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BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2003 Jul 5; 327:3-4.One promising strategy is to market sanitation and handwashing as if they were consumer products like cars or shampoo. Consumers see the building of a toilet as a home improvement not as a health intervention. Equally they use soap to make hands look, feel, and smell good, not to prevent sickness. Public money could be spent on marketing hygiene and toilets, thus generating demand that can then be met by the private sector. The private sector also knows how to generate behaviour change through marketing. If consumer demand for hygiene and toilets can be stimulated with the help of the private sector, public funds can be liberated to support public infrastructure and to help the very poorest who cannot afford to adopt new technologies. This approach is being tested in six countries, where public-private partnerships between soap companies, governments, and agencies such as theWorld Bank aim to increase rates of handwashing with soap massively (www.globalhandwashing.org). (excerpt)
HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL. 1998; 13(3):183-5.Engaging private sector business in partnerships to promote health is one of the most important challenges for all who are concerned with improving health in the 21st century. The Jakarta Declaration is a major step toward realizing that goal. The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum is an international organization formed by 50 multinational companies from Europe, America, the Middle East, and Asia to promote the active involvement of businesses in country and community development. Member companies include many of the leading investors in emerging markets, employ approximately 25 million people directly and indirectly through their supply chains, and operate in every country and territory in the world. The Forum works through national and international partnerships in more than 30 countries around the world, and also brings together the major global hotel chains with 10% of the world's hotel rooms in the International Hotels Environment Initiative global alliance. This paper discusses why concern should be had over private sector involvement, why businesses want to be involved, what business can bring to the partnership, and the conditions for effective partnerships.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1993. vii, 103 p.The World Bank has conducted an assessment of the performance of family planning (FP) programs in developing countries. The first part examines their contributions and costs. It concludes that FP programs have played a key role in a reproductive revolution in these countries. Specifically, all developing regions have experienced a transition to lower fertility (e.g., in the last 20 years, fertility has fallen 33%), resulting in lower infant, child, and maternal mortality. One chapter looks at experiences in East Asia, South Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank staff use research to present a broad summary of what methods and characteristics achieve effective programs. The book addresses other social development interventions that contribute to a lasting reproductive revolution. Despite the positive results of FP programs, maternal mortality in developing countries is still much higher (10 times) than it is in developed countries and 25% of married women in developing countries report an unmet need for FP. Government commitment to FP programs needs to be strengthened and donor support should keep up with needs to expand successful FP programs. FP programs can satisfy these needs if they provide quality services, including a solid client focus, effective promotion, and strong encouragement of the private sector to increase their participation. Indeed, program quality must be the top priority. Strategic management of FP programs is also crucial. Programs need to integrate and coordinate effective promotion of FP, e.g., social marketing, with other activities.
Report of the Seminar on Programme Sustainability through Cost Recovery, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 21-25 October, 1991.
London, England, IPPF, 1991. 15,  p.In the face of widespread user acceptance, rapidly growing demand, and developing country financial constraints, family planning associations must learn how to operate more efficiently and mobilize new resources with a view to ensuring greater long-term sustainability. Cost recovery was therefore identified as a means of maximizing the use of limited resources, improving program quality, strengthening management, and making service providers more accountable to clients. This document reports results from seminar participants organized to share the benefits of cost recovery with the international community, and to review policy and management issues. Reviewed in the seminar were country experiences with cost recovery, working group discussions on the definition of sustainability, the cost framework of family planning, determining user fees and clients' willingness to pay, preconditions for setting user fees, prerequisites for social marketing, models for cost sharing with the government and private sector, and country case studies from the Gambia, India, and Kenya. Those programs attaining highest self-sufficiency were aided by strong government commitment to either support family planning or to not impede program progress. Also helpful were a businesslike approach to service provision, a strong promotional campaign, organizational structure conductive to effective resource management, and resolve to try diverse approaches. In concluding, the importance of placing the customer first, cost-effectiveness, cost analysis, strategic planning, inter-FPA cooperation, and business plans are mentioned.
Washington, D.C., TvT Associates, MORE Project, 1990 Mar. , 26,  p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3030-C-00-8167)A revitalized, nearly self-sufficient, factory-based contraceptive distribution project has existed in St. Lucia since the beginning of 1990. Seeded in 1981, with 1-year funding from the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the project was on shaky financial footing through the 1980s. The Family Planning Association (FPA) of St. Lucia, with the technical assistance of the Maximizing Results of Operations Research (MORE) project, has, however, turned the project into a viable distribution program financially-backed by factories employing almost 2,500 workers. This successful turnaround is due largely to the accomplishments of a MORE business consultant who made 2 field visits in 1989. In addition to helping the FPA expand the project, the consultant developed a business plan, and encouraged factory owners and business leaders to back the project. He held both individual meetings and a formal group presentation. The business plan, and activities and results of the field visits are presented in the report. The consultant found a 1-to-1 sales approach best in recruiting company members for the project, supports continued application of the formal presentation, suggests a hotel setting for business group meetings, and notes island-wide consensus for support of the project. Although not quite finalized, and expected to work on a restricted operating budget, the project's largest remaining obstacle is where to locate the nurse.
Give the people what they want and spread their satisfaction for others to follow. The Indonesia FP experiences.
Jakarta, Indonesia, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, 1989. 12 p. (HMA.78/KA/89)In 1970 when the family planning (FP) program was launched in Indonesia the population numbered 120 million with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. As of the early 1980's the growth rate started to decline, but the population still reached 178 million by 1989. The strategy called for institutionalizing and popularizing the concept of the small, happy, and prosperous family. The program went through several phases: institution-building, maintenance and implementation, and graduation with community participation. Rural successes in contraceptive prevalence has to be counterbalanced by an urban campaign during 1984-85 when rapid expansion of FP courses in 31 cities were initiated. The private sector supply was set up for private clinics taking care of acceptors. The Blue Circle IEC Campaign was instituted with the support of USAID and the Johns Hopkins PCS project. This entailed using private advertising to develop mass media promotion for FP providers of high quality, low cost contraceptives. In 1986 the condom called Dua Lima was introduced by cooperating with the Somarc project of The Futures Group. A 40-60% discount was effected for products under the Blue Circle label. The idea of self-reliant FP has taken hold.
[Unpublished] 1987. 55,  p.Marketing is a branch of economics which includes the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of promotional programs designed to encourage a target population to accept an organization's product or service. Social marketing (SM) is the application of marketing technics to alter the behavior of a target population toward the acceptance of a social project. Early efforts in social marketing involved public service or "social" advertising via mass media; and early projects were directed toward family planning, health and nutrition in developing countries. Several lessons were learned from these early projects: 1) Persuasive technics must be geared to the specific project; 2) Pilot projects should be limited in scope; 3) Target populations are variable and must be precisely defined; 4) Constant feedback is essential; 5) In developing countries mass media campaigns must be directed, not only at the end-user population, but also at the intermediary government officials, health workers, teachers, and food distributors; 6) Maximum use must be made of the small amount of media time available; 7) In poor, underdeveloped countries persuasion technics must take account of cultural and psychological barriers to behavior modification; 8) Social marketing is not competitive in the commercial sense; 9) Careful market research must be done in order to avoid mistakes due to failure to understand cultural barriers; 10) Health education efforts must address the whole health environment, not merely one aspect of it because the different aspects are interrelated, e.g., the relation of food hygiene to the cleanliness of the water supply; 11) Social marketing cannot overcome basic economic and political barriers to the reception of a new project. Some recent examples of social marketing include the experience of SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change), a private voluntary organization which worked with the Indonesian government to distribute condoms; HEALTHCOM, which worked with oral rehydration therapy in 8 countries; the Johns Hopkins Population Communication Services, which used popular music to "sell" chastity to young people in Latin America; and China's "one child" program. The present project involves a cooperative effort among the General Foods Corporation, the International Chamber of Commerce, the International Advertising Association, the Industry Council for Development, and the World Health Organization Consultation of Health Education in Food Safety. This project will test the adaptability of commercial food marketing technics for use with a target population which buys different foods, largely unpackaged and unlabelled. The effort must be coordinated with local health workers and will involve training of local food handlers and technicians and the use of some give-away item such as a calendar to serve as a reminder and hold the attention of the target population. Similar cooperative ventures, involving pharmaceutical firms, local organizations, local governments, and the World Health organization have shown the effectiveness of social marketing in reaching target populations in developing countries.
Lancet. 1981 Mar 7; 1(8219):566-7.96% of babies in Brazil were breast-fed in 1940. By 1974 the proportion had fallen to 39%. According to Labour M.P., Jack Ashley, the reasons for the change are the promotional methods of milk-substitute manufacturers, including advertising, free samples, and gifts for doctors. Mr. Ashley's objective was to get assurance from the government that Britain would officially and vigorously support the new code of practice worked out by the World Health Organization (WHO) in an effort to regulate the sale of breast-milk substitutes in the Third World. Milk substitutes sold under the code would have to conform to international standards of quality and carry labels pointing out the superiority of breast-feeding. By water contamination, lack of hygiene, or overdilution, the baby's bottle can become a poisoned chalice. Some manufacturers state on their labels the superiority of breast milk; others have a more cavalier attitude. The WHO code would put pressure on manufacturers to act more responsibly.
Piact Papers. (6):1-31.Commercial retail sales (CRS) of contraceptives were first begun in developing countries in the early '60's. A conference on the programs was convened in the Philippines in November, 1979. 65 participants from 23 countries attended. The primary objective of a commercial retail sales program is to achieve a social benefit; the secondary objective is to recover a portion of the costs of the program in order to minimize government or donor cost. The 5 components of a CRS program are: preprogram market research, marketing, operations, administration, and evaluation research. Preprogram marketing should examine products, consumer needs, retailer, distribution channels, legalities, prices, and other competing programs. Supply, warehousing, inventory control, distribution, sales management, and personnel training must be available for a successful program. The administrative components of a CRS program are accounting, personnel, statistic, and financing. Overall, commercial retail sales programs are more relevant now than they were 7 or 8 years ago. It is imperative for a program claiming funds for socioeconomic development to demonstrate that the resources needed to support it are in proportion to the relative impact it has on reducing population growth rates.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to population education projects executed by the ILO in Bangladesh: BGD/74/PO4--pilot project for family planning motivation and services in industry and plantations; and BGD/80/PO3--population and family welfare motivation and services in industry (November 1982).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. 42,  p.This evaluation covers 2 population education projects in Bangladesh; it is part of a comprehensive evaluation study of selected population education projects executed by the International Labor Organization (ILO). The projects are assessed, conclusions drawn and recommendations made in terms of the achievement of the country level project objectives, training and educational activities undertaken and information, education and communication (IEC) materials produced for population education projects, the extent to which projects have been integrated into the relevant country level programs and into Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning (MCH/FP) programs, the strategies used and the impact on the various target audiences. The projects are reported on as if they were 1 project, as the 2nd is really a continuation of the 1st. The evaluation shows that the project has greatly expanded its coverage of workers in the organized sector; family planning services are now available to more than 25% of the industrial labor force; activities are carried out by a small cadre of staff who have all received training in family planning motivation and service delivery. Most motivation and service activities have taken place at the industrial establishments. During the pilot project, 50% of the total target of workers was enrolled as new family planning acceptors and 42% of the total target was enrolled in the new project. However project staff tend to focus more on enrolling new acceptors than on following up those who fail to return for more contraceptives. The number of couples years of protection provided through the project for the years 1980-1982 is 40,571 years. Considerable progress has been made in providing services through industrial clinics. Family planning services, primarily condoms and pills, are being provided to workers through the dispensaries/1st aid rooms of the industrial units participating. Integration of a family planning unit in the Department of Labor has also been achieved. The curricula and materials developed for training various cadres of project staff and volunteer worker motivators show a good balance between learning subject matter and the techniques for motivating and educating workers. However, selection of materials is limited and training needs remain. Finally, there has been little attention given by the Department of Labor and Management to how the present provision of welfare services impact on the adoption of family planning, and how to link welfare activities and employment benefits to family planning. The evaluation methodology and reporting procedures are included as an appendix.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to population education projects executed by the ILO in Nepal: NEP/74/PO1--population education in the organised sector and NEP/77/PO2--population education through panchayats, cooperatives and training institutions (November 1982).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. vi, 61,  p.2 projects financed by the the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and implemented by the Nepalese Government with the International Labor Organization (ILO) as the executing agency are reviewed. The projects are assessed, conclusions drawn and recommendations made in terms of the achievement of the country level project objectives, training and educational activities undertaken, and information education and communication (IEC) materials produced for population education projects, the to which projects have been integrated into relevant country level programs and into Maternal-Child health/Family Planning (MCH/FP) programs, the strategies used and the impact on the various target populations. Part I deals in general with the immediate objectives of the projects; part II goes into more detail on project plans, implementation and achievements. The basis of the Population Education in the Organization Sector project was the development of worker motivators who would promote family planning. The overall plan was for seminars to arouse awareness, support and commitment at the national level, regional seminars for local managements, regional tripartite and plant bipartite committees to develop and sustain local awareness, to encourage practical management support at the local level. The project was carried out successfully in terms of the original plan and work schedules. However, there were deficiencies in the original project design (e.g., combining the industrial sector, the cooperative sector and women under 1 project); objectives were not well formulated and little attention was paid to them after the project started. Review and evaluation aspects of the management of the project were neglected and follow-up was thus deleteriously affected. Recommendations focus on attempts to consolidate and institutionalize the achievements of the project. The target groups of the 2nd project were the leaders and officers in the Department of Cooperatives and in the Ministry of Panchayat and Local Development, the members of cooperative societies and community leaders. The project was designed to contribute to the implementation of the national population program by institutionalizing the provision of population education on a continuing basis to rural families through the work-related training network of the named organizations. For the most part, the objectives for the cooperative sector have been met: a significant number of cooperative officers are more aware of population issues and population education is part of the staff's regular curriculum. Many quantitative targets were met. However, some of the qualitative aspects of activities could be improved and the commitment to the population education program by the Cooperative Department must be translated into manpower and budgetary allocations that will provide the necessary means for continued activity.
Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to population education projects executed by the ILO in India: IND/74/PO7, IND/78/PO6, IND/78/PO7 and IND/79/P12 (February 1983).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. vii, 82,  p.Independent, in-depth evaluations at the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are undertaken to provide timely, analytical information for decision-making within UNFPA and to provide one of the inputs that enable the Executive Director to meet the requirements of accountability to the Governing Council. The main focus of this report is on conclusions and recommendations. Part I summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations which are addressed primarily to UNFPA and the executing agency. Part II goes into more datail on the projects being evaluated and the conclusions and recommendations are addressed primarily to the government and the executing agency. The evaluation covers 4 population education projects in India. It is part of a comprehensive evaluation study of selected population education projects executed by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in the Asia and Pacific Region. The 1st project reviewed, Population Education in the Organized Sector, is mainly concerned with the development of prototype training and information, education and communication (IEC) materials for use in the organized sector, the adaptation of these materials into regional languages for distribution, and in motivational/training activities for the organized sector. The 2nd project concerns cooperation of management and workers in population education and welfare activities in the industrial sector. It is designed to enlist the participation of a greater number of employers in providing family planning education, motivation and services to their workers and their families. The 3rd project shares the same service orientation, focuses on the industrial sector and is designed to enlist the participation of employers in the provision of family planning education, motivation and services for their workers and their families. Finally, the 4th project evaluated is the Tripartite Collaboration for Promotion of Family Welfare Activities in the Organized sector. Its principal aim is to provide family welfare education to textile workers and their families. Its major assumption is that the key role in persuading workers to accept family planning services is played by the union. These projects are assessed, conclusions drawn, and recommendations made in terms of the institutionalization and integration of population education programs with other relevant programs, achievement of population education objectives, training activities, including curricula and IEC materials, and impact upon target audiences. The methodology for the evaluation and the reporting procedures are included in an appendix.