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  1. 1

    Reaching out: a campaign to take family welfare services to the slums of Bombay and Madras.

    Chaubey S

    Mumbai, India, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, IPP V Directorate, 1995. [6], 50 p.

    This report presents a human perspective on development that reveals the daily lives of people affected by the Bombay and Madras World Bank Urban Slums Family Welfare Project. Chapter topics focus on interactions between workers and clients at a health post and cultural barriers and rebuffs, the uniqueness of the program, innovative outreach schemes, patterns of persuasion, piloting the program in New Bombay, and key program staff. The author concludes that slum dwellers are adjusting to some aspects of modernity, such as watching television, but are also retaining negative traditional health practices and beliefs. For example, only 30% of slum dwellers knew about measles as a treatable disease. Most understand measles as a supernatural phenomenon and respond by asking the gods for help. This project was helpful in addressing cultural orthodoxy that prevents health-seeking behavior by offering training, management information systems, and communications. The constant program monitoring allowed for an immediate correction of deficits. During 1988-94, the unprotected couple ratio declined from 72% to 44.5%. Effective temporary couple protection rates (CPRs) increased from 4% to 19.5%. Effective permanent CPRs increased from 24% to 36%. In Madras, CPRs increased, but the birth rate did not decline. In Mumbai, the crude birth rate declined from 23.2 to 19.8 in 1993, which is significantly lower than the national target for the year 2000. The absolute number of births also declined. The project frugally spent funds. Infrastructure was available at the program start. Future government funding is hoped for.
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  2. 2

    Turning trash into cash: a Cairo tradition takes a new tack.

    Jensen L

    SOURCE. 1990 Jun; 2(2):14-7.

    Manchiet Nasser is the workplace of more than 10,000 Zabbaleen or garbage collectors, who collect an sort the household garbage of Cairo. Manchiet Nasser and 6 other settlements are part of one of the oldest and most extensive recycling operations in the world. This traditional system relies on donkey carts and thousands of small entrepreneurs who buy used materials. The Zabbaleen include 2 distinct groups. In the 1930s landless farmers, mainly Coptic Christians form Upper Egypt, began assisting the Wahis in garbage collection. The Wahis still administer the system, while the Zarrabs (or pig breeders) do most of the physical labor. The Zabbaleen have remained physically and socially on the fringes of society. In the early 1980s with over 10 million inhabitants, growing by 1000 more each day, Cairo's garbage was rapidly overtaxing the system. The Environmental Protection Company (EPC) includes representatives from both the Wahi and Zarrab communities. the EPC won a bid to mechanize part of Cairo's household garbage collection service. Their 20 trucks now cover 2 residential areas where 40 donkey carts once operated. The city also offered contracts to other private sanitation companies, which were given free access to city landfills for dumping. Up to 500 factories in Cairo alone use recycled polymers, which are about 1/2 as expensive. Full integration of the Zabbaleen into the municipal sanitation system will still take another 3-5 years. Improvements also began in Manchiet Nasser in the early 1980s as part of a large, urban upgrading program financed by a World Bank loan. With assistance from the Ford Foundation, Oxfam, and a number of Christian charities, schools and health clinics have opened, and hundreds of workshops are processing waste in Manchiet Nasser. Other Zabbaleen communities have requested similar assistance.
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