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Guide to the implementation of the World Programme of Action for Youth. Recommendations and ideas for concrete action for policies and programmes that address the everyday realities and challenges of youth.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2006.  p. (ST/ESA/309)The following key policy messages form the foundation of the recommendations contained in this Guide: Recognize, address and respond to youth as a distinct but heterogeneous population group, with particular needs and capacities which stem from their formative age; Build the capabilities and expand the choices of young people by enhancing their access to and participation in all dimensions of society; Catalyze investment in youth so that they consistently have the proper resources, information and opportunities to realize their full potential; Change the public support available to youth from ad-hoc or last-minute to consistent and mainstreamed; Promote partnerships, cooperation and the strengthening of institutional capacity that contribute to more solid investments in youth; Support the goal of promoting youth themselves as valuable assets and effective partners; Include young people and their representative associations at all stages of the policy development and implementation process; and Transform the public perception of young people from neglect to priority, from a problem to a resource, and from suspicion to trust. (excerpt)
Action now toward more responsible parenthood worldwide. (Proceedings of the Tokyo International Symposium, Tokyo, April 4-7, 1977).
Tokyo, Japan, Japan Science Society, 1977. 578 p.The Tokyo International Symposium reviewed the progress made since 1974 in integrating population policies with socioeconomic development, with additional focus on needs of rural areas. It was discovered that even countries experiencing economic growth have still failed to provide basic human needs - health, nutrition, housing, education, and employment - and that in densely populated rural areas, and marginal districts of cities, fertility decline has been slow or nonexistant. New evidence presented at the symposium suggested that now a new stage of population history is approaching, characterized by falling birth rates and slackening of world population growth; nevertheless, rapid population growth in developing countries has not ended because 1) of the high proportion of young people in many countries and 2) the fertility rates of the poorest half of the population are 50% higher than the national averages. While projections of world population are being revised downward, world population is still likely to grow from its present 4 billion to 6 billion by the turn of the century. All agencies, official or private, need to emphasize development of cost-effective methods which the government may adopt after a successful pilot study that take into account the social values, religious beliefs, and customs in each country. The symposium urges that additional resources be made available for a broad range of new initiatives in the following areas: 1) to make the fullest range of family planning services available in rural areas and marginal districts of cities; 2) to expand the social and economic roles of women and to improve their status in other fields; 3) to educate adolescents and young adults about their reproductive behavior and to underscore the impact that premature parenthood would have on themselves, their families, and communities; 4) to integrate family planning with development activities; and 5) to encourage program design by affected populations.
HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL. 1998; 13(3):183-5.Engaging private sector business in partnerships to promote health is one of the most important challenges for all who are concerned with improving health in the 21st century. The Jakarta Declaration is a major step toward realizing that goal. The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum is an international organization formed by 50 multinational companies from Europe, America, the Middle East, and Asia to promote the active involvement of businesses in country and community development. Member companies include many of the leading investors in emerging markets, employ approximately 25 million people directly and indirectly through their supply chains, and operate in every country and territory in the world. The Forum works through national and international partnerships in more than 30 countries around the world, and also brings together the major global hotel chains with 10% of the world's hotel rooms in the International Hotels Environment Initiative global alliance. This paper discusses why concern should be had over private sector involvement, why businesses want to be involved, what business can bring to the partnership, and the conditions for effective partnerships.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . , 16 p. (Programme Advisory Note)This report explains that a comprehensive strategy is needed to meet the reproductive health needs of young people and to facilitate their participation in development. Out of a world population of 5.3 billion people, 1.5 billion are between the ages of 10 and 24 years. 82% of these young people live in developing countries. And with the total fertility of developing countries at 4.0, the number of young people will continue to increase. Developing countries already face enormous problems in providing education and employment to these young people. The report identifies the issues that are involved in youth, population, and development, such as reproductive health information, family planning services, population distribution and urban migration, and sustainable development. The report also provides examples of UNFPA-funded youth projects. A program in Thailand, for example, aims to raise contraceptive awareness among adolescents in school. The outcome of these projects indicates the need fora comprehensive strategy that takes into account the following: 1) developing and implementing youth policies, plans, and programs; 2) carefully targeting IEC activities to specific audiences; 3) strengthening maternal and child health/family planning services for young people, including unmarried youth; 4) improving the status of young women; 5) increasing the involvement of men in family matters, especially family planning; 6) complementing other development activities that have wide-range impact; and 7) using nongovernmental organizations to help empower young people.
POPULATION. 1992 Feb; 18(2):3.In 1991, an UNFPA Programme Review and Strategy Development mission went to Egypt and noted that the government's population and development goals for 1988-92 had been realized. Between 1988-91, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 37.6 to 47.6% and infant mortality fell from 54 to 50. Data indicated that maternal mortality was also declining. The crude birth rate fell from 39.8 to 32.2 (1985-90) which slowed growth from 2.8 to 2.5%. Yet this progress may not prevent an environmental disaster or improve individual standards of living. In fact, the Minister for the Economy noted in December 1991 that population growth was the only obstacle to economic success in Egypt. The mission recommended that any large amounts of population and development. The population grew >3-fold in 50 years bringing its population to almost 56 million. Demographers have predicted the population will reach 70 million in 2000. As os 1991, 96% of the population lived on 4% of the land which borders the River Nile. Family planning (FP) programs have traditionally been centrally organized, but the mission noted that decentralized programs are needed. It further stated that local FP efforts should form a bridge between public and private FP providers. The report also stressed that UNFPA should focus its effect in Upper Egypt where population growth is the fastest. It also recommended that UNFPA take a more comprehensive view of women, population, and development issues, especially since the burden of contraception falls on women. This suggestion included a wider range of contraceptives and more female physicians. FP providers should target younger women since most contraceptive users have already reached their desired family size. Finally, the mission advocated local contraceptive production and more involvement of the private sector.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA. 1991 Jun; 5(2):221-34.Public and private domestic expenditures for health in a total 148 developing countries for 1983, were estimated to be $100 billion. 1986 external donor health expenditures totalled $4 billion, a small percentage of overall health expenditure for developing countries. U.S. direct donor assistance for development was 0.5% of the federal budget for 1988, with approximately 10% of all U.S. development assistance allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning. As such, the U.S. accounts for 13% of total health contributions from external donors to developing countries. Approximate at best, private and volunteer organizations are estimated to contribute 20% of all such health assistance. Developing countries are therefore required to efficiently use their own resources in the provision of national health services. Technical assistance and donor experience also counting as external assistance, the overall supply of health financing is far greater than developing country demand in the form of well-articulated, officially approved proposals. Reasons for this imbalance include health ministry unfamiliarity with potential donor sources, passive approaches to external financing, unfamiliarity with proposal preparation, increasing competition from other sectors of developing nations, limited numbers of trained personnel, and lack of an international system of support to mobilize financing. The paper discusses 6 years of Pan American Health Organization interventions for resource mobilization in Latin America and the Caribbean, and suggests World Health Organization regional extension backed by U.S. encouragement and support.
NEW INTERNATIONALIST. 1988 Oct; (188):32.One of Africa's most rural and densely populated countries, Burundi is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. The 4.9 million people are 85% Hutus, agricultural people of Bantu origin. However, the Hutus are excluded from power by the minority Tutsis, and the 2 groups have engaged in violent conflict. After a military coup in 1987, a new president, Major Pierre Buyoya, was installed, but restrictions on the Hutus continue. The major difference in Burundi has been a relaxation of restrictions on the Catholic church, which were severe under the former President Bagaza. Most Hutus are Catholic, with a minority of Muslims. For the peasant farmer, faced with diminishing arable land and reliance on 1 export crop (coffee), life is becoming more difficult. An expansion of sugar production was planned to reduce reliance on coffee, although the government has a rather ambivalent approach to development. While promoting private sector development with the help of the World Bank and the U.S. government, the Burundi government maintains a rigid 1-party system with strict control over the lives of the people. Infant mortality stands at 196/1,000 live births and life expectancy is low--43 years for women and 40 years for men. The literacy rate is low (39% for men, 15% for women), and the GNP per capita is low ($230). Most land is used for subsistence crops such as cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, maize, pulses, and sorghum.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Population, Health and Nutrition Dept., 1986 Dec 31. 124 p.In the current environment of general budget stringency in developing countries, it is unrealistic to push for more public spending for health services. The answer to this health crisis is to relieve government of much of the responsibility for financing those kinds of health services for which the benefits to society as a whole (as opposed to direct benefits to the users of the service) are low, freeing public resources to finance those services for which benefits are high. The intent is to relieve government of the burden of spending on health care for the rich, freeing public resources for more spending for the poor. Individuals with sufficient income should pay for their curative care. The financing and provision of these "private" health services should be shifted to a combination of the nongovernment sector and a public sector reorganized to be more financially self-sufficient. A shift such as this would increase the public resources available for those types of health services which are "public goods" and currently are underfunded "public" health programs, such as immunization, vector control, some prenatal and maternal care, sanitary waste disposal, and health education. Also such a shift would increase the public resources available for simple curative care and referral for the poor who now only have limited access to low quality services of this nature. Government efforts to cover the full costs of health care for everyone from general public revenues have contributed to 3 sets of problems in the health systems of many countries: an allocation problem -- insufficient spending on cost-effective health activities; an internal efficiency problem -- inefficient public programs; and an equity problem -- inequitable distribution of benefits from health services. 4 policies for health financing are proposed to raise revenues for important health programs, increase the efficiency of public health services, and make the system better serve the poor. These are: charging users of public health facilities; providing insurance or other risk coverage; strengthening nongovernmental health activities; and decentralizing government health services. A table summarizes the effects of each of the 4 options for reform in alleviating health sector problems.
DEVELOPMENT: SEEDS OF CHANGE; VILLAGE THROUGH GLOBAL ORDER. 1987; (4):117-21.In this article the relations between government and non-government organizations (NGOs) are analyzed. In many countries, government and NGOs are 2 different worlds with little interaction between them. The differences between the 2 types of organizations could be summarized as the difference in the scale of operations, in the approach to development, different underlying philosophies, a different way of operating, different counterparts in developing countries, different projects and programs and a different way of dealing with the political context of development projects and programs. Collaboration between developed countries' governments and NGOs to stimulate development could be improved through: 1) a more systematic exchange of information between the 2 types of organizations; 2) the formulation of conditions for success in a particular country; 3) more sub-contracting of certain kinds of projects and project components to NGOs; 4) carrying out activities together; 5) improving the modalities and procedures of financial support to NGOs and in some cases its volume as well; and 6) moving from emergency to prevention. It is important to search for new fields of collaboration between government and non-government organizations. Examples are working with NGOs to formulate and implement food policies, relying on NGOs for feedback on certain policies, or in trying to achieve structural adjustment with a human face.
JOURNAL OF POPULATION STUDIES. 1986 Jun; (9):193-212.Population studies have been well developed in many countries of the world, but not so in Taiwan. Many academic people and general citizens in the Taiwan area are still not very familiar with the significance of population research within and outside of the nation. The purpose of this paper is to help readers understand the importance and development situation and trend of the field of population studies, so that they can be motivated to carry out population research and can become more knowledgeable of institutions and organizations both in Taiwan and abroad. Important concepts of the development and trend of population studies presented in this paper are developed by the author after many years of population study. Most sources used in this paper are secondary, and appear in various population references and documents of population organizations. The paper includes 3 main parts: the importance of population studies, the development of population studies in Taiwan, and international population research and sponsoring organizations and agencies. In the 1st part, the important need for population studies has been comprehensively discussed. In the 2nd part, discussions are extended to 3 subjects government's role on data collection and data analysis, teaching and research developments in acdemic institutions, and the role of private organizations in the promotion and application of population studies. In the 3rd part, more than 70 international institutions and agencies of population studies have been introduced and examined. Partticular attention has been paid to characteristics and functions of 3 organizations: UN Population Divisions, IUSSP, and CICRED. In addition, many other international public and private agencies in different countries have been listed and their locations mentioned. In this paper, discussion has not focused on the development of population in the US. It is because the development status in the US is unusually important and requires a separate, special report. The author has made such a report on population studies in the US a decade ago, and it will not be repeated here. (author's modified) (summary in ENG)
Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1985 Dec. 8 p. (Status Report on Population Problems and Programs)In 1985 Brazil's new civilian government took a potentially significant step towards political commitment to a national population program by appointing a national Commission for the Study of Human Reproductive Rights and by accepting large-scale external assistance to implement a nationwide maternal and child health program intended to include family planning services. Brazil's traditional pronatalist policy has been undergoing a change since 1974 and family planning is now viewed as an indispensable element of Brazil's development policy. Several laws which had long impeded the growth of family planning services have been revised or repealed. It is no longer illegal to advertise contraceptives, but abortion is only allowed in restricted circumstances. Approval for voluntary sterilization is easier to obtain. Brazilians who practice family planning obtain services primarily through commercial channels or the private sector. The government and private family planners are faced with a major problem of organizing family planning services for rural areas and the vast city slums. The estimated cost of a national family planning program for Brazil is between US$221 million for 1990 and US$182 to US$324 million for the year 2000. The various aspects of the government program are discussed. The private sector was instrumental in introducing family planning to Brazil. A private non-profit organization was established by a group of physicians to encourage the government to develop a national family planning program and to inform the public about responsible parenthood. This organization (BEMFAM) was given official recognition by the federal government and a number of states and declared a public convenience. Another organization (CPAIMC) was established to provide maternal and child health care in poor urban areas. The sources of external aid, accomplishments to date and remaining obstacles are discussed. Sources of external aid include: UNFPA, USAID, IPPF, the Pathfinder Fund and Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH). A change in popular and official pronatalist attitudes has been effected.
Washington, D.C., Focus International, Inc; May 11, 1979. 95 p.Findings from an investigation into evaluation of development activities designed to affect women in the 3rd World are presented. The methodology used in the investigation is described. Organizations reviewed are AID/Africa, AID/Asia, AID/Latin America and the Carribbean Bureau, AID/Near East, AID/Agency-wide projects, Inter-American Foundation, Peace Corps, World Bank, private and voluntary organizations and Canadian organizations. The scope of women in development activities is discussed and constraints to evaluations of projects designed to benefit women are examined. Evaluation activities by the organizations reviewed are summarized. Activities related to the issues raised in the investigation are discussed. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made regarding the need for a minimum data set, evaluation criteria, social analysis, coordination of women in development concerns within AID, information systems and policy related research findings. Profiles of development projects which identify women as beneficiaries and which have been evaluated are presented. AID profiles include 11 projects in Africa, 2 in Asia, 11 in Latin America and the Carribbean, 3 in the Near East and 6 Agency-wide projects. 10 projects undertaken by private and voluntary organizations and 1 funded by the Central America and Carribbean regional office of the Inter-American Foundation area also profiled. The following information is included in the profiles: project title and coding number, goegraphic area, sector addressed by the project, total cost and source of funds, duration, beneficiaries, purpose, organizational structure, summary evaluative statement, documentation.
Egypt, USAID. 1978 March; 82.A review of Egypt's population/family planning policy and assessment of the current population problem is included in a multi-year population strategy for USAID in Egypt, which also comprises: 1) consideration of the major contraints to expanded practice of family size limitation; 2) assessment of the Egyptian government's commitment to fertility control; 3) suggestions for strengthening the Egyptian program and comment on possible donor roles; and 4) a recommended U.S. strategy and comment on the implications of the recommendations. The text of the review includes: 1) demographic goals and factors; 2) assessment of current population efforts; 2) proposed approaches and action for fertility reduction in Egypt; and 4) implication for U.S. population assistance. Based on analysis of Egyptian population program efforts, the following approaches are considered essential to a successful program of fertility reduction: 1) effective management and delivery of family planning services; 4) an Egyptian population educated, motivated and participating in reducing family size; 5) close donor coordination; and 6) emphasis on the role of women.
Tribune: A Women and Development Quarterly. 1983; (22):1-40.This special issue of "The Tribune" attempts to answer the many requests for information on the Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. There has been a particular need for specific information on plans and preparations for the 1985 World Conference. Information is gathered in this issue on background to the Decade, the views of various governmental and nongovernmental groups concerning the issues and priorities of the Conference, the preparations underway, some of the major initiatives taken in the Decade, and some useful addresses for soliciting further information. The Program of Action for the 2nd half of the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace focuses on ensuring women's increased participation in the realization of the objectives of the World Plan of Action. In particular, the World Plan of Action gives high priority to improving the conditions of the most disadvantaged groups of women, especially the rural and urban poor and the vast group of women workers in the tertiary sector. The Program of Action reiterates these priorities, particularly those disadvantaged because of socioeconomic and historic conditions, with emphasis on the rural and urban poor and on the subthemes: employment; education; and health. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) invited nongovermental organizations (NGOs); intergovernmental organizations; UN specialized agencies, organs, and organizations; regional commissions; and member states to submit their views on their contributions to the World Conference and the possible themes and issues of the Conference, in writing, to the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, for consolidated presentation to the preparatory body. Summaries of the views expressed by these groups are provided. Overall, there was an emphasis given by the Member States to the importance of involving women and women's organizations in the preparations for the Conference. In many replies it was indicated that the review and appraisal of the achievements of the Decade should be the primary task of the Conference. As a corollary, and of equal importance, that Conference should consider actions to be taken to resolve the problems that are faced by the women and to hasten their advancement.