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In: Fukutake, T. and Morioka, K., eds. Sociology and social development in Asia. Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, 1974. p. 39-60The history of the development of a population policy in Ceylon is given. Ceylon has a high rate of growth due to a declining death rate and a high steady birthrate. A continuing economic crisis has been aggravated by the high birthrate, and the unemployment rate is over 12%. Increased food production has been inadequate, and welfare policies have limited funds available for productive investment. The Family Planning Association (FPA) in Ceylon was founded in January 1953 and has received financial support from several sources, most importantly from the Swedish International Development Authority. In the 3 plans during 1955-1965 emphasis has been laid on the relation between economic development and population growth. The Sirimavo Bandaranaike Government's Short-Term Implementation Programme of 1962 stated the urgency of the economic problem and its connection with the rate of population growth. From 1965 the Government of Ceylon made family planning an official responsibility. Family planning work was taken over by the Dept. of Health. The FPA has devoted itself to the dissemination of propaganda on family planning. Official policy on family planning has tended to become ambivalent because of a charge that family planning could turn the ethnic balance against the Sinhalese. In April 1971 there was an insurrection that threatened the existence of the government, and realizing it was due to unemployment, living costs, and fragmentation of land, the Government incorporated a note that facilities for family planning among all groups are essential.