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The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report.
Kathmandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. vi, 49 p.Prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, this country report from Nepal opens with a description of the geographic features and administrative regions, zones, and districts of the country. 91% of the population of Nepal is rural, and agriculture accounts for 57% of the gross domestic product. Nepal has made some socioeconomic gains from 1961 to 1991 which are reflected in improved life expectancy (from 34 to 54.4 years), a decline in the infant mortality rate (from 200 to 102), and an improvement in the literacy rate (from 9 to > 40%). However, the per capital income of US $180 and rapid population growth have impeded improvement in the standard of living. The new government of Nepal is committed to establishing a better balance between population and the environment. This report provides a discussion of population growth and structure; population distribution, urbanization, and migration; the environment and sustainable development; the status of women; population policies and programs (highlighting the population policy of the plan for 1992-97); the national family planning program and health programs; and intervention issues. A 15-point summary is provided, and details of the objectives, priorities, and major policy thrust in regard to population and development of the Eight Plan (1992-97) are appended.
Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
Conservation of West and Central African rainforests. Conservation de la foret dense en Afrique centrale et de l'Ouest.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xi, 353 p. (World Bank Environment Paper No. 1)This World Bank publication is a collection of selected papers presented at the Conference on Conservation of West and Central African Rainforests in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, in November 1990. These rainforests are very important to the stability of the regional and global environment, yet human activity is destroying them at a rate of 2 million hectares/year. Causes of forest destruction are commercial logging for export, conversion of forests into farmland, cutting of forests for fuelwood, and open-access land tenure systems. Other than an introduction and conclusion, this document is divided into 8 broad topics: country strategies, agricultural nexus, natural forestry management, biodiversity and conservation, forest peoples and products, economic values, fiscal issues, and institutional and private participation issues. Countries addressed in the country strategies section include Zaire, Cameroon, Sao Tome and Principe, and Nigeria. The forest peoples and products section has the most papers: wood products and residual from forestry operations in the Congo; Kutafuta Maisha: searching for life on Zaire's Ituri forest frontier; development in the Central African rainforest: concern for forest peoples; concern for Africa's forest peoples: a touchstone of a sustainable development policy; Tropical Forestry Action Plans and indigenous people: the case of Cameroon; forest people and people in the forest: investing in local community development; and women and the forest: use and conservation of forestry resources other than wood. Topics in the economic values section range from debt-for-nature swaps to environmental labeling. Forestry taxation and forest revenue systems are discussed under fiscal issues. The conclusion discusses saving Africa's rainforests.
POPULATION. 1992 Feb; 18(2):3.In 1991, an UNFPA Programme Review and Strategy Development mission went to Egypt and noted that the government's population and development goals for 1988-92 had been realized. Between 1988-91, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 37.6 to 47.6% and infant mortality fell from 54 to 50. Data indicated that maternal mortality was also declining. The crude birth rate fell from 39.8 to 32.2 (1985-90) which slowed growth from 2.8 to 2.5%. Yet this progress may not prevent an environmental disaster or improve individual standards of living. In fact, the Minister for the Economy noted in December 1991 that population growth was the only obstacle to economic success in Egypt. The mission recommended that any large amounts of population and development. The population grew >3-fold in 50 years bringing its population to almost 56 million. Demographers have predicted the population will reach 70 million in 2000. As os 1991, 96% of the population lived on 4% of the land which borders the River Nile. Family planning (FP) programs have traditionally been centrally organized, but the mission noted that decentralized programs are needed. It further stated that local FP efforts should form a bridge between public and private FP providers. The report also stressed that UNFPA should focus its effect in Upper Egypt where population growth is the fastest. It also recommended that UNFPA take a more comprehensive view of women, population, and development issues, especially since the burden of contraception falls on women. This suggestion included a wider range of contraceptives and more female physicians. FP providers should target younger women since most contraceptive users have already reached their desired family size. Finally, the mission advocated local contraceptive production and more involvement of the private sector.
Tellus. 1984 Jul; 5(2):8-11, 25-8.Since the formulation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in Bucharest in 1974, about 80% of governments have endorsed family planning and fertility control. There has been a growing awareness by governments that population planning must be an integral part of general policy formulation. This article describes the issues of central concern to the 1984 International Population Conference in Mexico, highlighting those which result from new global developments over the past decade. Immigration, particularly by exiles and refugees from political persecution, are contributing much more to population instability than foreseen by the WPPA. Internal migration and massive population shifts from rural to urban areas are of increasing concern to governments in developing nations. In developed countries, there has been an emergence of anxiety over zero population growth. The role of privately sponsored programs for population control is much less prominent, as governments take more responsibility for formulating population policy. A report from a meeting of 90 such nongovernmental organizations held in 1983 was reluctantly accepted as an official document at the conference in Mexico. The Canadian Task Force on Population has identified 5 issues of special concern: status of women, the environment, aging, immigration, and family planning. The Task Force includes among its objectives the encouragement of a comprehensive population policy for Canada, focussing both on Canada's special concerns and on its place in the global community. For example, acid rain and improper soil conservation are threatening Canada's status as one of the few viable "bread baskets" for the world. The growing bulge in the population over age 65 will impose economic strain in the future. Sex education for adolescents in inadequate, with only 1/2 of Canadian schools addressing sex and sexuality in the curriculum.
Washington, D.C., U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency, 1981 Jan. 59 p.This strategy statement prepared by the USAID field mission includes a brief description of the political background of aid to Honduras and an analysis of the country's economic situation including an examination of the extent and causes of poverty among different population subgroups, an overview of the economy and assessment of its ability to absorb aid, a discussion of development planning as reflected in the 5-year plan and "Immediate Action Plan" drafted in late 1980; an assessment of progress to date in development efforts and of the Honduran govenment's commitment to development objectives; and a discussion of other donors. Favorable and unfavorable factors influencing achievement of development efforts are then identified, program strategy prior to and during the current planning period are discussed, and specific issues such as the role of the private sector, human rights, the role of women, and public sector management are examined. AID's sectoral objectives and courses of action in agriculture and rural development, population, health and nutrition, education, urban and regional development, and energy are outlined, with problems, current activities, and strategy for 1983-87 identified for each sector. Efforts to improve regional cooperation and AID program efficiency are described. Proposed assistance levels and staff levels are discussed. A series of tables containing data on public sector operations, central government budget expenditures, balance of payments, and key economic indicators are included as appendices.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 92 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XVII)This article uses available statistics to analyze health conditions in Bangladesh and their impact on the country's socioeconomic development. Background information on the country is first given, after which population characteristics, health status, nutrition, national health policy and adminstration, health services and programs, population programs, environmental sanitation, health sector resources, financing of health care and donor assistance are examined. Bangladesh's 3% annual population increase is expected to increase already great population pressure and to have a negative impact on the health status of the population. Although reliable health statistics are lacking, infant mortality is estimated at 140 per 1000, 40% of all deaths occur in the 0-4 age group, and maternal mortality is high. Infectious diseases exacerbated by malnutrition are the main causes of death. 4 key factors are responsible for the general malnutrition: 1) rapidly growing population, 2) low per capita income, 3) high incidence of diarrheal diseases, and 4) dietary practices that restrict nutrient intake. Most of the population has access only to traditional health services, and medical education is hospital oriental and curative, with minimal emphasis on public health. The level of environmental sanitation is extremely low.
[Washington, D.C.], American Public Health Association, 1979 Mar 7. 42 p. (Contract AID/pha/C-1100)The needs and opportunities in population and family planning in the Caribbean region are assessed. Focus is on the general setting (regional profile, economic situation, education, health, basic constraints and regionalism), observations and recommendations (population policy, international donor support, community-based distribution, voluntary sterilization, commercial retail sales, status of women, management, regional cooperation), selected regional institutions (government and non-government organizations), and international donor agencies. In general the governments in the Caribbean are supportive of family planning programs, and, except for Belize and Guyana, most of the countries have a national family planning program. Although there is tacit or direct support for family planning and an increasing application of demographic variables in the planning and development of socioeconomic programs, there is no clear indication that the governments understand or recognize the implications of rapid population growth. Except for the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and International Planned Parenthood Federation and World Bank population projects in Jamaica and Trinidad, the international donor community has provided only modest, sporadic and ad hoc support for population and family planning in the Caribbean. In the Caribbean the needs and opportunities for community-based distribution are markedly different from those existing in other countries.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
CBFPS (Community-based Family Planning Services) in Thailand: a community-based approach to family planning.
Essex, Connecticut, International Council for Educational Development, 1978. (A project to help practitioners help the rural poor, case study no. 6) 91 pThis report and case study of the Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) in Thailand describes and evaluates the program in order to provide useful operational lessons for concerned national and international agencies. CBFPS has demonstrated the special role a private organization can play not only in providing family planning services, but in helping to pioneer a more integrated approach to rural development. The significant achievement of CBFPS is that it has overcome the familiar barriers of geographical access to family planning information and contraceptive supplies by making these available in the village community itself. The report gives detailed information on the history and development of the CBFPS, its current operation and organization, financial resources, and overall impact. Several important lessons were learned from the project: 1) the successful development of a project depends on a strong and dynamic leader; 2) cooperation between the public and private sectors is essential; 3) the success of a project depends primarily on the effectiveness of community-based activities; 4) planning and monitoring activities represent significant ingredients of project effectiveness; 5) a successful project needs a sense of commitment among its staff; 6) it is imperative that a project maintain good public relations; 7) the use of family planning strategy in introducing self-supporting development programs can be very effective; 8) manning of volunteer workers is crucial to project success; and 9) aside from acceptor recruitment in the short run, the primary purpose of education in more profound matterns such as childbearing, womens'roles in the family, and family life should also be kept in mind. The key to success lies in continuity of communication and education.
In: Stamper, B.M. Population and planning in developing nations: a review of sixty development plans for the 1970's. New York, Population Council, 1977. p. 87-90In Kenya's Development Plan 1966-1970 it is stated that the population problem seriously impacts on the future development of the country and noted that the government has decided to emphasize measures to promote family planning education. The 1970-1974 Kenya plan estimates the size of its population as 10.7 million in 1969 and assumes a rate of growth of 3.1%/year throughout the duration of the plan. The crude birthrate is estimated to be 50/1000 population and the crude death rate to be 19/1000 population. The 1974 population is estimated as 12.4 million. Included in the plan is a current estimate and a future projection of the size of the working-age population but neither a current estimate or a future projection of the school-age population is provided. Rapid population growth is recognized as a contributing cause of the country's unemployment problem, and population pressures on health services and on housing are discussed. The government plans to double the existing 130 family planning clinics outside of Nairobi and increase the part-time family planning workers from 300 to 700. The program proposed in the plan has not been fully implemented. Contraceptives were being offered by only about 1/3 of the government's clinics by 1974, and they are not available to a large proportion of the population. Some private family planning activities have been in operation in Kenya since as early as 1952, and the Family Planning Association of Kenya was created in 1962. The 1974-1978 development plan proposes a comprehensive program for achieving specific demographic targets. The new 5-year family planning program, financed by the government of Kenya and 8 international donors, hopes to have some 400 full-time service points and another 17 mobile units to serve another 190 places on a part-time basis.
Draper World Population Fund Report. 1977 Summer; 4:23-25.Sri Lanka has undergone a classic demographic transition over the last 30 years. In 1971, the country was 1 of the most densely populated agricultural countries in the world. By 1975, Sri Lanka's birthrate had declined to 27.2, the lowest rate in South Asia. This decline in fertility is attributed to increased contraceptive use, due to a greater awareness of modern family planning methods and easier access to contraceptive facilities. A brief history of the family planning movement in the country is presented. The Sri Lanka family planning program today illustrates a cooperative venture between private organizations and government programming. High levels of celibacy and late marriage in Sri Lanka, caused by demographic, economic, and educational factors, have also resulted in a declining percentage of married women in the under-30 age group.
IPPA-News Letter, No. 1. September 1977. p. 2-3.There are 5 important aspects related to family planning (FP) in Indonesia: 1) The large population. It is the 5th largest country in the world in terms of population. 2) The rapid increase in population (2.4%/annum). 3) The uneven distribution - most live in Java and Bali where land area is only 8% of total. 4) Age composition - 45% of the population is under age 15. 5) Mobility - there is little mobility and communication despite urbanization. In 1957 the IPPA cautiously began counseling. In 1968 the Suharto administration declared FP a national program. In 1970 the National FP Coordinating Body was established to oversee action of government institutions and private organizations with the goal of bringing down population increase from 2.4 to 1.2 by the year 2000. The 1st 5-year program (from 1969 to 1974) included Bali and Java, the 2nd (1974-1979) added 10 other provinces, and the 3rd will include the remaining 11 provinces.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, March 22, 1976. 56 pA report of the staff survey team of the Committee on International Relations, whose review had the objectives of assessing the opportunities, challenges and obstacles to the introduction of effective family planning programs and population control programs into the West African environment, evaluates several aspects of U.S. development assistance programs in West Africa including: 1) population/family planning programs; 2) the Senegal River Basin project; and 3) reimbursable development programs in Nigeria. Population planning activities are reviewed for Nigeria; Ghana; Sierra Leone; Ivory Coast; Upper Volta; Senegal; and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). It is concluded that despite the clear requirement for most nations in West Africa to curb high population growth rates if economic development is to be facilitated, little or nothing is being done in the countries visited. Information is provided for each country on family planning and population projects and organizations; sources of aid and funding; and health services available, concluding with a summary and comment. The Senegal River Basin project is reviewed, concluding that alternate strategies of fulfilling the U.S. pledge to the long-term development of the Sahel be thoroughly explored. Information provided on reimbursable development programs in Nigeria includes: 1) summary of findings; 2) program background; 3) Nigeria as an AID "graduate"; 4) Nigerian economic planning; 6) reimbursable development programs; and 7) staffing.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1976. (Syncrisis, The Dynamics of Health No. 18) 149 pThere is no sector of Pakistani life which more graphically reflects the great sacrifice it took to make Pakistan a viable state than the health sector. Malaria, tuberculosis, and cholera continue to constitute threats to health. Gastrointestinal, infectious, and other parasitic diseases continue to contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. These diseases are exacerbated by extremely primitive water supplies and waste disposal, bad housing, nutritional problems, and an increasingly heavy population growth. Public health resources to cope with these conditions have not previously been available. Pakistan's poor helth environment appears to result from widespread infectious and communicable diseases, poverty, and sociocultural attitudes which inhibit improving the environment, and ineffective policies administered by limited numbers of inadequately trained health workers, affecting both the urban poor and the rural population. In the latest 5-year plan, the 5th, 1975-1980, there is increasing attention to health. Regarding family planning, it has been suggested that the government has finally begun to recognize that urgent and dramatic steps are necessary to reduce Pakistan's population growth rate. The government has adopted a policy of using conventional contraceptives as the most acceptable method of contraception in Pakistan. A program of distributing the oral contraceptive without medical or paramedical constraints had been instituted, and the government has undertaken to subsidize the distribution of th oral contraceptive and the condom through some 50,000 outlets at 2.5 cents per monthly supply.
IPPF Situation Report, January 1969. 3 p.According to 1967 data, the population of the Netherlands Antilles is 212,000; the birthrate is 22.8/1000; and the growth rate is 1.2/100. The Family Planning Foundation was established in October 1965 in Curacao and is now working to extend its efforts to the other islands of the Antilles, Aruba, Bonnaire, St. Martin Saba, and St. Eustace. Clinical services are provided in Curacao by a professional staff consisting of a physician, a nurse, and a field worker. Since its creation, the Foundation has served more than 600 women. The services are free and the women have a choice of methods available. Many women, however, use their own physicians for contraceptive services. The Foundation receives a grant from the government, and contraceptive counseling is also available at government health centers in Aruba. Currently, the focus of the Foundation is on family planning education. An educational campaign is being conducted in Curacao with the use of television and radio. Family planning is discussed within the context of sex education. During 1969 the intention is a broaden the educational campaign from birth control to other aspects of responsible parenthood.
IPPF Situation Report, April 1969. 6 p.Demographic statistics and some information on the cultural situation in Thailand are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Family Planning Association (FPA) and family-planning-related government personnel are listed. Various FPA-funded projects are summarized. The government started a 3-year family health program in 1968 which will include family planning services. Initial surveys indicated positive attitudes toward and interest in family planning in the country. IUD insertions have totaled 100,000 so far and sterilizations are averaging 10,000 yearly. The plan is to cover 20 million people by 1970. Current training and educational activities are sumarized. Other agencies active in the family planning field are mentioned.
In: Fukutake, T. and Morioka, K., eds. Sociology and social development in Asia. Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, 1974. p. 39-60The history of the development of a population policy in Ceylon is given. Ceylon has a high rate of growth due to a declining death rate and a high steady birthrate. A continuing economic crisis has been aggravated by the high birthrate, and the unemployment rate is over 12%. Increased food production has been inadequate, and welfare policies have limited funds available for productive investment. The Family Planning Association (FPA) in Ceylon was founded in January 1953 and has received financial support from several sources, most importantly from the Swedish International Development Authority. In the 3 plans during 1955-1965 emphasis has been laid on the relation between economic development and population growth. The Sirimavo Bandaranaike Government's Short-Term Implementation Programme of 1962 stated the urgency of the economic problem and its connection with the rate of population growth. From 1965 the Government of Ceylon made family planning an official responsibility. Family planning work was taken over by the Dept. of Health. The FPA has devoted itself to the dissemination of propaganda on family planning. Official policy on family planning has tended to become ambivalent because of a charge that family planning could turn the ethnic balance against the Sinhalese. In April 1971 there was an insurrection that threatened the existence of the government, and realizing it was due to unemployment, living costs, and fragmentation of land, the Government incorporated a note that facilities for family planning among all groups are essential.
London, IPPF, November 1975. 28 p.This is a reference book for individuals working in family planning, population, and related fields. It lists 120 associations and 74 officially established government programs with 16 additional governments providing some services in family planning. 38 countries, mostly in Africa, Still have no organized family planning services available. Demographic and family planning information is given for Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania, and each country in all 5 of these regions. The nature of family planning services available is indicated for each country.
Geneva, ILO, 1975. 52 p.The worldwide population situation is summarized. The various disad vantageous consequences of rapid population growth for economic development are reviewed. Management is directly affected by demographic growth rates through the impact on the workforce. General worker health, productivity, and occupational safety suffer from large families. Management has a duty to the nation and to its own employees to work toward measures, e.g., family planning programs, which benefit the welfare and health of the workers and their families. The basic res ponsibility for organizing family planning and welfare programs belongs to the national government. Management can suggest such programs to government or cooperate in them once there are established. Trade unions can work in the field of motivation through educational and informational activities in population for their members. Voluntary organizations run clinics, offer financial support, supply contraceptives and equipment for other clinical services, and help train personnel in the family planning field. Rural cooperative societies can function in the family planning field by providing research, education, motivation, and implementation of programs. Examples of action in various countries by the public sector, by plantations, and by industry are cited. The International Labor Organization has cooperated with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities in the family planning field.
In: International Labour Office. Caribbean Regional Employers' Seminar on Population and Family Welfare Planning, Port-of-Spain, 10-14 April 1973. Geneva, International Labour Office, 1973. p. 167-209The objectives to be examined in this seminar of participants from employer organizations in the English speaking Caribbean are the relationship between population programs and national development, the employers' role and objectives in regard to population problems, the population problem as it relates to the welfare of the workers and their families, and the contribution that can be made to this problem area by employers and work-related health, welfare and educational services. The following section reports the international actions that have been taken in response to population growth as well as how on a national level this growth is negatively affecting the efforts of the International Labour Office to improve the employment situation. Tables and discussion elaborate on the population of both the world and the Caribbean in the 3rd section. A review of the family planning activities of 16 countries is given next in order to illustrate how other governments, employers and workers are using family planning as a mean of dealing with population growth. The means to reduce fertility and affect population development are presented in the 5th section. Section 6 simply refers the reader to Annex B for a report of suggestions from employers of other regions who have already participated in this same seminar. The other annex provides the family planning policy programs in selected countries in the Caribbean. The final section raises the following issues for discussion: 1) employment and population issues; 2) family planning and work related issues; 3) coordination and collaboration of family planning agencies with employers and workers organizations; 4) further action that can be taken by employer organizations; 5) family planning measures that can be taken; and, 6) international assistance that would be helpful.
How many people? A Symposium. Foreign Policy Association, 1973. (Headline Series No. 218) p. 7-15. December 1973The progress of the family planning and population control movements are traced with particular regard to the significant role played by early volunteer organizations like the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) which was formed in 1952 by the National Family Planning Associations of India, the U.S., Britain, Hong Kong Germany, Holland, Sweden and Singapore. Global recognition of the population problem has been fostered in part by the universal trend toward urbanization, the sharp reduction in maternal and child deaths, the gradual improvement in the status of women, and other social changes which created a demand for better living conditions. The current trend toward assessing national development prospects in terms of social objectives represents a merger between demographic policy and family planning programs. This union between the public and private sector is largely due to the efforts of voluntary family planning groups who have sought to demonstrate that provision of birth control services and education would result in individual efforts to control fertility. Pioneers like the IPPF lobbied and forced action on the evidence that family size and population growth are related integrally to the social and economic progress which the UN and national governments were trying to create. In the mid-60s, the UN officially recognized the efforts of volunteer agencies and within 2 years, the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, UNESCO, UNICEF and the Food and Agriculture Organization acknowledged the contribution of family planning to their own efforts to improve living standards. By 1965, family planning had been introduced in 92 countries and governments committed to population control numbered 10. The IPPF has received increased funding from the U.S., Britain and Sweden to supplement their aid to emerging voluntary organizations which are still dependent on private funding. Governments rely on the private sector during their early experiments with national services as well as on the efforts of the voluntary movement to get services fully utilized. Public and private sector activities tent to become mutually supportive. No voluntary association has been able to develop a nationwide clinic service alone. Government involvement provides essential public health facilities. Family planning organizations, in continuing roles as catalyst and pressure group, can be vital to emerging national programs, and can assist governments with problems of training, administration, distribution and coordination which are essential to the efficient delivery of services.
Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.
Bangkok, Thailand, March 1968. 28pThe government of Malaysia has initiated a highly visible, high prio rity family planning program to supplement private family planning efforts in accelerating the decline in birthrates and in promoting the health of families. Because increases in economic production were barely able to meet increase in population, the need for reducing the birthrates in East and West Malaysia became apparent. In 1953, private Family Planning Associations were established and eventually there was one such association in each state. By 1966, these private efforts were providing contraceptive services and supplies through 166 clinics. These associations also sponsor a variety of public information and education activities. In 1966 the government launched a family planning program by passing the Family Planning Act and creating the National Family Planning Board (NFPB). The ultimate aim of the government is to incorporate family planning into an overall health service program. The NFPB is presently a semi-autonomous organization with its own professional staff and clinics and manned by its personnel within the Ministry of Health. The responsibilities of the Board are to establish and administer clinics and distribute funding, conduct social and biological research concerning birth control acceptance and methods, and evaluate the effectiveness of family planning programs. The four divisions of the board include: 1) Administrative Division; 2) Service and Supply Division, whose duties include training new personnel; 3) Research Evaluation and Planning Division; 4) Information Division. The government clinics will be attached to existing government health facilities with priority going to establishing facilities in urban areas. International agencies are supporting the program with contraceptive supplies, technical assistance and training. With the acc eptance of the major ethnic groups and no political or religious opposition and enthusiastic government support, the program is a model for other developing countries.
Population. 1982 Apr; 8(4):1.In a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) sponsored forum in March 1982 the importance of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in population work was reaffirmed. According to Rafael M Salas, Executive Director of UNFPA, NGOs will help decide the shape of population programs over the next century. The international conference on population which is to be held in 1984 will devote considerable attention to NGO views and special submissions may be requested. The 1984 conference will mark the 10th anniversary of the World Population Conference held in Bucharest. The conference is expected to review the World Population Plan of Action adopted at Bucharest and assess policies and programs in its light. The Plan may be modified to take account of the considerable progress made in the intervening decade and of future needs. Population policies and programs would remain a matter for national decision. Population growth remains a problem. Over 80% of the developing world's population live in countries whose policy is to lower birthrates. Population distribution and the growth of cities also are emerging as prime concerns. There has been no increase in the level of population assistance for the last 5 years despite growing unmet needs. UNFPA can respond to only half the requests made, even though the level of requests is kept down by the knowledge that resources are limited. As developing countries' interest has grown, they have been committing more and more resources to population programs so that aid now accounted for only about 15% of what was spent on population work. NGOs have a tradition of innovation according to Salas and can frequently work in areas where government is not yet involved. They are typically in close touch with the community so that they are aware of local and group sensitivities. They can show what approach will be most effective for a given group. In these ways, NGOs could be particularly valuable to governments and to organizations like UNFPA, redefining population issues so that they may be both understood and approached in the same way by all concerned.