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Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH], 1989. , 19,  p. (USAID Contract No. AID/DPE-5969-Z-00-7064-00)A social marketing consultant sponsored by the US Agency for International Development visited the Philippines to assist in boosting oral rehydration solution ORS commercialization. The task includes following up on current ORS commercialization efforts in analyzing proposals from companies for strategies on rural distribution, promotion, pricing, and introduction scheduling as requested by the Department of Health (DOH) and to develop a plan of action that will lead to a final selection of companies and to develop the terms of reference for working relationship between the DOH and the selected companies. The 6 companies contacted were divided into 2 groups, 1 that insisted on using ORESOL exclusively, and those willing to use ORESOL as a generic name. All the advantages for the selected companies as well as the disadvantages for each, was weighted. Other factors considered were the political environment within the pharmaceutical market and the timing of the ORESOL launch. To provide DOH with the best objective decision, the Keptner-Tregoe decision making technique was used. This process showed an advantage to use the open market companies. An action plan outlining specific tasks to be done, responsibilities of various parties, and the dates of completion is described.
[Unpublished] 1987. 55,  p.Marketing is a branch of economics which includes the analysis, planning, implementation, and control of promotional programs designed to encourage a target population to accept an organization's product or service. Social marketing (SM) is the application of marketing technics to alter the behavior of a target population toward the acceptance of a social project. Early efforts in social marketing involved public service or "social" advertising via mass media; and early projects were directed toward family planning, health and nutrition in developing countries. Several lessons were learned from these early projects: 1) Persuasive technics must be geared to the specific project; 2) Pilot projects should be limited in scope; 3) Target populations are variable and must be precisely defined; 4) Constant feedback is essential; 5) In developing countries mass media campaigns must be directed, not only at the end-user population, but also at the intermediary government officials, health workers, teachers, and food distributors; 6) Maximum use must be made of the small amount of media time available; 7) In poor, underdeveloped countries persuasion technics must take account of cultural and psychological barriers to behavior modification; 8) Social marketing is not competitive in the commercial sense; 9) Careful market research must be done in order to avoid mistakes due to failure to understand cultural barriers; 10) Health education efforts must address the whole health environment, not merely one aspect of it because the different aspects are interrelated, e.g., the relation of food hygiene to the cleanliness of the water supply; 11) Social marketing cannot overcome basic economic and political barriers to the reception of a new project. Some recent examples of social marketing include the experience of SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change), a private voluntary organization which worked with the Indonesian government to distribute condoms; HEALTHCOM, which worked with oral rehydration therapy in 8 countries; the Johns Hopkins Population Communication Services, which used popular music to "sell" chastity to young people in Latin America; and China's "one child" program. The present project involves a cooperative effort among the General Foods Corporation, the International Chamber of Commerce, the International Advertising Association, the Industry Council for Development, and the World Health Organization Consultation of Health Education in Food Safety. This project will test the adaptability of commercial food marketing technics for use with a target population which buys different foods, largely unpackaged and unlabelled. The effort must be coordinated with local health workers and will involve training of local food handlers and technicians and the use of some give-away item such as a calendar to serve as a reminder and hold the attention of the target population. Similar cooperative ventures, involving pharmaceutical firms, local organizations, local governments, and the World Health organization have shown the effectiveness of social marketing in reaching target populations in developing countries.
Piact Papers. (6):1-31.Commercial retail sales (CRS) of contraceptives were first begun in developing countries in the early '60's. A conference on the programs was convened in the Philippines in November, 1979. 65 participants from 23 countries attended. The primary objective of a commercial retail sales program is to achieve a social benefit; the secondary objective is to recover a portion of the costs of the program in order to minimize government or donor cost. The 5 components of a CRS program are: preprogram market research, marketing, operations, administration, and evaluation research. Preprogram marketing should examine products, consumer needs, retailer, distribution channels, legalities, prices, and other competing programs. Supply, warehousing, inventory control, distribution, sales management, and personnel training must be available for a successful program. The administrative components of a CRS program are accounting, personnel, statistic, and financing. Overall, commercial retail sales programs are more relevant now than they were 7 or 8 years ago. It is imperative for a program claiming funds for socioeconomic development to demonstrate that the resources needed to support it are in proportion to the relative impact it has on reducing population growth rates.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. 1976 Dec 10; 195(1118):187-198.In the past 15-20 years there have been advances in fertility regulation. These advances are modest gains that frequently involve a bioengineering input, include collaboration between public agencies and industry, and are closely related to the needs of developing nations. They are the result of the existence of specialized programs whose major goal is the development of new technology. However, a similar specialized public mechanism to undertake the wide range of activities related to product development and introduction of the new technology into family planning does not exist. The 3 major phases of the contraceptive development process are biomedical development, product development, and product introduction-market development. There are 4 areas that require more attention. The 1st of these is a product development laboratory that would accept responsibility for dosage form development, stability testing, quality control procedures, product and packaging modifications, and the production of supplies for biomedical research. Such a laboratory would increase the acceptability of existing methods and promote new developments. Also needed is a contraceptive information service, offering ''full disclosure'' product-related information to managers of family planning programs. A 3rd need is for a patent and licensing administration for the public sector; this would assure that new contraceptives developed with public funds would be made widely available to family planning programs at a reasonable cost. Finally, there is a need to establish a contraceptive introduction planning unit that would consider the program implications of new methods of fertility control and aid countries in planning for their introduction. The availabiltiy of a specialized capacity to take responsibility for public leadership in these 4 areas would contribute greatly to the development of new contraceptive methods that are appropriate to the needs of developing countries and to the success of present international contraceptive research and development efforts.(Authors', modified)