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Corporate evaluation on strategic partnerships for gender equality and the empowerment of women: final synthesis report.
2017 Jan.; New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Jan. 118 p.In its Corporate Evaluation Plan 2014-2017, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women) Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) committed to conduct a corporate evaluation of UN Women’s work on fostering strategic partnerships. This Synthesis Report is the final product of the Corporate Evaluation on Strategic Partnerships for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (GEEW). The evaluation was conducted by an external independent team between September 2015 and September 2016 and managed by the UN Women IEO. The evaluation is intended to enhance UN Women’s approach to strategic partnerships for the implementation of the 2014-2017 Strategic Plan with the aim of ensuring that gender equality is reached by 2030. It is also expected to contribute to an understanding of how UN Women’s strategic partnerships can facilitate a strong position for gender equality and women’s empowerment within the current global development context and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Agenda 2030). The objectives of this formative evaluation were to: a. Assess the relevance of UN Women’s approaches to strategic partnerships given the changing global development landscape. b. Assess effectiveness and organizational efficiency in progressing towards the achievement of organizational results within the broader dynamic international context (e.g., Sustainable Development Goals [SDGs], etc.), with attention to achievement of specific organizational effectiveness and efficiency framework (OEEF) results. c. Determine whether or not the human rights approach and gender equality principles are integrated adequately in UN Women’s approach to its strategic partnerships. d. Identify and validate lessons learned, good practice examples and innovations of partnership strategies supported by UN Women. e. Provide actionable recommendations with respect to UN Women strategies and approaches to strategic partnerships.
World Bank Group gender strategy (FY16-23) : gender equality, poverty reduction and inclusive growth.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 98 p.By many measures, 2015 marks a watershed year in the international community's efforts to advance gender equality. In September, with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), UN Member States committed to a renewed and more ambitious framework for development. This agenda, with a deadline of 2030, emphasizes inclusion not just as an end in and of itself but as critical to development effectiveness. At the center of this agenda is the achievement of gender equality and empowerment of all women and girls (SDG 5). In addition to governments, the private sector is increasingly committed to reducing gaps between men and women not just because it is the right thing to do, but because it makes business sense. Gender equality is also central to the World Bank Group’s own goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. No society can develop sustainably without transforming the distribution of opportunities, resources and choices for males and females so that they have equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their families, communities, and countries. Promoting gender equality is smart development policy.
Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxfam International, 2009 Feb. 55 p. (Oxfam Briefing Paper No. 125)'The realization of the right to health for millions of people in poor countries depends upon a massive increase in health services to achieve universal and equitable access. A growing number of international donors are promoting an expansion of private-sector health-care delivery to fulfil this goal. The private sector can play a role in health care. But this paper shows there is an urgent need to reassess the arguments used in favor of scaling-up private-sector provision in poor countries. The evidence shows that prioritizing this approach is extremely unlikely to deliver health for poor people. Governments and rich country donors must strengthen state capacities to regulate and focus on the rapid expansion of free publicly provided health care, a proven way to save millions of lives worldwide. (Excerpt)
Health for the Millions. 2004 Jan; 30(4-5):23-27.In 1978, a potential breakthrough in global health rights took place at an international conference organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in Alma Ata in erstwhile USSR(now Almaty in Kazakhstan). In this Alma Ata Declaration, 134 countries subscribed to the goal of 'Health for All by the Year 2000'. They affirmed WHO's broad definition of health as 'a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being'. The world's nations--together with WHO, UNICEF, and other major funding organizations--pledged to work towards meeting people's basic health needs through the comprehensive and remarkably progressive primary healthcare (PHC) approach. Principals and methods garnered from the barefoot doctors' methodology in China and from experiences of small, struggling community-based health programmes in The Philippines and countries of Latin America. The linkage of many of these enabling initiatives to social transformation movements helps explain why the concepts underlying PHC have been praised as well as criticized for being 'revolutionary'. (excerpt)
Lancet. 1998 Feb 7; 351(9100):434-7.The World Health Organization (WHO) used to be the main directing and coordinating body of international health work. WHO is now, however, just one of many UN organizations concerned with health. The World Bank plays a considerable financial and technical role in the sector, and bilateral agencies contribute significantly to health at both the global and national levels. The private sector is also deeply involved in international health. With regard to foreign aid, about US$55 billion was disbursed in 1996 in bilateral aid compared to only about US$5 billion through the UN system. As the globalization of trade and markets occurs, new coalitions and alliances are being formed to examine and address the direct and indirect consequences upon health. The author considers the changing context of cooperation in international health and how growing inequalities in health both within and between countries will affect the actions of organizations working in the field.
POPULI. 1997 May-Jun; 24(2):6-7.Thousands of women worldwide are tricked, obliged, or abducted and sold into bondage and servitude as prostitutes, domestic workers, exploited workers or wives. They are often forced to live and work in conditions similar to slavery. The exploitation of women's bodies and labor has created an international trade system with women going from countries experiencing structural adjustment and/or deforestation to countries with better living standards. Technology, such as the internet, has allowed traders to conduct and expand their business internationally. The International Organization for Migration reports that the trade in women is caused by poverty, the lack of viable economic opportunities, the difference in wealth between countries, and the marginalization of women in their countries of origin. The promotion of tourism as a development strategy has also contributed by encouraging the trade in women for prostitution.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1990 Oct; 80(10):1188-92.Health trends since 1950 in both developed and developing countries are classified and discussed in terms of causative factors: socioeconomic development, cross-national influences and growth of national health systems. Despite the vast differences in scale of health statistics between developed and developing countries, economic hardships and high military expenditures, all nations have demonstrated significant declines in life expectancy and infant mortality rates. Social and economic factors that influenced changes included independence from colonial rule in Africa and Asia and emergence from feudalism in China, industrialization, rising gross domestic product per capita and urbanization. An example of economic development is doubling to tripling of commercial energy consumption per capita. Social advancement is evidenced by higher literacy rates, school enrollments and education of women. Cross-national influences that improved overall health include international trade, spread of technology, and the universal acceptance of the idea that health is a human right. National health systems in developing countries are receiving increasing shares of the GNP. Total health expenditure by government is highly correlated with life expectancy. The view of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund that health care should be privatized is a step backward with anti-egalitarian consequences. The UN Economic Commission for Africa attacked the IMF and the World Bank for promoting private sector funding of health care stating that this leads to lower standards of living and poorer health among the disadvantaged. Suggested health strategies for the future should involve effective action in the public sector: adequate financial support of national health systems; political commitment to health as the basis of national security; citizen involvement in policy and planning; curtailing of smoking, alcohol, drugs and violence; elimination of environmental and toxic hazards; and maximum international collaboration.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1989. , vii, 397 p. (ST/CSDHA/6)This is the 1st update of the World Survey on the Role of Women in Development published by WHO. 11 chapters consider such topics as the overall theme, debt and policy adjustment, food and agriculture, industrial development, service industries, informal sector, policy response, technology, women's participation in the economy and statistics. The thesis of the document is that while isolated improvements in women's condition can be found, the economic deterioration in most developing countries has struck women hardest, causing a "feminization of poverty." Yet because of their potential and their central role in food production, processing, textile manufacture, and services among others, short and long term policy adjustments and structural transformation will tap women's potential for full participation. Women;s issues in agriculture include their own nutritional status, credit, land use, appropriate technology, extension services, intrahousehold economics and forestry. For their part in industrial development, women need training and/or re-training, affirmative action, social support, and better working conditions to enable them to participate fully. In the service industries the 2-tier system of low and high-paid jobs must be dismantled to allow women upward mobility. Regardless of the type of work being discussed, agricultural, industrial, primary or service, formal or informal, family roles need to be equalized so that women do not continue to bear the triple burden of work, housework and reproduction.
Development: Seeds of Change. 1987; (4):11-8.3 basic categories of institutions in research and development (R&D) of biotechnology include universities, small biotechnology R&D venture capital financed firms, and transnational corporations in the US and other more developed countries (MDCs). Almost 24 transnationals, which predominantly manufacture pharmaceuticals and petrochemicals, lead the biotechnology industry by contracting research arrangements with universities or venture capital financed firms or by establishing their own R&D, manufacturing, and marketing activities in biotechnology. On the other hand, in less developed countries (LDCs), the private sector plays no role or a relatively small role in biotechnology. National level government programs are developing biotechnology capabilities in some LDCs, however. In MDCs, the move towards privatization of biotechnology, especially with the ability to patent technologies, restricts the free flow of research information, thereby inhibiting the diversity and pace of technological innovation, widening the technological gap between MDCs and LDCs, and thus maintaining LDCs' dependence on MDCs. The leading role of transnational corporations in biotechnology R&D causes skewed research priorities that the corporations determine based on their own global strategies. These research priorities are determined by potential profit, and not by the needs of the LDCs. Even though products of biotechnology have the capability to improve the lives of many in the world, they displace more traditional products of LDCs. For example, sugar will soon be displaced by immobilized enzyme technology produced high fructose, therefore affecting the economies and poor of sugar exporting nations. LDCs must act now so as not to fall behind in the biotechnology revolution, such as establishing their relevance at the grass roots level.