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  1. 1
    375990

    Private sector: Who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report. Summary of recommendations.

    Independent Accountability Panel for Every Woman, Every Child, Every Adolescent

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 12 p.

    This report presents five recommendations, which are addressed to governments, parliaments, the judiciary, the United Nations (UN) system, the UN Global Compact, the Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) partners, donors, civil society and the private sector itself. Recommendations include: 1) Access to services and the right to health. To achieve universal access to services and protect the health and related rights of women, children and adolescents, governments should regulate private as well as public sector providers. Parliaments should strengthen legislation and ensure oversight for its enforcement. The UHC2030 partnership should drive political leadership at the highest level to address private sector transparency and accountability. 2) The pharmaceutical industry and equitable access to medicines. To ensure equitable, affordable access to quality essential medicines and related health products for all women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should strengthen policies and regulation governing the pharmaceutical industry. 3) The food industry, obesity and NCDs. To tackle rising obesity and NCDs among women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should regulate the food and beverage industry, and adopt a binding global convention. Ministries of education and health should educate students and the public at large about diet and exercise, and set standards in school-based programmes. Related commitments should be included in the next G20 Summit agenda. 4) The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners. The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners should strengthen their monitoring and accountability standards for engagement of the business sector, with an emphasis on women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. They should advocate for accountability of the for-profit sector to be put on the global agenda for achieving UHC and the SDGs, including at the 2019 High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development and the Health Summit. The UN H6 Partnership entities and the GFF should raise accountability standards in the country programmes they support. 5) Donors and business engagement in the SDGs. Development cooperation partners should ensure that transparency and accountability standards aligned with public health are applied throughout their engagement with the for-profit sector. They should invest in national regulatory and oversight capacities, and also regulate private sector actors headquartered in their countries.
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  2. 2
    375989

    Private sector: who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report.

    Independent Accountability Panel for Every Woman, Every Child, Every Adolescent

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 80 p.

    In line with the mandate from the UN Secretary-General, every year the IAP issues a report that provides an independent snapshot of progress on delivering promises to the world’s women, children and adolescents for their health and well-being. Recommendations are included on ways to help fast-track action to achieve the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health 2016-2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals - from the specific lens of accountability, of who is responsible for delivering on promises, to whom, and how. The theme of the IAP’s 2018 report is accountability of the private sector. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will not be achieved without the active and meaningful involvement of the private sector. Can the private sector be held accountable for protecting women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health? And if so, who is responsible for holding them to account, and what are the mechanisms for doing so? This report looks at three key areas of private sector engagement: health service delivery the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines the food industry and its significant influence on health and nutrition, with a focus NCDs and rising obesity.
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  3. 3
    394406
    Peer Reviewed

    A New World Health Era.

    Pablos-Mendez A; Raviglione MC

    Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Mar 21; 6(1):8-16.

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  4. 4
    340691

    Financing demystified.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Oct. [34] p.

    With support from the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition (RHSC) Innovation Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is implementing the National Action for Financing (NAF) project to work with stakeholders to position funding for RH supplies as a critical element in the new development financing architecture. This publication aims to enable stakeholders to understand the implications of the changes and challenges to RH supplies funding. The advocacy messages and tactics described in this document can help influence decision-making, increase funding and improve access to RH supplies and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR). (Excerpt)
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  5. 5
    342018
    Peer Reviewed

    International health policy and stagnating maternal mortality: is there a causal link?

    Unger JP; Van Dessel P; Sen K; De Paepe P

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2009 May; 17(33):91-104.

    This paper examines why progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 on maternal health appears to have stagnated in much of the global south. We contend that besides the widely recognised existence of weak health systems, including weak services, low staffing levels, managerial weaknesses, and lack of infrastructure and information, this stagnation relates to the inability of most countries to meet two essential conditions: to develop access to publicly funded, comprehensive health care, and to provide the not-for-profit sector with needed political, technical and financial support. This paper offers a critical perspective on the past 15 years of international health policies as a possible cofactor of high maternal mortality, because of their emphasis on disease control in public health services at the expense of access to comprehensive health care, and failures of contracting out and public–private partnerships in health care. Health care delivery cannot be an issue both of trade and of right. Without policies to make health systems in the global south more publicly-oriented and accountable, the current standards of maternal and child health care are likely to remain poor, and maternal deaths will continue to affect women and their families at an intolerably high level.
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  6. 6
    323501
    Peer Reviewed

    AIDS: can we meet the 2010 target?

    Senior K

    Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2008 Jan; 8(1):14.

    A report from the International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC) warns that meeting the "near universal access target" to AIDS drugs access by the 2010 deadline will require an enormous effort by governments, global agencies, and drug companies. According to the report, which looked at AIDS treatment access in 14 countries, "scale-up is working but high prices, patent and registration barriers, and ongoing stock-outs are core issues impeding AIDS drug delivery". "The issues highlighted in this report are real and widespread", said Nathan Ford of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; Johannesburg, South Africa). The HIV programmes run by MSF across the developing world are struggling against user fees, high drug costs, lack of human resources, and poor health infrastructure, he told TLID. The ITPC, a group of 1000 treatment activists from more than 125 countries, highlights that the high cost of antiretroviral drugs is a particular barrier in Argentina, China, and Belize. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    323312

    Bringing water to Africa's poor: Expanded access requires more funds, efficiency and capacity.

    Dovi E

    Africa Renewal. 2007 Oct; 21(3):7.

    Until six years ago, Eugenia Uwamahoro and several of her eight children had to trek 2 kilometres each day to a river to get about 140 litres of water for drinking, cooking, washing and feeding her four cows. There was a water pump in her village, Nyakabingo, in Rwanda's Gicumbi district, but it hardly functioned. Then the Rwandan government, with financial support from the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), repaired the pump, and the community contracted a private manager to maintain it. "It has improved my life," Ms. Uwamahoro told African Renewal. "Now we can rest." Not only has the pump saved her considerable time and effort, but she also gets her household's daily water supply at lower cost than she would have from the private village water carriers who cart it up from the river. Many villagers "are happy to pay for the improved service," says Kamaru Tstoneste, who operates the pump. But some villagers cannot afford the cost. So community leaders compiled a list of the neediest households, and review it from time to time. "This group gets an agreed quantity of free supply," Mr. Tstoneste told Africa Renewal. Still, he adds, "Old habits die hard. There are those who refuse to pay for water and still go to the river." (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    318962

    The potential of private sector midwives in reaching Millennium Development Goals.

    White P; Levin L

    Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates. Private Sector Partnerships-One [PSP-One], 2006 Dec. 48 p. (Technical Report No. 6; USAID Contract No. GPO-I-00-04-00007-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ADI-754)

    Government health sectors in many countries face an uphill battle to reach the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set for 2015. In the last six years, Ministries of Health (MOHs) in many less developed countries (LDCs) have been unable to invest sufficiently in their health systems. To achieve the MDGs despite inadequate resources, new approaches for delivering critical clinical services must be considered. This paper explores the potential for private-sector midwives to provide services beyond their traditional scope of care during pregnancies and births to address shortcomings in LDCs' ability to reach MDGs. This paper examines factors that support or constrain private practice midwives' (PPMWs') ability to offer expanded services in order to inform the policy and donor communities about PPMWs' potential. Data was collected through literature reviews, stakeholder interviews, and field-based, semi-structured interviews in Ghana, Indonesia, Peru, Uganda, and Zambia. Ghana, Indonesia, and Uganda were chosen because they are countries where PPMWs provide expanded services. Peru and Zambia were selected as examples where midwives have struggled to develop private practices or they provide expanded services despite issues about midwives' roles and legal sanctions for private practices. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    293079

    Enlisting business support for Africa's Millennium Goals.

    Africa Renewal. 2005 Oct; 19(3):21.

    Africa will not be able to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) unless it is able to mobilize all stakeholders, including the private sector, concluded more than 200 participants at a conference in London on 4 July. Coming on the eve of the Group of Eight summit in Scotland and on the same day as the opening of the African Union summit in Libya, the event formally launched a project of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), "Bending the Arc," which aims to encourage businesses in Africa to advance the MDGs. The meeting was organized by the NEPAD Secretariat, the African Business Roundtable (ABR) and the United Nations. It also received sponsorship from Coca-Cola, Visa International, Nestlé and other corporations. Making Africa more attractive to business is crucial if "we are to end Africa's dependency on aid and ensure the self-sustaining growth that is needed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in Africa," said Mr. Bamanga Tukur, president of the ABR and chair of the NEPAD Business Group. Mr. Mark Malloch Brown, chief of staff to the UN Secretary-General, lauded the project's aim, since achieving the MDGs "is beyond the reach of government alone." But he also cautioned against "pure private sector solutions" that may push the costs of water or information technologies out of reach of the poor. Africa needs "creative partnerships, where public guarantees, strong public regulations and, possibly, public start-up funds create the incentives and regulatory frameworks to allow the private sector to do its bit, and start to connect people to these vital infrastructures." (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    776082

    Action now toward more responsible parenthood worldwide. (Proceedings of the Tokyo International Symposium, Tokyo, April 4-7, 1977).

    Japan Science Society; Draper World Population Fund

    Tokyo, Japan, Japan Science Society, 1977. 578 p.

    The Tokyo International Symposium reviewed the progress made since 1974 in integrating population policies with socioeconomic development, with additional focus on needs of rural areas. It was discovered that even countries experiencing economic growth have still failed to provide basic human needs - health, nutrition, housing, education, and employment - and that in densely populated rural areas, and marginal districts of cities, fertility decline has been slow or nonexistant. New evidence presented at the symposium suggested that now a new stage of population history is approaching, characterized by falling birth rates and slackening of world population growth; nevertheless, rapid population growth in developing countries has not ended because 1) of the high proportion of young people in many countries and 2) the fertility rates of the poorest half of the population are 50% higher than the national averages. While projections of world population are being revised downward, world population is still likely to grow from its present 4 billion to 6 billion by the turn of the century. All agencies, official or private, need to emphasize development of cost-effective methods which the government may adopt after a successful pilot study that take into account the social values, religious beliefs, and customs in each country. The symposium urges that additional resources be made available for a broad range of new initiatives in the following areas: 1) to make the fullest range of family planning services available in rural areas and marginal districts of cities; 2) to expand the social and economic roles of women and to improve their status in other fields; 3) to educate adolescents and young adults about their reproductive behavior and to underscore the impact that premature parenthood would have on themselves, their families, and communities; 4) to integrate family planning with development activities; and 5) to encourage program design by affected populations.
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  11. 11
    113339

    The International Dialogue on Micronutrient Malnutrition: Forum on Food Fortification, 6-8 December, 1995, Ottawa, Canada.

    Saade C

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. [5] p. (Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 56 011; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)

    The International Dialogue on Micronutrient Malnutrition: Forum on Food Fortification, convened in Ottawa, Canada, in 1995, promoted partnership between the private and public sectors aimed at eliminating global malnutrition through strategies such as food fortification and supplementation. Participants agreed on the goal of eliminating micronutrient malnutrition by the year 2000, with an emphasis on iodine, iron, and vitamin A deficiencies. Achievement of this goal will entail, for each country, a needs assessment and discussion of the role of micronutrient fortification, establishment of a hierarchy of foods to reach the maximum population at risk, and dialogue to provide a link for technology and information exchange. The public sector will assist in the development of standards, provide incentives, and contact industry, while the private sector will provide scientific research and development, conduct market research, develop appropriate products, and disseminate and market the products; the role of international organizations will be to provide financial support and serve as liaison between the public and private sectors.
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  12. 12
    081708

    Effective family planning programs.

    Bulatao RA; Levin A; Bos ER; Green C

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1993. vii, 103 p.

    The World Bank has conducted an assessment of the performance of family planning (FP) programs in developing countries. The first part examines their contributions and costs. It concludes that FP programs have played a key role in a reproductive revolution in these countries. Specifically, all developing regions have experienced a transition to lower fertility (e.g., in the last 20 years, fertility has fallen 33%), resulting in lower infant, child, and maternal mortality. One chapter looks at experiences in East Asia, South Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank staff use research to present a broad summary of what methods and characteristics achieve effective programs. The book addresses other social development interventions that contribute to a lasting reproductive revolution. Despite the positive results of FP programs, maternal mortality in developing countries is still much higher (10 times) than it is in developed countries and 25% of married women in developing countries report an unmet need for FP. Government commitment to FP programs needs to be strengthened and donor support should keep up with needs to expand successful FP programs. FP programs can satisfy these needs if they provide quality services, including a solid client focus, effective promotion, and strong encouragement of the private sector to increase their participation. Indeed, program quality must be the top priority. Strategic management of FP programs is also crucial. Programs need to integrate and coordinate effective promotion of FP, e.g., social marketing, with other activities.
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  13. 13
    064771

    Child survival strategy for Sudan, USAID/Khartoum.

    Harvey M; Louton L

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33, [22] p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
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  14. 14
    071380

    Mission finds Egypt poised for "demographic breakthrough".

    POPULATION. 1992 Feb; 18(2):3.

    In 1991, an UNFPA Programme Review and Strategy Development mission went to Egypt and noted that the government's population and development goals for 1988-92 had been realized. Between 1988-91, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 37.6 to 47.6% and infant mortality fell from 54 to 50. Data indicated that maternal mortality was also declining. The crude birth rate fell from 39.8 to 32.2 (1985-90) which slowed growth from 2.8 to 2.5%. Yet this progress may not prevent an environmental disaster or improve individual standards of living. In fact, the Minister for the Economy noted in December 1991 that population growth was the only obstacle to economic success in Egypt. The mission recommended that any large amounts of population and development. The population grew >3-fold in 50 years bringing its population to almost 56 million. Demographers have predicted the population will reach 70 million in 2000. As os 1991, 96% of the population lived on 4% of the land which borders the River Nile. Family planning (FP) programs have traditionally been centrally organized, but the mission noted that decentralized programs are needed. It further stated that local FP efforts should form a bridge between public and private FP providers. The report also stressed that UNFPA should focus its effect in Upper Egypt where population growth is the fastest. It also recommended that UNFPA take a more comprehensive view of women, population, and development issues, especially since the burden of contraception falls on women. This suggestion included a wider range of contraceptives and more female physicians. FP providers should target younger women since most contraceptive users have already reached their desired family size. Finally, the mission advocated local contraceptive production and more involvement of the private sector.
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  15. 15
    270547

    Collaboration between government and non-governmental organizations.

    van Dijk MP

    DEVELOPMENT: SEEDS OF CHANGE; VILLAGE THROUGH GLOBAL ORDER. 1987; (4):117-21.

    In this article the relations between government and non-government organizations (NGOs) are analyzed. In many countries, government and NGOs are 2 different worlds with little interaction between them. The differences between the 2 types of organizations could be summarized as the difference in the scale of operations, in the approach to development, different underlying philosophies, a different way of operating, different counterparts in developing countries, different projects and programs and a different way of dealing with the political context of development projects and programs. Collaboration between developed countries' governments and NGOs to stimulate development could be improved through: 1) a more systematic exchange of information between the 2 types of organizations; 2) the formulation of conditions for success in a particular country; 3) more sub-contracting of certain kinds of projects and project components to NGOs; 4) carrying out activities together; 5) improving the modalities and procedures of financial support to NGOs and in some cases its volume as well; and 6) moving from emergency to prevention. It is important to search for new fields of collaboration between government and non-government organizations. Examples are working with NGOs to formulate and implement food policies, relying on NGOs for feedback on certain policies, or in trying to achieve structural adjustment with a human face.
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  16. 16
    034328

    Health development planning.

    Mahmoud SH

    In: Methodological foundations for research on the determinants of health development, by World Health Organization [WHO]. [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Office of Research Promotion and Development, 1985. 1-7. (RPD/SOC/85)

    Health development planning is part of overall development planning and is influenced by the total development process. Those dealing with health planning may present the health sector's development as the most important aspect of development whereas there may be more urgent problems in other sectors. All socioeconomic plans aim at improving the quality of life. There is some correlation between spending on health programs and the health indices. The health indices are poor in countries which accord low priority to health. A table gives measure of health status by level of GNP/capita in selected countries. No direct correlation appears between income and mortality. This paper examines the functions of health development planning; health development plans; intersectoral collaboration; health information; strategy; financial aspects; implementation, evaluation and reprogramming; and manpower needs. A health development plan usually includes an analysis of the current situation; a review of the immediate past plan and previous plans; the objectives, strategy, targets and physical infrastructure of the plan; program philosophy with manpower requirements; financial implications; and the role of the private sector and nongovernment organizations and related constraints. The main health-related determinants include: education, increased school attendance, agriculture and water, food distribution and income, human resources programs and integrated rural development. The strategy of health sector development today is geared towards development of integrated health systems. Intercountry coordination may be improved with aid from the WHO. Health expenditures in countries including Bangladesh, India and Norway is presented.
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  17. 17
    267369

    Population: from Bucharest to Mexico and beyond. Poblacion: de Bucharest a Mexico y mas alla.

    Nobbe C

    Tellus. 1984 Jul; 5(2):8-11, 25-8.

    Since the formulation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in Bucharest in 1974, about 80% of governments have endorsed family planning and fertility control. There has been a growing awareness by governments that population planning must be an integral part of general policy formulation. This article describes the issues of central concern to the 1984 International Population Conference in Mexico, highlighting those which result from new global developments over the past decade. Immigration, particularly by exiles and refugees from political persecution, are contributing much more to population instability than foreseen by the WPPA. Internal migration and massive population shifts from rural to urban areas are of increasing concern to governments in developing nations. In developed countries, there has been an emergence of anxiety over zero population growth. The role of privately sponsored programs for population control is much less prominent, as governments take more responsibility for formulating population policy. A report from a meeting of 90 such nongovernmental organizations held in 1983 was reluctantly accepted as an official document at the conference in Mexico. The Canadian Task Force on Population has identified 5 issues of special concern: status of women, the environment, aging, immigration, and family planning. The Task Force includes among its objectives the encouragement of a comprehensive population policy for Canada, focussing both on Canada's special concerns and on its place in the global community. For example, acid rain and improper soil conservation are threatening Canada's status as one of the few viable "bread baskets" for the world. The growing bulge in the population over age 65 will impose economic strain in the future. Sex education for adolescents in inadequate, with only 1/2 of Canadian schools addressing sex and sexuality in the curriculum.
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  18. 18
    267241

    Population sector review: Sri Lanka.

    Sinding SW; Dumm JJ; Toner JS

    [Unpublished] 1984. i, 15, 5 p.

    This report ist presented in response to a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) /Sri Lanka request for a review of the population and family planning program in the country and for recommentdations on the future role of UASID in support of the Sri Lanka program. It is intended to help the USAID Mission to make decisions regarding both the substance of population program assistance and the manner in which it is provided. The central recommendation is that the Mission undertake bilateral support of both public and private sector programs as soon as possible. This report is organized into 3 parts: 1)a brief overview of the demographic situation; 2) a review of the present national program, both public and private; and 3) recommendations for future program directions. The report was prepared during a 3-week visit to Sri Lanka. The relatively high rate of population growth will become an even greater factor in Sri Lanka's development equation than it has been in the past, and unless there is a significant and rapid decrease in fertility, population growth will diminish development prospeccts for the remainder of the century. USAID currently provides about US$0.5 to US$0.7 million of annual support to Sri Lanka family planning services programs through 9 intermediaries. This does not include the annual assistance provided by the United Nations Fund for Population Activites and International Planned Parenthood Federation which total approximately US$1.5 million. The Family Health Bureau of the Ministry of Health is responsible for managing the Government's family planning program. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka currently manages 2 large family planning service projects. USAID should begin high-level discussions in earnest with the Sri Lanka government.
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  19. 19
    161774

    Research on the regulation of human fertility: needs of developing countries and priorities for the future, Vol. 2, Background documents.

    Diczfalusy E; Diczfalusy A

    Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1983. 2 986 p.

    Volume 2 of papers from an international symposium starts with chapter 7--available methods of fertility regulation; problems encountered in family planning programs of developing countries. Natural family planning is discussed here, as well as contraceptives and male and female sterilization. Chapter 8 covers research problems with regard to epidemiological, service, and psychosocial aspects of fertility regulation. Family planning is stressed in this chapter. Chapter 9 discusses future methods of fertility regulation: progress in selected areas. New contraceptive agents are discussed, such as luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and its analogues, gossypol for men, and immunological methods of fertility regulation. Chapter 10 also discusses future methods of fertility regulation, but from the point of view of research needs and priorities as viewed by program directors and advisers. Views and research priorities of the Population Council, and the Indian Council of Medical Research are given. Research needs and priorities in China are discussed, as is the role of the World Health Organization's Special Program of Reseach, Development and Reserch Training in Human Reproduction. Lastly, chapter 11 covers the role of governments, agencies and industry in reseach on fertility regulation. The role of the Agency for International Development, the US National Institutes of Health; and the World Bank, among others, are discussed.
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  20. 20
    267011

    On a national drug policy for Bangladesh.

    Islam N

    Tropical Doctor. 1984 Jan; 14(1):3-7.

    On April 27, 1982 the Ministry of Health of the government of Bangladesh, set up an 8-man expert committee to evaluate all the registered pharmaceutical products presently available, and to formulate a draft National Drug Policy. Objectives are: 1) to provide support for ensuring quality and availability of drugs; 2) to reduce drug prices; 3) to eliminate useless, nonessential, and harmful drugs from the market; 4) to promote local production of finished drugs; 5) to ensure coordination among government branches; 6) to develop a drug monitoring and information system; 7) to promote the scientific development and application of unani, ayurvedic, and homeopathic medicines; 8) to improve the standard of hospital and retail pharmacies; and 9) to insure good manufacturing practices. 16 criteria were agreed on as guidelines for evaluating the drugs on the country's market. Drugs in Bangladesh have been classified into 3 categories. The 1st is drugs that are positively harmful. They should be banned immediately and withdrawn from the market. There are 265 locally manufactured drugs and 40 imported drugs in this category. The 2nd, drugs to be slightly reformulated by eliminating some of their requirements. There are 134 drugs in this category. The 3rd is drugs that do not conform to 1 or more of the 16 criteria/guidelines. There are over 500 drugs in this category. The new drug policy will produce a saving of 800 million taka (US $32.4 million). Drug supply in Bangladesh is a problem. The public sector distributes 20% of the total. In the private sector, drugs are supplied through import and local production. Investment for research by the pharmaceutical companies is essential. The principles laid down by the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations for the supply of good medicine needs to be put into practice.
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  21. 21
    762466

    Bangladesh.

    Loomis SA

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 92 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XVII)

    This article uses available statistics to analyze health conditions in Bangladesh and their impact on the country's socioeconomic development. Background information on the country is first given, after which population characteristics, health status, nutrition, national health policy and adminstration, health services and programs, population programs, environmental sanitation, health sector resources, financing of health care and donor assistance are examined. Bangladesh's 3% annual population increase is expected to increase already great population pressure and to have a negative impact on the health status of the population. Although reliable health statistics are lacking, infant mortality is estimated at 140 per 1000, 40% of all deaths occur in the 0-4 age group, and maternal mortality is high. Infectious diseases exacerbated by malnutrition are the main causes of death. 4 key factors are responsible for the general malnutrition: 1) rapidly growing population, 2) low per capita income, 3) high incidence of diarrheal diseases, and 4) dietary practices that restrict nutrient intake. Most of the population has access only to traditional health services, and medical education is hospital oriental and curative, with minimal emphasis on public health. The level of environmental sanitation is extremely low.
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  22. 22
    791259

    Thailand: report of mission on needs assessment for population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 p

    This report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
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  23. 23
    011086

    People in population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    N.Y., UNFPA, 1977? 67 p. (Population Profiles 4)

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  24. 24
    783212

    Multi-year population strategy--Arab Republic of Egypt.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Egypt, USAID. 1978 March; 82.

    A review of Egypt's population/family planning policy and assessment of the current population problem is included in a multi-year population strategy for USAID in Egypt, which also comprises: 1) consideration of the major contraints to expanded practice of family size limitation; 2) assessment of the Egyptian government's commitment to fertility control; 3) suggestions for strengthening the Egyptian program and comment on possible donor roles; and 4) a recommended U.S. strategy and comment on the implications of the recommendations. The text of the review includes: 1) demographic goals and factors; 2) assessment of current population efforts; 2) proposed approaches and action for fertility reduction in Egypt; and 4) implication for U.S. population assistance. Based on analysis of Egyptian population program efforts, the following approaches are considered essential to a successful program of fertility reduction: 1) effective management and delivery of family planning services; 4) an Egyptian population educated, motivated and participating in reducing family size; 5) close donor coordination; and 6) emphasis on the role of women.
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  25. 25
    781095

    CBFPS (Community-based Family Planning Services) in Thailand: a community-based approach to family planning.

    BURINTRATIKUL S; SAMANIEGO MC

    Essex, Connecticut, International Council for Educational Development, 1978. (A project to help practitioners help the rural poor, case study no. 6) 91 p

    This report and case study of the Community-Based Family Planning Service (CBFPS) in Thailand describes and evaluates the program in order to provide useful operational lessons for concerned national and international agencies. CBFPS has demonstrated the special role a private organization can play not only in providing family planning services, but in helping to pioneer a more integrated approach to rural development. The significant achievement of CBFPS is that it has overcome the familiar barriers of geographical access to family planning information and contraceptive supplies by making these available in the village community itself. The report gives detailed information on the history and development of the CBFPS, its current operation and organization, financial resources, and overall impact. Several important lessons were learned from the project: 1) the successful development of a project depends on a strong and dynamic leader; 2) cooperation between the public and private sectors is essential; 3) the success of a project depends primarily on the effectiveness of community-based activities; 4) planning and monitoring activities represent significant ingredients of project effectiveness; 5) a successful project needs a sense of commitment among its staff; 6) it is imperative that a project maintain good public relations; 7) the use of family planning strategy in introducing self-supporting development programs can be very effective; 8) manning of volunteer workers is crucial to project success; and 9) aside from acceptor recruitment in the short run, the primary purpose of education in more profound matterns such as childbearing, womens'roles in the family, and family life should also be kept in mind. The key to success lies in continuity of communication and education.
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