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  1. 1
    034685

    Brazil.

    Population Crisis Committee [PCC]

    Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1985 Dec. 8 p. (Status Report on Population Problems and Programs)

    In 1985 Brazil's new civilian government took a potentially significant step towards political commitment to a national population program by appointing a national Commission for the Study of Human Reproductive Rights and by accepting large-scale external assistance to implement a nationwide maternal and child health program intended to include family planning services. Brazil's traditional pronatalist policy has been undergoing a change since 1974 and family planning is now viewed as an indispensable element of Brazil's development policy. Several laws which had long impeded the growth of family planning services have been revised or repealed. It is no longer illegal to advertise contraceptives, but abortion is only allowed in restricted circumstances. Approval for voluntary sterilization is easier to obtain. Brazilians who practice family planning obtain services primarily through commercial channels or the private sector. The government and private family planners are faced with a major problem of organizing family planning services for rural areas and the vast city slums. The estimated cost of a national family planning program for Brazil is between US$221 million for 1990 and US$182 to US$324 million for the year 2000. The various aspects of the government program are discussed. The private sector was instrumental in introducing family planning to Brazil. A private non-profit organization was established by a group of physicians to encourage the government to develop a national family planning program and to inform the public about responsible parenthood. This organization (BEMFAM) was given official recognition by the federal government and a number of states and declared a public convenience. Another organization (CPAIMC) was established to provide maternal and child health care in poor urban areas. The sources of external aid, accomplishments to date and remaining obstacles are discussed. Sources of external aid include: UNFPA, USAID, IPPF, the Pathfinder Fund and Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH). A change in popular and official pronatalist attitudes has been effected.
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  2. 2
    033841

    General lessons learned from evaluations of MCH/FP projects in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Dec. iv, 41 p.

    4 maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) projects were evaluated by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the Southern Africa Region between 1981-1984. The projects were in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia. An overriding finding at the time of the Evaluation Missions was the acceptance of family planning (child spacing) by all 4 governments, when at the onset of the projects, family planning was either not included in the project documents or was included only as a minor contributant to the MCH programs. The intervention by UNFPA was very important for the acceptance and promotion of family planning activities by the governments. The Evaluation Missions concluded that there were 3 primary reasons for the successful intervention: UNFPA has a broad mandate to provide assistance in MCH and FP, a commitment to development projects in line with the governments' priorities, and the ability to fund projects very quickly, facilitating project implementation. Each of the 4 projects is assessed in terms of population policy changes, MCH/FP program strategy and serive delivery, organization of the MCH/Fp unit, health education, training, evaluation and research systems, and administration and management. Essential factors affecting the project are outlined and recommendations made. The last section discusses general lessons derived from the MCH/FP projects evaluated. 5 areas are identified where similar problems exist to varying degrees in all the projects evaluated. These are: training of medical personnel in FP (the main MCH/FP service provider in these projects was the nurse/midwife); supervision of personnel and the supply and distribution of contraceptives; research and evaluation, especially regarding the sociocultural setting of target populations and the inadequacy of existing service statistics and other sources of data; project monitoring (technical and financial) and finally project execution by the World Health Organization (WHO). Specifically in regard to the recruitment of experts, the provision of supplies and equipment, and the provision of funds for local costs, WHO execution has been deficient.
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  3. 3
    048852

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to population education projects executed by the ILO in Nepal: NEP/74/PO1--population education in the organised sector and NEP/77/PO2--population education through panchayats, cooperatives and training institutions (November 1982).

    Kobes J; Matthews P; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. vi, 61, [7] p.

    2 projects financed by the the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and implemented by the Nepalese Government with the International Labor Organization (ILO) as the executing agency are reviewed. The projects are assessed, conclusions drawn and recommendations made in terms of the achievement of the country level project objectives, training and educational activities undertaken, and information education and communication (IEC) materials produced for population education projects, the to which projects have been integrated into relevant country level programs and into Maternal-Child health/Family Planning (MCH/FP) programs, the strategies used and the impact on the various target populations. Part I deals in general with the immediate objectives of the projects; part II goes into more detail on project plans, implementation and achievements. The basis of the Population Education in the Organization Sector project was the development of worker motivators who would promote family planning. The overall plan was for seminars to arouse awareness, support and commitment at the national level, regional seminars for local managements, regional tripartite and plant bipartite committees to develop and sustain local awareness, to encourage practical management support at the local level. The project was carried out successfully in terms of the original plan and work schedules. However, there were deficiencies in the original project design (e.g., combining the industrial sector, the cooperative sector and women under 1 project); objectives were not well formulated and little attention was paid to them after the project started. Review and evaluation aspects of the management of the project were neglected and follow-up was thus deleteriously affected. Recommendations focus on attempts to consolidate and institutionalize the achievements of the project. The target groups of the 2nd project were the leaders and officers in the Department of Cooperatives and in the Ministry of Panchayat and Local Development, the members of cooperative societies and community leaders. The project was designed to contribute to the implementation of the national population program by institutionalizing the provision of population education on a continuing basis to rural families through the work-related training network of the named organizations. For the most part, the objectives for the cooperative sector have been met: a significant number of cooperative officers are more aware of population issues and population education is part of the staff's regular curriculum. Many quantitative targets were met. However, some of the qualitative aspects of activities could be improved and the commitment to the population education program by the Cooperative Department must be translated into manpower and budgetary allocations that will provide the necessary means for continued activity.
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  4. 4
    048858

    Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to population education projects executed by the ILO in India: IND/74/PO7, IND/78/PO6, IND/78/PO7 and IND/79/P12 (February 1983).

    Valdivia L; Roque F; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. vii, 82, [6] p.

    Independent, in-depth evaluations at the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) are undertaken to provide timely, analytical information for decision-making within UNFPA and to provide one of the inputs that enable the Executive Director to meet the requirements of accountability to the Governing Council. The main focus of this report is on conclusions and recommendations. Part I summarizes the main conclusions and recommendations which are addressed primarily to UNFPA and the executing agency. Part II goes into more datail on the projects being evaluated and the conclusions and recommendations are addressed primarily to the government and the executing agency. The evaluation covers 4 population education projects in India. It is part of a comprehensive evaluation study of selected population education projects executed by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in the Asia and Pacific Region. The 1st project reviewed, Population Education in the Organized Sector, is mainly concerned with the development of prototype training and information, education and communication (IEC) materials for use in the organized sector, the adaptation of these materials into regional languages for distribution, and in motivational/training activities for the organized sector. The 2nd project concerns cooperation of management and workers in population education and welfare activities in the industrial sector. It is designed to enlist the participation of a greater number of employers in providing family planning education, motivation and services to their workers and their families. The 3rd project shares the same service orientation, focuses on the industrial sector and is designed to enlist the participation of employers in the provision of family planning education, motivation and services for their workers and their families. Finally, the 4th project evaluated is the Tripartite Collaboration for Promotion of Family Welfare Activities in the Organized sector. Its principal aim is to provide family welfare education to textile workers and their families. Its major assumption is that the key role in persuading workers to accept family planning services is played by the union. These projects are assessed, conclusions drawn, and recommendations made in terms of the institutionalization and integration of population education programs with other relevant programs, achievement of population education objectives, training activities, including curricula and IEC materials, and impact upon target audiences. The methodology for the evaluation and the reporting procedures are included in an appendix.
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