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Investing in a comprehensive health sector response to HIV / AIDS. Scaling up treatment and accelerating prevention. WHO HIV / AIDS plan, January 2004 - December 2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 72 p.This document discusses the context for the work being undertaken in WHO’s HIV/AIDS programme. It analyses the epidemiological situation and includes the most recent estimates of antiretroviral coverage, the global strategic framework and current challenges to translating this into results at the country level (Section 1 – Background). Section 2 describes the comparative advantages offered by WHO, the functional areas of activity within the HIV/AIDS area of work for 2004–2005 and the specific focus of the programme on scaling up antiretroviral therapy and accelerating HIV prevention. Section 3 describes how WHO is structured and how resources and capacity are being reoriented to support country-level action. Section 4 illustrates how WHO works within the United Nations system and with other partners. Section 5 outlines the resources required in 2004–2005 for WHO to accomplish its stated contribution to HIV/AIDS. Section 6 describes the mechanisms for technical and managerial oversight of the HIV/AIDS programme. The WHO HIV/AIDS Plan is not a detailed work plan. Rather, it provides an overall framework to guide the departments responsible for HIV/AIDS in preparing such work plans at the country, regional and headquarters levels of WHO. These work plans are now being developed and will define the specific tasks and activities required to bring the WHO HIV/AIDS Plan to fruition, together with timelines and resource requirements. Joint planning sessions between headquarters, regional and country offices integrate the work of the three levels to ensure that all priority needs are addressed and that gaps in resources are identified. (excerpt)
FRONT LINES. 1989 Dec; 6, 13.Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost.
IN TOUCH 1989 Mar; 13(90):17-9.An expanded immunization program (EPI) in Bangladesh was begun in 1979 in which a technician would be assigned to each subdistrict health unit. These subdistricts had approximately 150,000 to 200,000 people. The technician was responsible for collecting vaccines, immunizing, record keeping, and reporting to the district. In 1985 a review of the immunization program revealed that coverage of infants under 1 year for vaccines on tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, polio, tuberculosis, and measles was less than 2% for every year of vaccination. The United Nations agencies helped design new strategies for the national vaccination program. To improve the service delivery, the government in partnership with WHO, UNICEF and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) launched an intensive program. UNICEF supplied the materials and equipment. CARE provided planning, training, management, and social mobilization components at all levels. WHO assisted in training support and BRAC's activities where similar to CARE's. With the CARE staff at all levels there was a continuous flow of information up from the field and down from the national level. Because of the feedback from the field, decisions and changes were made on a regular and continuous basis through an institutionalized system. Outreach service delivery and community participation were the focus of the new program. The lessons learned after 2 years of operation suggest that the project staff should be assigned at every level from the grass roots to the national level. Information should flow up from the field and down from the national level continuously. A forum should be set up at the national level and be attended by all parties constantly. Also, a relationship should be developed by immediate counterparts at each level.
General lessons learned from evaluations of MCH/FP projects in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Dec. iv, 41 p.4 maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) projects were evaluated by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the Southern Africa Region between 1981-1984. The projects were in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia. An overriding finding at the time of the Evaluation Missions was the acceptance of family planning (child spacing) by all 4 governments, when at the onset of the projects, family planning was either not included in the project documents or was included only as a minor contributant to the MCH programs. The intervention by UNFPA was very important for the acceptance and promotion of family planning activities by the governments. The Evaluation Missions concluded that there were 3 primary reasons for the successful intervention: UNFPA has a broad mandate to provide assistance in MCH and FP, a commitment to development projects in line with the governments' priorities, and the ability to fund projects very quickly, facilitating project implementation. Each of the 4 projects is assessed in terms of population policy changes, MCH/FP program strategy and serive delivery, organization of the MCH/Fp unit, health education, training, evaluation and research systems, and administration and management. Essential factors affecting the project are outlined and recommendations made. The last section discusses general lessons derived from the MCH/FP projects evaluated. 5 areas are identified where similar problems exist to varying degrees in all the projects evaluated. These are: training of medical personnel in FP (the main MCH/FP service provider in these projects was the nurse/midwife); supervision of personnel and the supply and distribution of contraceptives; research and evaluation, especially regarding the sociocultural setting of target populations and the inadequacy of existing service statistics and other sources of data; project monitoring (technical and financial) and finally project execution by the World Health Organization (WHO). Specifically in regard to the recruitment of experts, the provision of supplies and equipment, and the provision of funds for local costs, WHO execution has been deficient.
Contact. 1983 Oct; (75):1-16.Investigates health planners' assumptions about community particiation in health care. Primary health care aims to make essential health care accessible to all individuals in the community in an acceptable and affordable way and with their full participation. It is the strategy propagated by the World Health Organization to provide health for everyone by the year 2000. Community participation is seen as the key to primary health care and has raised many assumptions and expectations among health planners. Community people are seen as a vast untapped resource which can help to reduce the cost of health care by providing additional manpower. It is also expected that community people want to participate in their own health care because they wish to serve their community and to have a part in decisions which affect them. In the early 1970's, programs were developed out of church-related efforts. They pioneered many of the ideas which became principles of primary health care. The church-related programs were nongovernmental and therefore flexible. They had the same goal of letting the community take responsibility for their own health care; program planners were primarily medical people trained in Western medicine. The planners were concerned with the plight of the poor. However, the programs tended to reflect planners' hopes for, rather than the community's understanding of, the community health problem. The author concludes that the assumptions that planners make about their programs need to be critically analyzed. Investigations need to be made into community perceptions and expectations of their role in health programs. Studies need to be undertaken to identify the potentials and problems of community participation and the record of established community health care programs needs to be examined.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to population education projects executed by the ILO in Bangladesh: BGD/74/PO4--pilot project for family planning motivation and services in industry and plantations; and BGD/80/PO3--population and family welfare motivation and services in industry (November 1982).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. 42,  p.This evaluation covers 2 population education projects in Bangladesh; it is part of a comprehensive evaluation study of selected population education projects executed by the International Labor Organization (ILO). The projects are assessed, conclusions drawn and recommendations made in terms of the achievement of the country level project objectives, training and educational activities undertaken and information, education and communication (IEC) materials produced for population education projects, the extent to which projects have been integrated into the relevant country level programs and into Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning (MCH/FP) programs, the strategies used and the impact on the various target audiences. The projects are reported on as if they were 1 project, as the 2nd is really a continuation of the 1st. The evaluation shows that the project has greatly expanded its coverage of workers in the organized sector; family planning services are now available to more than 25% of the industrial labor force; activities are carried out by a small cadre of staff who have all received training in family planning motivation and service delivery. Most motivation and service activities have taken place at the industrial establishments. During the pilot project, 50% of the total target of workers was enrolled as new family planning acceptors and 42% of the total target was enrolled in the new project. However project staff tend to focus more on enrolling new acceptors than on following up those who fail to return for more contraceptives. The number of couples years of protection provided through the project for the years 1980-1982 is 40,571 years. Considerable progress has been made in providing services through industrial clinics. Family planning services, primarily condoms and pills, are being provided to workers through the dispensaries/1st aid rooms of the industrial units participating. Integration of a family planning unit in the Department of Labor has also been achieved. The curricula and materials developed for training various cadres of project staff and volunteer worker motivators show a good balance between learning subject matter and the techniques for motivating and educating workers. However, selection of materials is limited and training needs remain. Finally, there has been little attention given by the Department of Labor and Management to how the present provision of welfare services impact on the adoption of family planning, and how to link welfare activities and employment benefits to family planning. The evaluation methodology and reporting procedures are included as an appendix.
Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to population education projects executed by the ILO in India: IND/74/PO7, IND/78/PO6, IND/78/PO7 and IND/79/P12 (February 1983).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. vii, 82,  p.Independent, in-depth evaluations at the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are undertaken to provide timely, analytical information for decision-making within UNFPA and to provide one of the inputs that enable the Executive Director to meet the requirements of accountability to the Governing Council. The main focus of this report is on conclusions and recommendations. Part I summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations which are addressed primarily to UNFPA and the executing agency. Part II goes into more datail on the projects being evaluated and the conclusions and recommendations are addressed primarily to the government and the executing agency. The evaluation covers 4 population education projects in India. It is part of a comprehensive evaluation study of selected population education projects executed by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in the Asia and Pacific Region. The 1st project reviewed, Population Education in the Organized Sector, is mainly concerned with the development of prototype training and information, education and communication (IEC) materials for use in the organized sector, the adaptation of these materials into regional languages for distribution, and in motivational/training activities for the organized sector. The 2nd project concerns cooperation of management and workers in population education and welfare activities in the industrial sector. It is designed to enlist the participation of a greater number of employers in providing family planning education, motivation and services to their workers and their families. The 3rd project shares the same service orientation, focuses on the industrial sector and is designed to enlist the participation of employers in the provision of family planning education, motivation and services for their workers and their families. Finally, the 4th project evaluated is the Tripartite Collaboration for Promotion of Family Welfare Activities in the Organized sector. Its principal aim is to provide family welfare education to textile workers and their families. Its major assumption is that the key role in persuading workers to accept family planning services is played by the union. These projects are assessed, conclusions drawn, and recommendations made in terms of the institutionalization and integration of population education programs with other relevant programs, achievement of population education objectives, training activities, including curricula and IEC materials, and impact upon target audiences. The methodology for the evaluation and the reporting procedures are included in an appendix.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1982 Dec. xi, 44,  p. (Project SWA/75/P01)The long range objective of this project (1976-1981) was to improve and enhance the health and welfare of mothers and children, especially in rural areas. In assessing Project achievements and the degree to which progress toward the long term objective has been accomplished, the Evaluation Mission found that the immediate objectives had, to a large degree, been met within the general framework of the Ministry of Health's (MOH) development program. Service delivery points in governmental, mission private and industrial/plantation health facilities are now widely distributed throughout Swaziland. The integration of preventive and curative is clearly in place in the rural health clinics and health centers. Analysis of service statistics data indicates that a large % of pregnant women attend antenatal clinics. Family planning services are now offered in 86 clinics with 27,094 clinic attendances recorded for 1981. The pill is the most popular method, followed by condoms, injectables and IUDs. An adequate though incipient health education program is functioning. The MOH strengthened the health infrastructure for, and has in place a program of, maternal child health (MCH) and family planning (FP). The strong points of the program are the government's commitment to MCH/FP, the general strategy, the training component, the number and quality of staff involved in service delivery, the number of service delivery points and the system of recruitment and the employment of Rural Health Motivators (RHM). Weak points, which appear to have hindered a more effective program performance, are planning and management, the lack of solid socio-anthropological knowledge to base, the lack of a focal point for FP, supervision at all levels and the lack of monitoring and evaluation which, if properly undertaken, could have led to changes and adjustments in the program. Future activities supported by the United Nations Fund for Population in the organization and management of family planning activities within the MCH program and within other government and voluntary organizations. UNFPA should help the government prepare a new proposal for UNFPA assistance to family planning activities in the country and should consider supporting supervision and training activities.