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Tellus. 1984 Jul; 5(2):8-11, 25-8.Since the formulation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in Bucharest in 1974, about 80% of governments have endorsed family planning and fertility control. There has been a growing awareness by governments that population planning must be an integral part of general policy formulation. This article describes the issues of central concern to the 1984 International Population Conference in Mexico, highlighting those which result from new global developments over the past decade. Immigration, particularly by exiles and refugees from political persecution, are contributing much more to population instability than foreseen by the WPPA. Internal migration and massive population shifts from rural to urban areas are of increasing concern to governments in developing nations. In developed countries, there has been an emergence of anxiety over zero population growth. The role of privately sponsored programs for population control is much less prominent, as governments take more responsibility for formulating population policy. A report from a meeting of 90 such nongovernmental organizations held in 1983 was reluctantly accepted as an official document at the conference in Mexico. The Canadian Task Force on Population has identified 5 issues of special concern: status of women, the environment, aging, immigration, and family planning. The Task Force includes among its objectives the encouragement of a comprehensive population policy for Canada, focussing both on Canada's special concerns and on its place in the global community. For example, acid rain and improper soil conservation are threatening Canada's status as one of the few viable "bread baskets" for the world. The growing bulge in the population over age 65 will impose economic strain in the future. Sex education for adolescents in inadequate, with only 1/2 of Canadian schools addressing sex and sexuality in the curriculum.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 92 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XVII)This article uses available statistics to analyze health conditions in Bangladesh and their impact on the country's socioeconomic development. Background information on the country is first given, after which population characteristics, health status, nutrition, national health policy and adminstration, health services and programs, population programs, environmental sanitation, health sector resources, financing of health care and donor assistance are examined. Bangladesh's 3% annual population increase is expected to increase already great population pressure and to have a negative impact on the health status of the population. Although reliable health statistics are lacking, infant mortality is estimated at 140 per 1000, 40% of all deaths occur in the 0-4 age group, and maternal mortality is high. Infectious diseases exacerbated by malnutrition are the main causes of death. 4 key factors are responsible for the general malnutrition: 1) rapidly growing population, 2) low per capita income, 3) high incidence of diarrheal diseases, and 4) dietary practices that restrict nutrient intake. Most of the population has access only to traditional health services, and medical education is hospital oriental and curative, with minimal emphasis on public health. The level of environmental sanitation is extremely low.
In: Fukutake, T. and Morioka, K., eds. Sociology and social development in Asia. Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, 1974. p. 39-60The history of the development of a population policy in Ceylon is given. Ceylon has a high rate of growth due to a declining death rate and a high steady birthrate. A continuing economic crisis has been aggravated by the high birthrate, and the unemployment rate is over 12%. Increased food production has been inadequate, and welfare policies have limited funds available for productive investment. The Family Planning Association (FPA) in Ceylon was founded in January 1953 and has received financial support from several sources, most importantly from the Swedish International Development Authority. In the 3 plans during 1955-1965 emphasis has been laid on the relation between economic development and population growth. The Sirimavo Bandaranaike Government's Short-Term Implementation Programme of 1962 stated the urgency of the economic problem and its connection with the rate of population growth. From 1965 the Government of Ceylon made family planning an official responsibility. Family planning work was taken over by the Dept. of Health. The FPA has devoted itself to the dissemination of propaganda on family planning. Official policy on family planning has tended to become ambivalent because of a charge that family planning could turn the ethnic balance against the Sinhalese. In April 1971 there was an insurrection that threatened the existence of the government, and realizing it was due to unemployment, living costs, and fragmentation of land, the Government incorporated a note that facilities for family planning among all groups are essential.