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Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Partnerships for Health Reform, 2001 Mar.  p. (Special Initiatives Report No. 36; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-95-00024)While the polio eradication initiative has been highly successful in lowering the number of polio cases worldwide, questions have arisen about the impact of the initiative on the functioning and financing of health systems as a whole and routine immunization more specifically. While some studies have investigated the impact of polio eradication on the functioning of health systems, few have been able to examine the impact on financing. This study is the second conducted by the United States Agency for International Development’s Partnerships for Health Reform Project on the impact of the polio eradication initiative on the financing of routine immunization activities. The first study examined funding trends for polio eradication and routine immunization in three countries: Bangladesh, Côte d’Ivoire, and Morocco. This study looks at funding trends among international organizations and donors, and the impact that their funding of polio eradication activities has had on their funding of routine immunization activities. The study findings indicate that while some short-term decreases in donor funding for routine immunization appear to have taken place as polio eradication initiative activities were introduced and accelerated, on the whole, donor funding for routine immunization support does not appear to have decreased. (author's)
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33,  p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
IN TOUCH 1989 Mar; 13(90):17-9.An expanded immunization program (EPI) in Bangladesh was begun in 1979 in which a technician would be assigned to each subdistrict health unit. These subdistricts had approximately 150,000 to 200,000 people. The technician was responsible for collecting vaccines, immunizing, record keeping, and reporting to the district. In 1985 a review of the immunization program revealed that coverage of infants under 1 year for vaccines on tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, polio, tuberculosis, and measles was less than 2% for every year of vaccination. The United Nations agencies helped design new strategies for the national vaccination program. To improve the service delivery, the government in partnership with WHO, UNICEF and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) launched an intensive program. UNICEF supplied the materials and equipment. CARE provided planning, training, management, and social mobilization components at all levels. WHO assisted in training support and BRAC's activities where similar to CARE's. With the CARE staff at all levels there was a continuous flow of information up from the field and down from the national level. Because of the feedback from the field, decisions and changes were made on a regular and continuous basis through an institutionalized system. Outreach service delivery and community participation were the focus of the new program. The lessons learned after 2 years of operation suggest that the project staff should be assigned at every level from the grass roots to the national level. Information should flow up from the field and down from the national level continuously. A forum should be set up at the national level and be attended by all parties constantly. Also, a relationship should be developed by immediate counterparts at each level.