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  1. 1
    319047
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluating the potential impact of the new Global Plan to Stop TB: Thailand, 2004 -- 2005.

    Varma JK; Wiriyakitjar D; Nateniyom S; Anuwatnonthakate A; Monkongdee P

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Aug; 85(8):586-592.

    WHO's new Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 advises countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) to expand case-finding in the private sector as well as services for patients with HIV and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The objective of this study was to evaluate these strategies in Thailand using data from the Thailand TB Active Surveillance Network, a demonstration project begun in 2004. In October 2004, we began contacting public and private health-care facilities monthly to record data about people diagnosed with TB, assist with patient care, provide HIV counselling and testing, and obtain sputum samples for culture and susceptibility testing. The catchment area included 3.6 million people in four provinces. We compared results from October 2004-September 2005 (referred to as 2005) to baseline data from October 2002-September 2003 (referred to as 2003). In 2005, we ascertained 5841 TB cases (164/100 000), including 2320 new smear-positive cases (65/100 000). Compared with routine passive surveillance in 2003, active surveillance increased reporting of all TB cases by 19% and of new smear-positive cases by 13%. Private facilities diagnosed 634 (11%) of all TB cases. In 2005, 1392 (24%) cases were known to be HIV positive. The proportion of cases with an unknown HIV status decreased from 66% (3226/4904) in 2003 to 23% (1329/5841) in 2005 (P< 0.01). Of 4656 pulmonary cases, mycobacterial culture was performed in 3024 (65%) and MDR-TB diagnosed in 60 (1%). In Thailand, piloting the new WHO strategy increased case-finding and collaboration with the private sector, and improved HIV services for TB patients and the diagnosis of MDR-TB. Further analysis of treatment outcomes and costs is needed to assess this programme's impact and cost effectiveness. (author's)
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  2. 2
    297212

    Close your eyes to the HIV problem today and tomorrow you'll be living in a country of old people and won't have a partner to play chess with.

    Connections. 2005 Jan; [2] p..

    What is the best way to tackle the HIV/AIDS problem in Russia when the scale of this infection's spread has passed all the bounds? What can be done when the efforts of numerous HIV-service organizations and domestic and international NGOs to implement short-term educational programs and information campaigns are not effective enough to appeal to the common sense of both those who are at risk and those who have the power to stop the virus from spreading further? Do the people of this country have eyes and, if so, what does their future look like when some 80 percent of the estimated 1.5 million HIV-positive Russians are under the age of 30 . . . when only 3,000 out of the 50,000 who are in dire need of treatment have access to it? Will this country still be a strong power if one million young people die from AIDS by 2008, as forecasted by Vadim Pokrovsky, head of the Federal AIDS Center, unless appropriate steps are done by the government to prevent it? (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    283981

    Condom social marketing: selected case studies.

    Fox MP

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2000 Nov. 49 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection Key Material; UNAIDS/00.37E)

    Condom Social Marketing: Selected Case Studies presents six applications of different social marketing techniques drawn from among on-going projects in developing countries in the field of reproductive health and prevention of HIV/AIDS and STDs. Individually they illustrate different, real- life approaches to condom promotion through social marketing in response to particular challenges and needs. All describe activities from which significant lessons may be learned. In addition, they demonstrate the flexibility of social marketing and how the technique can be adapted to deal with differing situations and constraints. The booklet is intended mainly for distribution to individuals and organizations, from both the public and private sectors, who are interested in learning more about social marketing, and how its concepts and techniques can be applied in response to the spread of HIV/AIDS and STDs, particularly in developing countries. It is also intended to provide basic information, as an aid to training, programme planning and related activities. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    061007

    The position of women and changing multilateral policies.

    Joekes S

    Development. 1989; (4):77-82.

    Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
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  5. 5
    046584

    Social marketing.

    Munroe HW

    [Unpublished] 1987. 55, [8] p.

    Marketing is a branch of economics which includes the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of promotional programs designed to encourage a target population to accept an organization's product or service. Social marketing (SM) is the application of marketing technics to alter the behavior of a target population toward the acceptance of a social project. Early efforts in social marketing involved public service or "social" advertising via mass media; and early projects were directed toward family planning, health and nutrition in developing countries. Several lessons were learned from these early projects: 1) Persuasive technics must be geared to the specific project; 2) Pilot projects should be limited in scope; 3) Target populations are variable and must be precisely defined; 4) Constant feedback is essential; 5) In developing countries mass media campaigns must be directed, not only at the end-user population, but also at the intermediary government officials, health workers, teachers, and food distributors; 6) Maximum use must be made of the small amount of media time available; 7) In poor, underdeveloped countries persuasion technics must take account of cultural and psychological barriers to behavior modification; 8) Social marketing is not competitive in the commercial sense; 9) Careful market research must be done in order to avoid mistakes due to failure to understand cultural barriers; 10) Health education efforts must address the whole health environment, not merely one aspect of it because the different aspects are interrelated, e.g., the relation of food hygiene to the cleanliness of the water supply; 11) Social marketing cannot overcome basic economic and political barriers to the reception of a new project. Some recent examples of social marketing include the experience of SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change), a private voluntary organization which worked with the Indonesian government to distribute condoms; HEALTHCOM, which worked with oral rehydration therapy in 8 countries; the Johns Hopkins Population Communication Services, which used popular music to "sell" chastity to young people in Latin America; and China's "one child" program. The present project involves a cooperative effort among the General Foods Corporation, the International Chamber of Commerce, the International Advertising Association, the Industry Council for Development, and the World Health Organization Consultation of Health Education in Food Safety. This project will test the adaptability of commercial food marketing technics for use with a target population which buys different foods, largely unpackaged and unlabelled. The effort must be coordinated with local health workers and will involve training of local food handlers and technicians and the use of some give-away item such as a calendar to serve as a reminder and hold the attention of the target population. Similar cooperative ventures, involving pharmaceutical firms, local organizations, local governments, and the World Health organization have shown the effectiveness of social marketing in reaching target populations in developing countries.
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