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Washington, D.C., World Bank, Knowledge and Learning Center, 2005 Nov.  p. (Findings Infobriefs No. 118; Good Practice Infobrief)The Mali Multi-sectoral AIDS Project (MAP) began implementation in late 2004 and is in the preliminary phases of the project cycle. This project has been commended by the World Bank's Board for its innovation and the involvement of the private sector to address HIV/AIDS. Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world due to factors such as its limited resource base, land-locked status and poor infrastructure. According to the 2001 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) published by the Ministry of Health, Mali's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is estimated at 1.7% in 2001. The project objective is to support the Government of Malis efforts to control the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and provide sustainable access to treatment and care to those infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. While Mali currently has a low HIV prevalence rate by Sub-Saharan African standards, it runs a high risk of experiencing an increase in prevalence rates. (excerpt)
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33,  p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1987 Sept-Oct; (34):921-51.Family planning services through the workplace is an idea that is attracting more attention, benefit's workers, employers, and nations. Large manufacturers and plantations in India first offered family planning to workers in the 1950s. Now also in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, South Korea, Turkey, Egypt, Kenya, and elsewhere, many large companies have added family planning to other health services. In some Latin American countries social security systems have added family planning for many workers. Many different groups, including compaines, labor unions, government-sponsored social marketing programs, and the military, run employment-based programs. Services are offered in workplace clinics, through referrals, in free-standing facilities, in social security hospitals, and in community clinics. Funding comes from employers, governments, unions, family planning associations, and USAID. The most effective programs offer supplies and services as well as information, offer them directly at the workplace, and use worker-volunteers to distribute pills and condoms. Successful programs require the full support of company management. Favorable cost-benefit projections can show managers that offering family planning makes financial sense and contributes to employee health.
General lessons learned from evaluations of MCH/FP projects in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Dec. iv, 41 p.4 maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) projects were evaluated by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the Southern Africa Region between 1981-1984. The projects were in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia. An overriding finding at the time of the Evaluation Missions was the acceptance of family planning (child spacing) by all 4 governments, when at the onset of the projects, family planning was either not included in the project documents or was included only as a minor contributant to the MCH programs. The intervention by UNFPA was very important for the acceptance and promotion of family planning activities by the governments. The Evaluation Missions concluded that there were 3 primary reasons for the successful intervention: UNFPA has a broad mandate to provide assistance in MCH and FP, a commitment to development projects in line with the governments' priorities, and the ability to fund projects very quickly, facilitating project implementation. Each of the 4 projects is assessed in terms of population policy changes, MCH/FP program strategy and serive delivery, organization of the MCH/Fp unit, health education, training, evaluation and research systems, and administration and management. Essential factors affecting the project are outlined and recommendations made. The last section discusses general lessons derived from the MCH/FP projects evaluated. 5 areas are identified where similar problems exist to varying degrees in all the projects evaluated. These are: training of medical personnel in FP (the main MCH/FP service provider in these projects was the nurse/midwife); supervision of personnel and the supply and distribution of contraceptives; research and evaluation, especially regarding the sociocultural setting of target populations and the inadequacy of existing service statistics and other sources of data; project monitoring (technical and financial) and finally project execution by the World Health Organization (WHO). Specifically in regard to the recruitment of experts, the provision of supplies and equipment, and the provision of funds for local costs, WHO execution has been deficient.
How many people? A Symposium. Foreign Policy Association, 1973. (Headline Series No. 218) p. 7-15. December 1973The progress of the family planning and population control movements are traced with particular regard to the significant role played by early volunteer organizations like the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) which was formed in 1952 by the National Family Planning Associations of India, the U.S., Britain, Hong Kong Germany, Holland, Sweden and Singapore. Global recognition of the population problem has been fostered in part by the universal trend toward urbanization, the sharp reduction in maternal and child deaths, the gradual improvement in the status of women, and other social changes which created a demand for better living conditions. The current trend toward assessing national development prospects in terms of social objectives represents a merger between demographic policy and family planning programs. This union between the public and private sector is largely due to the efforts of voluntary family planning groups who have sought to demonstrate that provision of birth control services and education would result in individual efforts to control fertility. Pioneers like the IPPF lobbied and forced action on the evidence that family size and population growth are related integrally to the social and economic progress which the UN and national governments were trying to create. In the mid-60s, the UN officially recognized the efforts of volunteer agencies and within 2 years, the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, UNESCO, UNICEF and the Food and Agriculture Organization acknowledged the contribution of family planning to their own efforts to improve living standards. By 1965, family planning had been introduced in 92 countries and governments committed to population control numbered 10. The IPPF has received increased funding from the U.S., Britain and Sweden to supplement their aid to emerging voluntary organizations which are still dependent on private funding. Governments rely on the private sector during their early experiments with national services as well as on the efforts of the voluntary movement to get services fully utilized. Public and private sector activities tent to become mutually supportive. No voluntary association has been able to develop a nationwide clinic service alone. Government involvement provides essential public health facilities. Family planning organizations, in continuing roles as catalyst and pressure group, can be vital to emerging national programs, and can assist governments with problems of training, administration, distribution and coordination which are essential to the efficient delivery of services.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1982 Dec. xi, 44,  p. (Project SWA/75/P01)The long range objective of this project (1976-1981) was to improve and enhance the health and welfare of mothers and children, especially in rural areas. In assessing Project achievements and the degree to which progress toward the long term objective has been accomplished, the Evaluation Mission found that the immediate objectives had, to a large degree, been met within the general framework of the Ministry of Health's (MOH) development program. Service delivery points in governmental, mission private and industrial/plantation health facilities are now widely distributed throughout Swaziland. The integration of preventive and curative is clearly in place in the rural health clinics and health centers. Analysis of service statistics data indicates that a large % of pregnant women attend antenatal clinics. Family planning services are now offered in 86 clinics with 27,094 clinic attendances recorded for 1981. The pill is the most popular method, followed by condoms, injectables and IUDs. An adequate though incipient health education program is functioning. The MOH strengthened the health infrastructure for, and has in place a program of, maternal child health (MCH) and family planning (FP). The strong points of the program are the government's commitment to MCH/FP, the general strategy, the training component, the number and quality of staff involved in service delivery, the number of service delivery points and the system of recruitment and the employment of Rural Health Motivators (RHM). Weak points, which appear to have hindered a more effective program performance, are planning and management, the lack of solid socio-anthropological knowledge to base, the lack of a focal point for FP, supervision at all levels and the lack of monitoring and evaluation which, if properly undertaken, could have led to changes and adjustments in the program. Future activities supported by the United Nations Fund for Population in the organization and management of family planning activities within the MCH program and within other government and voluntary organizations. UNFPA should help the government prepare a new proposal for UNFPA assistance to family planning activities in the country and should consider supporting supervision and training activities.