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  1. 1
    066097

    Contraceptive source and the for-profit private sector in Third World family planning. Evidence and implications from trends in private sector use in the 1980s.

    Cross HE; Poole VH; Levine RE; Cornelius RM

    [Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 21-23, 1991. [63] p.

    Estimates by Family Health International and UNFPA predict that the annual cost of modern family planning in meeting the target overall contraceptive prevalence level of 52% will be between $5-9 billion by the year 2000. The number of couples using modern methods of contraception will increase dramatically in future years, incurring great cost to donors, governments, and users. Urbanization, rising incomes, and higher education levels are generally seen as positive factors in permitting an expanded private sector role in the provision of modern contraceptives, providing an alternative source to donor and government programs. The for-profit concerns within the private sector of developing countries, were studied using available 1978-89 data from 26 countries to examine private family planning sources of contraceptives. Also, hypothetical determinants of private family planning use are established and their interrelationship with the use of for-profit family planning services, is investigated. Contrary to result expectations, it was found that use of the major provider for-profit private sector is declining in the face of rising incomes, urbanization, and better education. Government services are crowding out the private sector. Additionally, results indicate a strong user desire for longer-term methods. Full comprehension of the private sector and the factors governing choice of contraceptive source should lead to more effective use of donor and government funding in efforts to achieve set population objectives. Policy and program development will more accurately reflect social needs. Policy implications of the results are discussed.
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  2. 2
    034685

    Brazil.

    Population Crisis Committee [PCC]

    Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1985 Dec. 8 p. (Status Report on Population Problems and Programs)

    In 1985 Brazil's new civilian government took a potentially significant step towards political commitment to a national population program by appointing a national Commission for the Study of Human Reproductive Rights and by accepting large-scale external assistance to implement a nationwide maternal and child health program intended to include family planning services. Brazil's traditional pronatalist policy has been undergoing a change since 1974 and family planning is now viewed as an indispensable element of Brazil's development policy. Several laws which had long impeded the growth of family planning services have been revised or repealed. It is no longer illegal to advertise contraceptives, but abortion is only allowed in restricted circumstances. Approval for voluntary sterilization is easier to obtain. Brazilians who practice family planning obtain services primarily through commercial channels or the private sector. The government and private family planners are faced with a major problem of organizing family planning services for rural areas and the vast city slums. The estimated cost of a national family planning program for Brazil is between US$221 million for 1990 and US$182 to US$324 million for the year 2000. The various aspects of the government program are discussed. The private sector was instrumental in introducing family planning to Brazil. A private non-profit organization was established by a group of physicians to encourage the government to develop a national family planning program and to inform the public about responsible parenthood. This organization (BEMFAM) was given official recognition by the federal government and a number of states and declared a public convenience. Another organization (CPAIMC) was established to provide maternal and child health care in poor urban areas. The sources of external aid, accomplishments to date and remaining obstacles are discussed. Sources of external aid include: UNFPA, USAID, IPPF, the Pathfinder Fund and Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH). A change in popular and official pronatalist attitudes has been effected.
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  3. 3
    681113

    Population and family planning in Malaysia.

    Saunders L; Perkin G

    Bangkok, Thailand, March 1968. 28p

    The government of Malaysia has initiated a highly visible, high prio rity family planning program to supplement private family planning efforts in accelerating the decline in birthrates and in promoting the health of families. Because increases in economic production were barely able to meet increase in population, the need for reducing the birthrates in East and West Malaysia became apparent. In 1953, private Family Planning Associations were established and eventually there was one such association in each state. By 1966, these private efforts were providing contraceptive services and supplies through 166 clinics. These associations also sponsor a variety of public information and education activities. In 1966 the government launched a family planning program by passing the Family Planning Act and creating the National Family Planning Board (NFPB). The ultimate aim of the government is to incorporate family planning into an overall health service program. The NFPB is presently a semi-autonomous organization with its own professional staff and clinics and manned by its personnel within the Ministry of Health. The responsibilities of the Board are to establish and administer clinics and distribute funding, conduct social and biological research concerning birth control acceptance and methods, and evaluate the effectiveness of family planning programs. The four divisions of the board include: 1) Administrative Division; 2) Service and Supply Division, whose duties include training new personnel; 3) Research Evaluation and Planning Division; 4) Information Division. The government clinics will be attached to existing government health facilities with priority going to establishing facilities in urban areas. International agencies are supporting the program with contraceptive supplies, technical assistance and training. With the acc eptance of the major ethnic groups and no political or religious opposition and enthusiastic government support, the program is a model for other developing countries.
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