5 outlines the resources required in 2004–2005 for WHO to accomplish its stated contribution to HIV/AIDS. Section 6 describes the mechanisms for technical and managerial oversight of the HIV/AIDS programme. The WHO HIV/AIDS Plan is not a detailed work plan. Rather, it provides an overall framework to guide the departments responsible for HIV/AIDS in preparing such work plans at the country, regional and headquarters levels of WHO. These work plans are now being developed and will define the specific tasks and activities required to bring the WHO HIV/AIDS Plan to fruition, together with timelines and resource requirements. Joint planning sessions between headquarters, regional and country offices integrate the work of the three levels to ensure that all priority needs are addressed and that gaps in resources are identified. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    191835
    Peer Reviewed

    Status report of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme: January 2003.

    Granich R; Chauhan LS

    Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 2003 Mar; 101(3):150-151.

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem in spite of DOTS programme recommended by WHO. One person dies from TB in India every minute. Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) is playing a major role in global DOTS expansion. DOTS coverage has expanded from 2% of the population in mid-1998 to 57% by the end of January, 2003. RNTCP has made a significant contribution to public health capacity. The programme has saved the people of India hundreds of millions of dollars. Monitoring the clinical course using smear microscopy and accurately reporting treatment outcomes is essential in well-functioning DOTS programme. RNTCP has invested heavily and made significant strides in maintaining and improving quality DOTS. State and district level programme reviews are a key component of the process. RNTCP has established guidelines for the involvement of the private sector and medical colleges. A member by ongoing technical activities will improve RNTCP’s surveillance and monitoring systems. However a challenge lies with the programme and a collective effort is welcome. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    173581
    Peer Reviewed

    Private doctors must improve their treatment of tuberculosis, says WHO.

    Brown P

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2002 Dec 7; 325(7376):1320.

    Global targets for the control of tuberculosis will not be met unless the public sector can engage the growing army of private doctors who now treat patients with tuberculosis and improve these doctors' management of the disease. This is one key conclusion of a working group at the World Health Organization (WHO). The group is calling for increased resources and urgent action to build partnerships between private and public sectors in countries where the tuberculosis burden is high, including India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. (excerpt)
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