Your search found 31 Results
Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxfam International, 2009 Feb. 55 p. (Oxfam Briefing Paper No. 125)'The realization of the right to health for millions of people in poor countries depends upon a massive increase in health services to achieve universal and equitable access. A growing number of international donors are promoting an expansion of private-sector health-care delivery to fulfil this goal. The private sector can play a role in health care. But this paper shows there is an urgent need to reassess the arguments used in favor of scaling-up private-sector provision in poor countries. The evidence shows that prioritizing this approach is extremely unlikely to deliver health for poor people. Governments and rich country donors must strengthen state capacities to regulate and focus on the rapid expansion of free publicly provided health care, a proven way to save millions of lives worldwide. (Excerpt)
Public-private partnerships: Managing contracting arrangements to strengthen the Reproductive and Child Health Programme in India. Lessons and implications from three case studies.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007.  p.Strengthening management capacity and meeting the need for reproductive and child health (RCH) services is a major challenge for the national RCH program of India. Central and state governments are using multiple options to meet this challenge, responding to the complex issues in RCH, which include social, cultural and economic factors and reflect the immense geographical barriers to access for remote and rural population. Other barriers are also being addressed, including lessening financial burdens and creating public-private partnerships to expand access. For example, the National Rural Health Mission was initiated in order to focus on rural populations, although departments of health face a number of challenges in implementing this initiative. In this document, we focus on a key area: the development of management capacity for working with the private sector. We synthesize the lessons learnt from three case studies of public-private partnerships in RCH: two are state initiatives, in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, and the third is the national mother nongovernmental organization scheme. The case studies were conducted to determine how management capacity was developed in these three public-private partnerships in service delivery, by examining the structure and process of partnerships, understanding management capacity and competence in various public-private partnerships in RCH, and identifying the means for developing the management capacity of partners. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Knowledge and Learning Center, 2005 Nov.  p. (Findings Infobriefs No. 118; Good Practice Infobrief)The Mali Multi-sectoral AIDS Project (MAP) began implementation in late 2004 and is in the preliminary phases of the project cycle. This project has been commended by the World Bank's Board for its innovation and the involvement of the private sector to address HIV/AIDS. Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world due to factors such as its limited resource base, land-locked status and poor infrastructure. According to the 2001 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) published by the Ministry of Health, Mali's HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is estimated at 1.7% in 2001. The project objective is to support the Government of Malis efforts to control the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and provide sustainable access to treatment and care to those infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. While Mali currently has a low HIV prevalence rate by Sub-Saharan African standards, it runs a high risk of experiencing an increase in prevalence rates. (excerpt)
Guide to the implementation of the World Programme of Action for Youth. Recommendations and ideas for concrete action for policies and programmes that address the everyday realities and challenges of youth.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2006.  p. (ST/ESA/309)The following key policy messages form the foundation of the recommendations contained in this Guide: Recognize, address and respond to youth as a distinct but heterogeneous population group, with particular needs and capacities which stem from their formative age; Build the capabilities and expand the choices of young people by enhancing their access to and participation in all dimensions of society; Catalyze investment in youth so that they consistently have the proper resources, information and opportunities to realize their full potential; Change the public support available to youth from ad-hoc or last-minute to consistent and mainstreamed; Promote partnerships, cooperation and the strengthening of institutional capacity that contribute to more solid investments in youth; Support the goal of promoting youth themselves as valuable assets and effective partners; Include young people and their representative associations at all stages of the policy development and implementation process; and Transform the public perception of young people from neglect to priority, from a problem to a resource, and from suspicion to trust. (excerpt)
Toolkit to improve private provider contributions to child health: introduction and development of national and district strategies.
Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], Support for Analysis and Research in Africa [SARA], 2005 Jun. 50 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADF-758; USAID Contract No. AOT-C-00-99-00237-00)June 2002, the World Bank published a discussion paper titled Working with the Private Sector for Child Health. The paper--developed with technical assistance from the USAID Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development (AFR/SD) through the Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA) project--lays out a framework for analyzing the contributions of the private sector in child heath. The framework, outlined below, is designed to serve as a basis for assessing the potential of different components of the private sector at country level. The framework identifies the following components of the private sector as being important for child health: Service providers (formal sector, other for-profit, employers, non-governmental organizations [NGOs], private voluntary organizations [PVOs], and traditional healers); Pharmaceutical companies; Pharmacies; Drug vendors and shopkeepers; Food producers; Media channels; Private suppliers of products related to child health, e.g. ITNs; Health insurance companies. (excerpt)
Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Partnerships for Health Reform, 2001 Mar.  p. (Special Initiatives Report No. 36; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-95-00024)While the polio eradication initiative has been highly successful in lowering the number of polio cases worldwide, questions have arisen about the impact of the initiative on the functioning and financing of health systems as a whole and routine immunization more specifically. While some studies have investigated the impact of polio eradication on the functioning of health systems, few have been able to examine the impact on financing. This study is the second conducted by the United States Agency for International Development’s Partnerships for Health Reform Project on the impact of the polio eradication initiative on the financing of routine immunization activities. The first study examined funding trends for polio eradication and routine immunization in three countries: Bangladesh, Côte d’Ivoire, and Morocco. This study looks at funding trends among international organizations and donors, and the impact that their funding of polio eradication activities has had on their funding of routine immunization activities. The study findings indicate that while some short-term decreases in donor funding for routine immunization appear to have taken place as polio eradication initiative activities were introduced and accelerated, on the whole, donor funding for routine immunization support does not appear to have decreased. (author's)
Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 2003 Mar; 101(3):150-151.Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem in spite of DOTS programme recommended by WHO. One person dies from TB in India every minute. Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) is playing a major role in global DOTS expansion. DOTS coverage has expanded from 2% of the population in mid-1998 to 57% by the end of January, 2003. RNTCP has made a significant contribution to public health capacity. The programme has saved the people of India hundreds of millions of dollars. Monitoring the clinical course using smear microscopy and accurately reporting treatment outcomes is essential in well-functioning DOTS programme. RNTCP has invested heavily and made significant strides in maintaining and improving quality DOTS. State and district level programme reviews are a key component of the process. RNTCP has established guidelines for the involvement of the private sector and medical colleges. A member by ongoing technical activities will improve RNTCP’s surveillance and monitoring systems. However a challenge lies with the programme and a collective effort is welcome. (excerpt)
Sexual Health Exchange. 2003; (1): p..At the end of 2OO1, an estimated 40 million adults and children were living with HIV/AIDS worldwide, of whom 8.6 million in the Asia-Pacific region - more than any other region besides sub-Saharan Africa. Sixty percent of Asia-Pacific HIV infections were in India alone, translating into almost 4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the second largest number after South Africa. Although India's adult HIV-prevalence rate is low at about 0.8%, this converts into staggering numbers due to India's enormous population. HIV is spreading among highly vulnerable groups such as sex workers and truck drivers, and beyond, among the general population. (author's)
Bangkok, UNESCO Regional Office, 1980. 14 p. ([Building your population education collection] Booklet 3)Provides addresses of national population education projects, of other national organizations engaged in in- or out-of-school population activities in Asia and Oceania, and of international and United Nations agencies engaged in such activities.
Country report: Bangladesh. International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994.
[Unpublished] 1994. iv, 45 p.The country report prepared by Bangladesh for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development begins by highlighting the achievements of the family planning (FP)/maternal-child health (MCH) program. Political commitment, international support, the involvement of women, and integrated efforts have led to a decline in the population growth rate from 3 to 2.07% (1971-91), a decline in total fertility rate from 7.5 to 4.0% (1974-91), a reduction in desired family size from 4.1 to 2.9 (1975-89), a decline in infant mortality from 150 to 88/1000 (1975-92), and a decline in the under age 5 years mortality from 24 to 19/1000 (1982-90). In addition, the contraceptive prevalence rate has increased from 7 to 40% (1974-91). The government is now addressing the following concerns: 1) the dependence of the FP and health programs on external resources; 2) improving access to and quality of FP and health services; 3) promoting a demand for FP and involving men in FP and MCH; and 4) achieving social and economic development through economic overhaul and by improving education and the status of women and children. The country report presents the demographic context by giving a profile of the population and by discussing mortality, migration, and future growth and population size. The population policy, planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy (which is presented), the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (reproductive health issues; MCH and FP services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the environment, aging, adolescents and youth, multi-sectoral activities, women's status; the health of women and girls; women's education and role in industry and agriculture, and public interventions for women). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns, the policy framework, programmatic activities, resource mobilization, and regional and global cooperation.
[Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the 120th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Washington, D.C., November 8-12, 1992.  p.External donors provided plenty of funds to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in developing countries, hoping the governments would eventually support a national family planning (FP) policy. Lower levels of funding for population programs caused external donors to force NGO FP programs to become self-sustaining. Yet, it is likely to be difficult for them to improve the quality of services, expand coverage, and increase program sustainability all at the same time. External donors consider the 35-50% contraceptive prevalence rates that NGO FP programs are achieving to represent the early stages of sustainability at which time they divert funds to government programs. This loss of funds shifts the NGO program's focus from poor women to income-generation, made possible by targeting middle and upper income women. When diversion of funds resulted in a decline of contraceptive prevalence rates in Sri Lanka and stagnant rates in Pakistan and the Philippines. FP programs in Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and the Philippines first provided physician-controlled, reversible, clinical methods. Those in Sri Lanka and the Philippines next provided contraceptives through a widespread rural community-based distribution system. Pakistan held mass sterilization campaigns to address rapid population growth and high fertility. The management system of the national FP program in Sri Lanka is slow, and disruption of service delivery and supply systems is common Physician-trained nonphysician FP workers and the vertical national health and population sectors caused the stagnation in the public sector. The Philippines has trouble implementing public policy-based FP programs.
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33,  p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
Contraceptive source and the for-profit private sector in Third World family planning. Evidence and implications from trends in private sector use in the 1980s.
[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 21-23, 1991.  p.Estimates by Family Health International and UNFPA predict that the annual cost of modern family planning in meeting the target overall contraceptive prevalence level of 52% will be between $5-9 billion by the year 2000. The number of couples using modern methods of contraception will increase dramatically in future years, incurring great cost to donors, governments, and users. Urbanization, rising incomes, and higher education levels are generally seen as positive factors in permitting an expanded private sector role in the provision of modern contraceptives, providing an alternative source to donor and government programs. The for-profit concerns within the private sector of developing countries, were studied using available 1978-89 data from 26 countries to examine private family planning sources of contraceptives. Also, hypothetical determinants of private family planning use are established and their interrelationship with the use of for-profit family planning services, is investigated. Contrary to result expectations, it was found that use of the major provider for-profit private sector is declining in the face of rising incomes, urbanization, and better education. Government services are crowding out the private sector. Additionally, results indicate a strong user desire for longer-term methods. Full comprehension of the private sector and the factors governing choice of contraceptive source should lead to more effective use of donor and government funding in efforts to achieve set population objectives. Policy and program development will more accurately reflect social needs. Policy implications of the results are discussed.
INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):6-7.Providing resources for family planning programs in the USSR, where an extremely high rate of abortions threatens the lives of women, will require a multi-sectoral approach involving the government, international agencies, and the private sector. Every year, some 10-13 million of the USSR's 70 million women of fertile age undergo an abortion (only 7 million of the abortions every year are considered legal). A recent report indicates that only 15-18% of Soviet women have not had at least one abortion in their lifetimes. A result of the high rate of illegal abortions, morbidity and mortality affects many Soviet mothers. Additionally, infant mortality rates is as high as 58.5% in some areas of the USSR, a figure similar to that found in developing countries. Knowledge of modern contraception is high, but use remains low. This is due primarily to the lack of contraceptive availability. IUD's injectables, implants, and oral contraceptives are scarce. And even when oral contraceptives are available, few women opt for this method, due to the rampant misinformation and exaggeration concerning its side-effects. While the USSR does produce condoms, their quality is poor. Part of the solution to the lack of available contraception rests in the transition to a market economy. As the demand for these services increases, the market will begin meeting this demand. The government also has a important role to play, which includes the provision of information, medical and paramedical education, sex education, and service delivery. And international agencies will need to provide the necessary technical assistance.
IN TOUCH 1989 Mar; 13(90):17-9.An expanded immunization program (EPI) in Bangladesh was begun in 1979 in which a technician would be assigned to each subdistrict health unit. These subdistricts had approximately 150,000 to 200,000 people. The technician was responsible for collecting vaccines, immunizing, record keeping, and reporting to the district. In 1985 a review of the immunization program revealed that coverage of infants under 1 year for vaccines on tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, polio, tuberculosis, and measles was less than 2% for every year of vaccination. The United Nations agencies helped design new strategies for the national vaccination program. To improve the service delivery, the government in partnership with WHO, UNICEF and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) launched an intensive program. UNICEF supplied the materials and equipment. CARE provided planning, training, management, and social mobilization components at all levels. WHO assisted in training support and BRAC's activities where similar to CARE's. With the CARE staff at all levels there was a continuous flow of information up from the field and down from the national level. Because of the feedback from the field, decisions and changes were made on a regular and continuous basis through an institutionalized system. Outreach service delivery and community participation were the focus of the new program. The lessons learned after 2 years of operation suggest that the project staff should be assigned at every level from the grass roots to the national level. Information should flow up from the field and down from the national level continuously. A forum should be set up at the national level and be attended by all parties constantly. Also, a relationship should be developed by immediate counterparts at each level.
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1990 Oct; 80(10):1188-92.Health trends since 1950 in both developed and developing countries are classified and discussed in terms of causative factors: socioeconomic development, cross-national influences and growth of national health systems. Despite the vast differences in scale of health statistics between developed and developing countries, economic hardships and high military expenditures, all nations have demonstrated significant declines in life expectancy and infant mortality rates. Social and economic factors that influenced changes included independence from colonial rule in Africa and Asia and emergence from feudalism in China, industrialization, rising gross domestic product per capita and urbanization. An example of economic development is doubling to tripling of commercial energy consumption per capita. Social advancement is evidenced by higher literacy rates, school enrollments and education of women. Cross-national influences that improved overall health include international trade, spread of technology, and the universal acceptance of the idea that health is a human right. National health systems in developing countries are receiving increasing shares of the GNP. Total health expenditure by government is highly correlated with life expectancy. The view of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund that health care should be privatized is a step backward with anti-egalitarian consequences. The UN Economic Commission for Africa attacked the IMF and the World Bank for promoting private sector funding of health care stating that this leads to lower standards of living and poorer health among the disadvantaged. Suggested health strategies for the future should involve effective action in the public sector: adequate financial support of national health systems; political commitment to health as the basis of national security; citizen involvement in policy and planning; curtailing of smoking, alcohol, drugs and violence; elimination of environmental and toxic hazards; and maximum international collaboration.
The ECOP-ILO Population Education Program: a report on program implementation (January 1985 - December 1986).
[Unpublished] . 11 p.A 2-year (Jan. 1985 - Dec. 1986) Population Education Project was carried out by the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) with the objectives of informing employers of the importance of population and family life education and assisting them in the provision of family life education programs and family planning services for their workers. ECOP undertook a preliminary survey of 269 companies, which showed that: 1) Only 49 had family planning programs; 2) Only 37 of the others had any interest in having one; 3) Only 8.7% of the workers were acceptors; 4) Only 45 companies had clinics; 5) Only 7 had incentive schemes to motivate the workers; and 6) 98% of the 210 respondents felt that ECOP should not be involved in family planning. To accomplish its objectives ECOP held 22 population education seminars, attended by 98 company representatives over the 2-year period. With the assistance of the Population Center Foundation (PCF) ECOP established an In-Plant Family Planning Program, which determined the existing knowledge, attitude and practice of workers; recruited and trained clinic staffs and volunteers; disseminated information; and delivered family planning commodities and services. The ECOP also approved an incentive scheme to encourage employers to support the program. The ECOP Population Unit participated in the 1986 Philippine International Trade Fair by setting up exhibits, showing audiovisual presentations, and distributing ILO handbooks on population education. The ECOP project officer attended an inter-country population workshop in Tokyo. The ECOP recommended that the participating companies meet to discuss the project's accomplishments, implement incentive plans, assist in setting up family planning programs, join with family planning agencies to provide services, devise ways of making men aware of their responsibilities in family planning, and study the productivity of workers who practice family planning.
DEVELOPMENT: SEEDS OF CHANGE; VILLAGE THROUGH GLOBAL ORDER. 1987; (4):117-21.In this article the relations between government and non-government organizations (NGOs) are analyzed. In many countries, government and NGOs are 2 different worlds with little interaction between them. The differences between the 2 types of organizations could be summarized as the difference in the scale of operations, in the approach to development, different underlying philosophies, a different way of operating, different counterparts in developing countries, different projects and programs and a different way of dealing with the political context of development projects and programs. Collaboration between developed countries' governments and NGOs to stimulate development could be improved through: 1) a more systematic exchange of information between the 2 types of organizations; 2) the formulation of conditions for success in a particular country; 3) more sub-contracting of certain kinds of projects and project components to NGOs; 4) carrying out activities together; 5) improving the modalities and procedures of financial support to NGOs and in some cases its volume as well; and 6) moving from emergency to prevention. It is important to search for new fields of collaboration between government and non-government organizations. Examples are working with NGOs to formulate and implement food policies, relying on NGOs for feedback on certain policies, or in trying to achieve structural adjustment with a human face.
Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1987 Sept-Oct; (34):921-51.Family planning services through the workplace is an idea that is attracting more attention, benefit's workers, employers, and nations. Large manufacturers and plantations in India first offered family planning to workers in the 1950s. Now also in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, South Korea, Turkey, Egypt, Kenya, and elsewhere, many large companies have added family planning to other health services. In some Latin American countries social security systems have added family planning for many workers. Many different groups, including compaines, labor unions, government-sponsored social marketing programs, and the military, run employment-based programs. Services are offered in workplace clinics, through referrals, in free-standing facilities, in social security hospitals, and in community clinics. Funding comes from employers, governments, unions, family planning associations, and USAID. The most effective programs offer supplies and services as well as information, offer them directly at the workplace, and use worker-volunteers to distribute pills and condoms. Successful programs require the full support of company management. Favorable cost-benefit projections can show managers that offering family planning makes financial sense and contributes to employee health.
Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1985 Dec. 8 p. (Status Report on Population Problems and Programs)In 1985 Brazil's new civilian government took a potentially significant step towards political commitment to a national population program by appointing a national Commission for the Study of Human Reproductive Rights and by accepting large-scale external assistance to implement a nationwide maternal and child health program intended to include family planning services. Brazil's traditional pronatalist policy has been undergoing a change since 1974 and family planning is now viewed as an indispensable element of Brazil's development policy. Several laws which had long impeded the growth of family planning services have been revised or repealed. It is no longer illegal to advertise contraceptives, but abortion is only allowed in restricted circumstances. Approval for voluntary sterilization is easier to obtain. Brazilians who practice family planning obtain services primarily through commercial channels or the private sector. The government and private family planners are faced with a major problem of organizing family planning services for rural areas and the vast city slums. The estimated cost of a national family planning program for Brazil is between US$221 million for 1990 and US$182 to US$324 million for the year 2000. The various aspects of the government program are discussed. The private sector was instrumental in introducing family planning to Brazil. A private non-profit organization was established by a group of physicians to encourage the government to develop a national family planning program and to inform the public about responsible parenthood. This organization (BEMFAM) was given official recognition by the federal government and a number of states and declared a public convenience. Another organization (CPAIMC) was established to provide maternal and child health care in poor urban areas. The sources of external aid, accomplishments to date and remaining obstacles are discussed. Sources of external aid include: UNFPA, USAID, IPPF, the Pathfinder Fund and Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH). A change in popular and official pronatalist attitudes has been effected.
General lessons learned from evaluations of MCH/FP projects in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Dec. iv, 41 p.4 maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) projects were evaluated by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the Southern Africa Region between 1981-1984. The projects were in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia. An overriding finding at the time of the Evaluation Missions was the acceptance of family planning (child spacing) by all 4 governments, when at the onset of the projects, family planning was either not included in the project documents or was included only as a minor contributant to the MCH programs. The intervention by UNFPA was very important for the acceptance and promotion of family planning activities by the governments. The Evaluation Missions concluded that there were 3 primary reasons for the successful intervention: UNFPA has a broad mandate to provide assistance in MCH and FP, a commitment to development projects in line with the governments' priorities, and the ability to fund projects very quickly, facilitating project implementation. Each of the 4 projects is assessed in terms of population policy changes, MCH/FP program strategy and serive delivery, organization of the MCH/Fp unit, health education, training, evaluation and research systems, and administration and management. Essential factors affecting the project are outlined and recommendations made. The last section discusses general lessons derived from the MCH/FP projects evaluated. 5 areas are identified where similar problems exist to varying degrees in all the projects evaluated. These are: training of medical personnel in FP (the main MCH/FP service provider in these projects was the nurse/midwife); supervision of personnel and the supply and distribution of contraceptives; research and evaluation, especially regarding the sociocultural setting of target populations and the inadequacy of existing service statistics and other sources of data; project monitoring (technical and financial) and finally project execution by the World Health Organization (WHO). Specifically in regard to the recruitment of experts, the provision of supplies and equipment, and the provision of funds for local costs, WHO execution has been deficient.
Tellus. 1984 Jul; 5(2):8-11, 25-8.Since the formulation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in Bucharest in 1974, about 80% of governments have endorsed family planning and fertility control. There has been a growing awareness by governments that population planning must be an integral part of general policy formulation. This article describes the issues of central concern to the 1984 International Population Conference in Mexico, highlighting those which result from new global developments over the past decade. Immigration, particularly by exiles and refugees from political persecution, are contributing much more to population instability than foreseen by the WPPA. Internal migration and massive population shifts from rural to urban areas are of increasing concern to governments in developing nations. In developed countries, there has been an emergence of anxiety over zero population growth. The role of privately sponsored programs for population control is much less prominent, as governments take more responsibility for formulating population policy. A report from a meeting of 90 such nongovernmental organizations held in 1983 was reluctantly accepted as an official document at the conference in Mexico. The Canadian Task Force on Population has identified 5 issues of special concern: status of women, the environment, aging, immigration, and family planning. The Task Force includes among its objectives the encouragement of a comprehensive population policy for Canada, focussing both on Canada's special concerns and on its place in the global community. For example, acid rain and improper soil conservation are threatening Canada's status as one of the few viable "bread baskets" for the world. The growing bulge in the population over age 65 will impose economic strain in the future. Sex education for adolescents in inadequate, with only 1/2 of Canadian schools addressing sex and sexuality in the curriculum.
Tropical Doctor. 1984 Jan; 14(1):3-7.On April 27, 1982 the Ministry of Health of the government of Bangladesh, set up an 8-man expert committee to evaluate all the registered pharmaceutical products presently available, and to formulate a draft National Drug Policy. Objectives are: 1) to provide support for ensuring quality and availability of drugs; 2) to reduce drug prices; 3) to eliminate useless, nonessential, and harmful drugs from the market; 4) to promote local production of finished drugs; 5) to ensure coordination among government branches; 6) to develop a drug monitoring and information system; 7) to promote the scientific development and application of unani, ayurvedic, and homeopathic medicines; 8) to improve the standard of hospital and retail pharmacies; and 9) to insure good manufacturing practices. 16 criteria were agreed on as guidelines for evaluating the drugs on the country's market. Drugs in Bangladesh have been classified into 3 categories. The 1st is drugs that are positively harmful. They should be banned immediately and withdrawn from the market. There are 265 locally manufactured drugs and 40 imported drugs in this category. The 2nd, drugs to be slightly reformulated by eliminating some of their requirements. There are 134 drugs in this category. The 3rd is drugs that do not conform to 1 or more of the 16 criteria/guidelines. There are over 500 drugs in this category. The new drug policy will produce a saving of 800 million taka (US $32.4 million). Drug supply in Bangladesh is a problem. The public sector distributes 20% of the total. In the private sector, drugs are supplied through import and local production. Investment for research by the pharmaceutical companies is essential. The principles laid down by the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations for the supply of good medicine needs to be put into practice.
Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1981 Sep. 4 p.Focus in this discussion of the population problems and programs of China is on the following: government population programs; the organizational structure; law and policy; budgetary allocations, elements of the government program (propaganda and peer pressure, family planning services, contraceptive prevalence); private sector involvement; sources of external support; accomplishments thus far; remaining obstacles to keeping population growth under control; and China's significance for world population efforts. In the mid-1950s the Chinese government initiated a program of family planning and gradually brought their birth rate down through persistent and widespread propaganda, a full array of free family planning services, emphasis on the 2-child family, and pressure for late marriages. In 1979 the government program centered around a 1-child family and a system of rewards and penalties. The objective is to bring population growth to a halt around the year 2000 at about 1.2 billion persons and in the following years to gradually reduce the population to between 600 and 700 million. China has no national family planning law as yet, but a law has been drafted and circulated to provincial officials for comment. The Family Planning Leading Group adopted a policy in 1979 recommended 1 child per couple and laid out a model system of rewards and penalties to encourage compliance. Government spending for the family planning program is contained in the budgets for the Ministry of Public Health as well as in the budget for the Family Planning Commission. There is no private sector involvement in China's family planning program. All health services are government-controlled and private voluntary organizations as such do not exist. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities is the coordinating agency for external assistance to China's family planning program.
[Washington, D.C.], American Public Health Association, 1979 Mar 7. 42 p. (Contract AID/pha/C-1100)The needs and opportunities in population and family planning in the Caribbean region are assessed. Focus is on the general setting (regional profile, economic situation, education, health, basic constraints and regionalism), observations and recommendations (population policy, international donor support, community-based distribution, voluntary sterilization, commercial retail sales, status of women, management, regional cooperation), selected regional institutions (government and non-government organizations), and international donor agencies. In general the governments in the Caribbean are supportive of family planning programs, and, except for Belize and Guyana, most of the countries have a national family planning program. Although there is tacit or direct support for family planning and an increasing application of demographic variables in the planning and development of socioeconomic programs, there is no clear indication that the governments understand or recognize the implications of rapid population growth. Except for the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and International Planned Parenthood Federation and World Bank population projects in Jamaica and Trinidad, the international donor community has provided only modest, sporadic and ad hoc support for population and family planning in the Caribbean. In the Caribbean the needs and opportunities for community-based distribution are markedly different from those existing in other countries.