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Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013 Apr.  p.To meet the challenge of sustaining reproductive health commodity security in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the United Nations Population Fund and PATH developed workshops to increase awareness about total market approaches and develop an action plan for the region. This report describes two regional workshops that were held in April 2013.
Road-mapping a total market approach for family planning and reproductive health commodity security. Workshop materials.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013.  p.To meet the challenge of sustaining reproductive health commodity security in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the United Nations Population Fund and PATH developed workshops to increase awareness about total market approaches and develop an action plan for the region. These workshop materials are from two regional workshops that were held in April 2013.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Knowledge and Learning Center, 2005 Nov.  p. (Findings Infobriefs No. 118; Good Practice Infobrief)The Mali Multi-sectoral AIDS Project (MAP) began implementation in late 2004 and is in the preliminary phases of the project cycle. This project has been commended by the World Bank's Board for its innovation and the involvement of the private sector to address HIV/AIDS. Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world due to factors such as its limited resource base, land-locked status and poor infrastructure. According to the 2001 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) published by the Ministry of Health, Mali's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is estimated at 1.7% in 2001. The project objective is to support the Government of Malis efforts to control the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and provide sustainable access to treatment and care to those infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. While Mali currently has a low HIV prevalence rate by Sub-Saharan African standards, it runs a high risk of experiencing an increase in prevalence rates. (excerpt)
[New Delhi], India, NACO, 2004.  p.Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is the process by which an individual undergoes confidential counseling to learn about his/her HIV status and to exercise informed choices in testing for HIV followed by further appropriate action. A key underlying principle of the VCT intervention is the voluntary participation. HIV counseling and testing are initiated by the client's free will. Counseling in VCT consists of pre-test and post-test counseling. During pre-test counseling, the counselor provides to the individual / couple an opportunity to explore and analyze their situation, and consider being tested for HIV. It facilitates more informed decisions about HIV testing. After the individual / couple has received accurate and complete information they reach an understanding about all that is involved. In the event that, after counseling, the individual decides to take the HIV test, VCT enables confidential HIV testing. Counseling is client-centered. This promotes trust between the counselor and the client. The client is helped to identify and understand the implications of a negative or a positive result. They are helped to think through the practical strategies for coping with the results of the HIV test. Post-test counseling further reinforces the understanding of all implications of a test result. Counseling also helps clients to decide who they should share the HIV test result with, and how to approach that aspect. (excerpt)
SAfAIDS News. 2005 Sep; 11(3):11-12.The AIDS epidemic has become a genuine global emergency with rising numbers of new infections, increasing numbers of deaths and the impact of the epidemic increasingly being felt particularly by the rising numbers of children made orphans or vulnerable by AIDS. The scale of the emergency has resulted in an unprecedented response by African countries, civil society and the international community. Today, there are more resources for HIV prevention, care, support and treatment than ever before. This increase in resources is coupled with an increasing number of actors becoming involved in the AIDS response, often leading to unclear roles and leadership and dispersed authority that may undermine national plans and priorities. Furthermore, resources are often dissipated and scattered, transaction costs have increased, capacities are distracted and weakened while monitoring and evaluation remains fragmented. The result has been that a substantial amount of available resources are not being used effectively and not getting to the people that need them most. (excerpt)
Choices. 2001 Dec; 4.We are facing the most devastating global epidemic in modern history. Over 60 million people have been infected. In the worst affected countries one in four adults are now living with HIV/AIDS, a disproportionate number of younger women and girls. More than 80 percent are in their twenties. The result is a devastating hollowing out of communities, leaving only the very young and the very old and thrusting millions of families deeper into poverty. Meeting this challenge means progress on three fronts: first, preventing new infections and reversing the spread of the epidemic; second, expanding equitable access to new HIV treatments; third, alleviating the disastrous impact of AIDS on human development. Effectively responding to HIV/AIDS requires a wide range of initiatives under strong national political leadership, including sex education in schools, public awareness campaigns, programmes in the workplace, mobilization of religious and community leaders, action to mitigate the impact on poverty and essential social services, support for orphans and tough policy decisions in ministries of finance to ensure optimal allocation of resources to cope with the crisis. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2000.  p.This publication follows on from the report "Business Response to HIV/AIDS: Innovation and Partnerships" published in 1997. With the increased knowledge and experience of business responses available today, there is a need to update the available statistical information, to provide further evidence of the need for action, and to document new case studies. Therefore, this report aims to provide assistance to business and associated partners in recognising the business case for further action against HIV/AIDS in the workplace and beyond. This is achieved through providing evidence of the impact that HIV/AIDS has on business activities and by highlighting the lessons learned from past and current responses. Guidance is provided in the form of policy tools, case studies and an examination of how to undertake successful partnerships in response to HIV/AIDS. This publication does not seek to provide standard models but tools to guide effective, efficient and needs-specific responses to HIV/AIDS. It is divided into five sections: A summary of the background information on HIV/AIDS, facts and trends, followed by a brief description of the response to date by the public and non-governmental sectors; A presentation of the impact that HIV/AIDS has on business, at the macroeconomic and individual company levels, providing the business case for early action against HIV/AIDS; An overview of the broad areas of activity by business in response to HIV/AIDS, with guidance on how to undertake HIV/AIDS policies and programmes; An examination of the factors that create and maintain successful partnerships in response to HIV/AIDS; The provision of 17 profiles of business activities in response to the disease, identifying the key lessons learned and providing models of good practice. (excerpt)
World Health. 1998 Nov-Dec; 51(6):30.The private sector has an important role to play in the global, regional and national response to AIDS. It is in the private sector's own interest to actively combat the expanding epidemic because it affects employees, customers and others in their communities. By working in partnership with the public and nongovernmental sectors, companies can help to make their efforts more effective and bring benefits to all parties concerned. UNAIDS, the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS, is well aware that the fight against AIDS cannot succeed without a broad-based effort involving all members of society, including the private sector. An important part of the mission of UNAIDS is therefore to promote and brokers partnerships among the public, private and nongovernmental sectors of society that can help create a more coordinated, effective and sustainable response to HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2002 May. 39 p. (UNAIDS/02.17E)The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a global crisis affecting all levels of society. Increasingly affected is the business world, which is suffering not only from the human cost to the workforce but also in terms of losses in profits and productivity that result in many new challenges for both employers and employees. Across the world, AIDS is having a direct and indirect impact on business. In southern Africa, for example, it is estimated that more than 20% of the economically active population in the 15--49-year-old age group are infected with HIV. In the workplace, employers are experiencing reduced productivity as a result of employee absenteeism and death. Consequently, employers are being challenged to manage the impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace, which includes dealing with issues of stigma and discrimination, changing requirements for health-care benefits, training of replacement staff, and loss of skills and knowledge among employees. One of the missions of the International Organisation of Employers (IOE) is to facilitate the transfer of information and experience to employers' organizations in the social and labour fields. It is hoped that this Handbook will serve as a guide to employers' organizations and their members in their endeavours to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on their companies and business environments. The Handbook outlines a framework for action by both employers' organizations and their members, providing examples of innovative responses to the pandemic by their counterparts in other parts of the world. Constructive and proactive responses to HIV in the workplace can lead to good industrial relations and uninterrupted production. The Handbook was elaborated with information provided by IOE members, sectoral associations and individual companies, as listed on the inside cover. Without the extra effort that they made to document initiatives in their countries and companies, this Handbook would not have been possible. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998 Jul.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)In the early years of the AIDS pandemic, little thought was given to the role that businesses might play in HIV prevention, and the workplace was not seen as a major venue for interventions. Since then, much has been learned about the pandemic and how it should be fought. and in particular that AIDS prevention and care are complex issues requiring a multisectoral approach. The business sector and its workplaces can play a key role in preventing the transmission of HIV, and in caring for and supporting those affected. As the impact of HIV on businesses becomes more visible, business leaders are increasingly seeing the advantages of creating HIV/AIDS programmes for their workplaces -- and, beyond the workplace, for their surrounding communities. (author's)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998 Nov.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Point of View)For too long AIDS prevention and care was pitched to business on health terms by health experts, on the basis that 'dealing with AIDS in the workplace is good for workers'. Initially perceived as a health problem, the health sector was at the forefront of epidemic control efforts. Experience now shows that both management and workers have a stake in the battle against AIDS and that all sectors need to be engaged right at the outset. Unquestionably, in the overall workplace context, management's response is a key element in shaping the level and quality of company interventions. To mobilize the corporate sector's participation in a major way, management must be included as a stakeholder from the planning stage to implementation. Thailand has been relatively successful in drawing support from business, even though this initiative came at a late stage in the development of the epidemic. Thailand's success is based on continuing and determined efforts by the National AIDS Programme and nongovernmental organizations to create opportunities for key business leaders to contribute in a strategic and substantial fashion. Those in the business sector need to be convinced that their participation is essential in making a difference, not only to the larger national endeavour, but also to their businesses. (excerpt)
Building effective public-private partnerships: experiences and lessons from the African Comprehensive HIV / AIDS Partnerships (ACHAP).
Social Science and Medicine. 2006 Jul; 63(2):397-408.This paper examines the processes for building highly collaborative public--private partnerships for public health, with a focus on the efforts to manage the complex relationships that underlie these partnerships. These processes are analyzed for the African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships (ACHAP), a 5-year partnership (2001--2005) between the government of Botswana, Merck & Co., Inc. (and its company foundation), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. ACHAP is a highly collaborative initiative. The ACHAP office in Botswana engages intensively (on a daily basis) with the government of Botswana (an ACHAP partner and ACHAP's main grantee) to support HIV/AIDS control in that country, which had an adult prevalence of 38.5% HIV infection in 2000 when ACHAP was being established. The paper discusses the development of ACHAP in four stages: the creation of ACHAP, the first year, the second and third years, and the fourth year. Based on ACHAP's experiences over these four years, the paper identifies five lessons for managing relationships in highly collaborative public--private partnerships for public health. (author's)
New York, New York, UNDP, Bureau for Development Policy, HIV / AIDS Group, . 8 p.Twenty years on, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to spread without respite. Almost 40 million people are living with HIV and AIDS, half of them women. The impact of HIV/AIDS is unique because it kills adults in the most productive period of their lives, depriving families, communities, and nations of their most productive people. Adding to an already heavy disease burden in poor countries, the epidemic is deepening poverty, reversing human development, worsening gender inequalities, eroding the capacity of governments to provide essential services, reducing labour productivity, and hampering pro-poor growth. The epidemic is quickly becoming the biggest obstacle to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
Close your eyes to the HIV problem today and tomorrow you'll be living in a country of old people and won't have a partner to play chess with.
Connections. 2005 Jan;  p..What is the best way to tackle the HIV/AIDS problem in Russia when the scale of this infection's spread has passed all the bounds? What can be done when the efforts of numerous HIV-service organizations and domestic and international NGOs to implement short-term educational programs and information campaigns are not effective enough to appeal to the common sense of both those who are at risk and those who have the power to stop the virus from spreading further? Do the people of this country have eyes and, if so, what does their future look like when some 80 percent of the estimated 1.5 million HIV-positive Russians are under the age of 30 . . . when only 3,000 out of the 50,000 who are in dire need of treatment have access to it? Will this country still be a strong power if one million young people die from AIDS by 2008, as forecasted by Vadim Pokrovsky, head of the Federal AIDS Center, unless appropriate steps are done by the government to prevent it? (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2000 Nov. 49 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection Key Material; UNAIDS/00.37E)Condom Social Marketing: Selected Case Studies presents six applications of different social marketing techniques drawn from among on-going projects in developing countries in the field of reproductive health and prevention of HIV/AIDS and STDs. Individually they illustrate different, real- life approaches to condom promotion through social marketing in response to particular challenges and needs. All describe activities from which significant lessons may be learned. In addition, they demonstrate the flexibility of social marketing and how the technique can be adapted to deal with differing situations and constraints. The booklet is intended mainly for distribution to individuals and organizations, from both the public and private sectors, who are interested in learning more about social marketing, and how its concepts and techniques can be applied in response to the spread of HIV/AIDS and STDs, particularly in developing countries. It is also intended to provide basic information, as an aid to training, programme planning and related activities. (excerpt)
Consultative meeting on "Accelerating an AIDS Vaccine for Developing Countries: Issues and Options for the World Bank", Paris, April 13, 1999.
[Unpublished] 1999. 7 p.The World Bank’s AIDS Vaccine Task Force sponsored a meeting at the World Bank European office in Paris on Tuesday, April 13, 1999, to consult with key shareholders, bilateral and multilateral donors, and representatives from developing countries on ways that the World Bank could accelerate the development of an AIDS vaccine that would be effective and affordable in developing countries. The 32 participants included representatives from the North and South, from AIDS control programs, foreign affairs ministries, and ministries of finance, both technical experts and policy makers. An issues paper, “Accelerating an AIDS vaccine for developing countries: Issues and options for the World Bank”, served as background for the meeting. (excerpt)
Consultative meeting on: "Accelerating an AIDS vaccine for developing countries: issues and options for the World Bank", Regent Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand, Monday, May 24, 1999. Report.
[Unpublished] 1999 Jun 29. 10 p.The World Bank’s AIDS Vaccine Task Force sponsored a meeting in Bangkok at the Regent Hotel on Monday, May 24, to consult with key Thai policymakers on ways that the World Bank could accelerate the development of an AIDS vaccine that is effective and affordable in developing countries. The 26 participants included representatives from the Ministry of Public Health, the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), the Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and private vaccine industry. On Tuesday, May 25, briefings were held for UN agencies and for non-governmental organizations. An issues paper, “Accelerating an AIDS vaccine for developing countries: Issues and options for the World Bank”, served as background for the meeting. (excerpt)
Accelerating an AIDS vaccine for developing countries: issues and options for the World Bank. Revised draft.
[Unpublished] 1999 Jul 8. 18 p.This paper reviews what the AIDS Vaccine Task Force has learned to date about the nature of the problem of under-investment in an HIV/AIDS vaccine for developing countries, and summarizes some of the approaches under consideration. Its objective is to launch a discussion within the World Bank, and – critically – with its bilateral, multilateral, and developing country partners, on the best course of action for the institution, given its mandate, its comparative advantages in relation to the other agencies involved in the international effort, and the likely effectiveness of alternative measures for accelerating the development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine for developing countries. (excerpt)
World Bank Task Force on Accelerating the Development of an HIV / AIDS Vaccine for Developing Countries. HIV vaccine industry study, October-December 1998. Draft.
[Unpublished] 2000 Mar 20. 13 p.Industry’s decision to invest in the development of a vaccine is a function of the risks and uncertainty of “cracking the science” to develop a viable product and the promise of the future market and revenue stream. Although vaccines have proven to be one of the most cost-effective intervention available to control disease with measles, polio, Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus, BCG and tetanus toxoid 5 vaccines preventing 3 million deaths per year in developing countries, they represent less than 2% of the total pharmaceutical market. The availability of these vaccines to the world is dependent on the capacity and pricing decisions of industry. Development of new vaccines against diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis will also depend on the investment decisions of industry. Unfortunately, investment in the development of these high priority new vaccines is low. Understanding industry’s perception of the risks and potential returns for specific vaccines is essential for public sector agencies such as the World Bank. With this information, the Bank and other partners can work with agencies and private industry to develop new strategies which “push” the development of these priority products by reducing the cost or risk of investment or “pull” them by providing market incentives. In April 1998, the World Bank created a Bank-wide AIDS Vaccine Task Force to explore the market failure resulting in under-investment in an HIV/AIDS vaccine. The Task Force commissioned a study by Mercer Management to understand the biotechnology, vaccine and pharmaceutical industries’ perspectives on R&D investment in an HIV vaccine for developing countries. The study was conducted during the fall of 1998 and was co-funded by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI). (excerpt)
Preliminary ideas on mechanisms to accelerate the development of an HIV / AIDS vaccine for developing countries.
[Unpublished] 1999 Jul 28. 11 p.The World Bank is fully committed to combat the AIDS epidemic, and has been doing so since 1986 through four fronts: (a) its lending program; (b) its grants program; (c) policy dialogue; and (d) research. Through its lending program, the Bank has financed 81 AIDS projects and project components in 51 countries for a total of US $989 million. Most funding has been through IDA credits. Projects focus on targeted, cost-effective, and efficacious preventive activities, including: information, education and communication (IEC) for behavior change, condom promotion and distribution, sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment, blood safety, and for the reduction of mother-to-child transmission. Although the focus has been on prevention of HIV infection, some projects also provide treatment for opportunistic infections, tuberculosis, and malaria. Through its Development Grant Facility (DGF), the Bank has provided financing for the WHO Global Programme on AIDS (GPA, the predecessor of UNAIDS) and UNAIDS in the amount of US $18.0 million since FY 1986. The DGF has also contributed to the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), a private, non-profit organization established in 1996 to ensure the development of safe, effective preventive HIV vaccines for use world-wide, contributing a total of US $1.74 million since its inception. The Bank provided an additional US $400,000 to IAVI through the Global Forum for Health. SIDALAC, a Latin American research initiative on HIV/AIDS, received a US $500,000 grant in 1995, and currently receives earmarked funds through UNAIDS of up to US $430,000 per year. And, through its small grants program, the Bank has financed AIDS-related activities in Africa and Asia for a total of US $56,000. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2000 Apr 13. 64 p.Malaria, tuberculosis, and African strains of AIDS kill almost 5 million people annually, primarily in poor countries. Despite recent scientific advances, research on vaccines for these diseases remains minimal. This is in large part because potential vaccine developers fear that they could not sell enough vaccine at a sufficient price to recoup their research expenditures. The U.S. administration and the World Bank have each recently proposed programs that would help developing countries to purchase vaccines for these diseases, if and when they are developed. Such programs could both create incentives for vaccine research and help increase accessibility of vaccines once they are developed. This paper explores the design of such programs. It focuses on commitments to purchase new vaccines. For vaccine purchase commitments to spur research, potential vaccine developers must believe that the sponsor will not renege on the commitment once vaccines have been developed and research costs sunk. There is a tradeoff between enhancing credibility with potential vaccine developers by specifying rules for vaccine eligibility and pricing in detail, and preserving flexibility to judge suitability of vaccines after they have been developed and tested. In any case, eligibility will need to be interpreted after candidate vaccines have been developed. The credibility of purchase commitments can be enhanced by including industry representatives on committees making eligibility decisions, insulating committee members from political pressure through long terms, and establishing a minimum price for vaccine purchases under the program. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2000 Apr 13. 49 p.Malaria, tuberculosis, and AIDS kill approximately 5 million people each year. The overwhelming majority of deaths occur in poor countries. Despite recent scientific advances, research on vaccines for malaria, tuberculosis, and African strains of HIV remains minimal. This is in large part because potential vaccine developers fear that they would not be able to sell enough vaccine at a sufficient price to recoup their research expenditures. This paper sets out the economic rationale for committing in advance to purchase vaccines once they are developed. The U.S. administration’s budget proposal includes a tax credit for vaccine sales. The World Bank has proposed establishing a vaccine purchase fund. Such commitments could potentially create incentives for vaccine research and help increase the accessibility of any vaccines developed. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004 Jul.  p.In monitoring resource flows for HIV and AIDS, it has proven easier to collect information on donor governments, multilateral agencies, foundations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) than to obtain reliable budget information on domestic outlays for HIV and AIDS in affected countries. As a result, UNAIDS has focused significant efforts on strengthening the capacity of countries to monitor and track expenditures for HIV and AIDS. This report summarizes the latest information available on HIV-related spending in 26 countries. Seventeen of the countries are from the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. Resource tracking in the LAC region, as well as in Thailand, Burkina Faso and Ghana has benefited from the leadership of the Regional AIDS Initiative for Latin America and the Caribbean (SIDALAC), which helped implement the National AIDS Account (NAA) approach. Beginning with pilot projects in three countries in 1997–1998, NAA has now been extended throughout the region, in large part due to the provision of extensive technical assistance by countries involved in the early pilot projects. NAA uses a matrix system that describes the level and flow of health expenditures on AIDS. The NAA model: a) identifies key actors in HIV and AIDS activities; b) uses existing data or makes estimates for specific services or goods purchased; c) analyses domestic (public and private) and international budgets; d) determines out-of-pocket expenditures; and e) assesses the financial dimensions of the country’s response to AIDS. (excerpt)
Investing in a comprehensive health sector response to HIV / AIDS. Scaling up treatment and accelerating prevention. WHO HIV / AIDS plan, January 2004 - December 2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004. 72 p.This document discusses the context for the work being undertaken in WHO’s HIV/AIDS programme. It analyses the epidemiological situation and includes the most recent estimates of antiretroviral coverage, the global strategic framework and current challenges to translating this into results at the country level (Section 1 – Background). Section 2 describes the comparative advantages offered by WHO, the functional areas of activity within the HIV/AIDS area of work for 2004–2005 and the specific focus of the programme on scaling up antiretroviral therapy and accelerating HIV prevention. Section 3 describes how WHO is structured and how resources and capacity are being reoriented to support country-level action. Section 4 illustrates how WHO works within the United Nations system and with other partners. Section 5 outlines the resources required in 2004–2005 for WHO to accomplish its stated contribution to HIV/AIDS. Section 6 describes the mechanisms for technical and managerial oversight of the HIV/AIDS programme. The WHO HIV/AIDS Plan is not a detailed work plan. Rather, it provides an overall framework to guide the departments responsible for HIV/AIDS in preparing such work plans at the country, regional and headquarters levels of WHO. These work plans are now being developed and will define the specific tasks and activities required to bring the WHO HIV/AIDS Plan to fruition, together with timelines and resource requirements. Joint planning sessions between headquarters, regional and country offices integrate the work of the three levels to ensure that all priority needs are addressed and that gaps in resources are identified. (excerpt)
Sexual Health Exchange. 2003; (1): p..At the end of 2OO1, an estimated 40 million adults and children were living with HIV/AIDS worldwide, of whom 8.6 million in the Asia-Pacific region - more than any other region besides sub-Saharan Africa. Sixty percent of Asia-Pacific HIV infections were in India alone, translating into almost 4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the second largest number after South Africa. Although India's adult HIV-prevalence rate is low at about 0.8%, this converts into staggering numbers due to India's enormous population. HIV is spreading among highly vulnerable groups such as sex workers and truck drivers, and beyond, among the general population. (author's)