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Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2004. 19 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADC-611)Misdiagnosis of malaria results in significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid, accurate and accessible detection of malaria parasites has an important role in addressing this, and in promoting more rational use of increasingly costly drugs, in many endemic areas. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) offer the potential to provide accurate diagnosis to all at risk populations for the first time, reaching those unable to access good quality microscopy services. The success of RDTs in malaria control will depend on good quality planning and implementation. This booklet is designed to assist those involved in malaria management in this task. While this new diagnostic tool is finding its place in management of this major global disease, there is a window of opportunity in which good practices can be established by health services and become the norm. (excerpt)
In: Djerassi C. The politics of contraception. New York, Norton, 1979. 215-25.Future strategies in the development of contraceptives should depend upon the time frame of goals developed. In the next 5 years it will be possible only to improve upon the existing armamentum of contraceptives. In a 10 to 20 year period, it will be possible to develop many new contraceptive methods if the public will influence government to enact appropriate policies. Most importantly, these include the earmarking of expanded funds for contraceptive research, and providing a freer hand to the pharmaceutical companies to experiment and develop methods. At present an adversary relationship exists between the government in the FDA and industry. Unless industry is given wider incentives and fewer restrictions, new drugs will not likely to borthcoming. The reality of the situation is that no new medications or contraceptive methods will be developed without the paticipation of private industry, which now feels the restrictions and financial risks to be too great to go into such a venture. The World Health Organization can help the process by approving new drugs for use more widely, even when restrictions are kept within the United States. Misguided consumer advocates harm matters when they manipulate the press and public to look for black and white answers to the problems of contraception. There are no clear cut answers, and difficult choices must be made by all of us.
In: Diczfalusy E, Diczfalusy A, ed. Research on the regulation of human fertility: needs of developing countries and priorities for the future, Vol. 2. Background documents. Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1983. 901-10.The role of governments in research on fertility regulation is to support, finance, coordinate, legislate and take regulatory action necessary to assure the development of new and improved contraceptive technologies. The major advances in contraceptive technology in the 1940s and 1950s were made possible by funding support from industry and private foundations. In the late 1960s government funding, particularly in the US, assumed an increasingly important role. During this same time, 2 UN organizations were formed in addition to several nonprofit institutions whose purpose was to promote research on fertility regulation for developing countries. Worldwide funding for research and training in human reproduction peaked in 1972-1973 at around US 100 million with 20-25% allocated for research on fertility regulation. The level of funding has since declined, most markedly the contribution from private industry. The funding needs for research on human reproduction, including fertility regulation, are in excess of present levels. Funding requirements may be 3-7 times higher than current levels. The prospects for future funding are not optimistic. However, it is hoped that the increased informational focus on parliamentarians and the 1984 World Population Conference will contribute to a reversal of this current trend in decreasing funding levels. The increased emphasis on safety and efficacy of new drugs and devices has lengthened the time between the development of a product and the approval for marketing. The 6 to 8 years between the granting of a patent to the marketing of a product has decreased active patent life. This, together with problems of product liability, has contributed to the declined in industrial investment in research and development on fertility regulating agents. The need for a global institution to establish standards for new contraceptive products is advocated, and WHO should be responsible. Patent laws should be eased. (author's modified)