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Action now toward more responsible parenthood worldwide. (Proceedings of the Tokyo International Symposium, Tokyo, April 4-7, 1977).
Tokyo, Japan, Japan Science Society, 1977. 578 p.The Tokyo International Symposium reviewed the progress made since 1974 in integrating population policies with socioeconomic development, with additional focus on needs of rural areas. It was discovered that even countries experiencing economic growth have still failed to provide basic human needs - health, nutrition, housing, education, and employment - and that in densely populated rural areas, and marginal districts of cities, fertility decline has been slow or nonexistant. New evidence presented at the symposium suggested that now a new stage of population history is approaching, characterized by falling birth rates and slackening of world population growth; nevertheless, rapid population growth in developing countries has not ended because 1) of the high proportion of young people in many countries and 2) the fertility rates of the poorest half of the population are 50% higher than the national averages. While projections of world population are being revised downward, world population is still likely to grow from its present 4 billion to 6 billion by the turn of the century. All agencies, official or private, need to emphasize development of cost-effective methods which the government may adopt after a successful pilot study that take into account the social values, religious beliefs, and customs in each country. The symposium urges that additional resources be made available for a broad range of new initiatives in the following areas: 1) to make the fullest range of family planning services available in rural areas and marginal districts of cities; 2) to expand the social and economic roles of women and to improve their status in other fields; 3) to educate adolescents and young adults about their reproductive behavior and to underscore the impact that premature parenthood would have on themselves, their families, and communities; 4) to integrate family planning with development activities; and 5) to encourage program design by affected populations.
The ECOP-ILO Population Education Program: a report on program implementation (January 1985 - December 1986).
[Unpublished] . 11 p.A 2-year (Jan. 1985 - Dec. 1986) Population Education Project was carried out by the Employers Confederation of the Philippines (ECOP) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) with the objectives of informing employers of the importance of population and family life education and assisting them in the provision of family life education programs and family planning services for their workers. ECOP undertook a preliminary survey of 269 companies, which showed that: 1) Only 49 had family planning programs; 2) Only 37 of the others had any interest in having one; 3) Only 8.7% of the workers were acceptors; 4) Only 45 companies had clinics; 5) Only 7 had incentive schemes to motivate the workers; and 6) 98% of the 210 respondents felt that ECOP should not be involved in family planning. To accomplish its objectives ECOP held 22 population education seminars, attended by 98 company representatives over the 2-year period. With the assistance of the Population Center Foundation (PCF) ECOP established an In-Plant Family Planning Program, which determined the existing knowledge, attitude and practice of workers; recruited and trained clinic staffs and volunteers; disseminated information; and delivered family planning commodities and services. The ECOP also approved an incentive scheme to encourage employers to support the program. The ECOP Population Unit participated in the 1986 Philippine International Trade Fair by setting up exhibits, showing audiovisual presentations, and distributing ILO handbooks on population education. The ECOP project officer attended an inter-country population workshop in Tokyo. The ECOP recommended that the participating companies meet to discuss the project's accomplishments, implement incentive plans, assist in setting up family planning programs, join with family planning agencies to provide services, devise ways of making men aware of their responsibilities in family planning, and study the productivity of workers who practice family planning.
Populi. 1985; 12(4):22-31.Although the UN's charter (1945) provided for arrangements with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), relations between the 2 have been uneasy, since NGOs are often ignored or not listened to fully. The 1974 World Population Plan of Action delegated NGOs to a peripheral role, but the 1984 Plan both commended their work and recognized the partnership that has developed between governmental and private sector and voluntary organizations in many nations. NGOs include professional organizations, advocacy organizations, and many broadly based organizations for women, youth, churches, education, science, and the environment. This article describes the following NGOs in terms of their growing influence on the UN and how the UN and UNFPA have helped these NGOs make full contributions: 1) the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), founded in 1928 in Paris, was the first NGO accorded consultative status by the Economic and Social Council; 2) the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), founded in 1952, attained consultative status in the mid-1960s, and has been on a partnership basis with the UNFPA since its inception, although, in 1984, it became a target of major US policy change; 3) the Population Council, begun in 1952 by John D. Rockefeller under National Academy of Sciences auspices, has trained thousands of demographers, economists, and social scientists and has made major contributions to the UN's 1954-1984 population conferences; 4) other NGOs such as the Population Reference Bureau, the Population Crisis Committee, the Population Institute; and 5) less specialized NGOs such as the International Association for Maternal and Neonatal Health, and the International Association of Obstetrics and Gynecology. NGOs help give the necessary public support to population efforts, but their diversity can cause coordination problems that must be settled as national levels or by the UN.
Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1985 Dec. 8 p. (Status Report on Population Problems and Programs)In 1985 Brazil's new civilian government took a potentially significant step towards political commitment to a national population program by appointing a national Commission for the Study of Human Reproductive Rights and by accepting large-scale external assistance to implement a nationwide maternal and child health program intended to include family planning services. Brazil's traditional pronatalist policy has been undergoing a change since 1974 and family planning is now viewed as an indispensable element of Brazil's development policy. Several laws which had long impeded the growth of family planning services have been revised or repealed. It is no longer illegal to advertise contraceptives, but abortion is only allowed in restricted circumstances. Approval for voluntary sterilization is easier to obtain. Brazilians who practice family planning obtain services primarily through commercial channels or the private sector. The government and private family planners are faced with a major problem of organizing family planning services for rural areas and the vast city slums. The estimated cost of a national family planning program for Brazil is between US$221 million for 1990 and US$182 to US$324 million for the year 2000. The various aspects of the government program are discussed. The private sector was instrumental in introducing family planning to Brazil. A private non-profit organization was established by a group of physicians to encourage the government to develop a national family planning program and to inform the public about responsible parenthood. This organization (BEMFAM) was given official recognition by the federal government and a number of states and declared a public convenience. Another organization (CPAIMC) was established to provide maternal and child health care in poor urban areas. The sources of external aid, accomplishments to date and remaining obstacles are discussed. Sources of external aid include: UNFPA, USAID, IPPF, the Pathfinder Fund and Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH). A change in popular and official pronatalist attitudes has been effected.
Sex education and family planning services for adolescents in Latin America: the example of El Camino in Guatemala.
[Unpublished] 1984. ix, 54,  p.This report examines the organizational development of Centro del Adolescente "El Camino," an adolescent multipurpose center which offers sex education and family planning services in Guatemala City. The project is funded by the Pathfinder Fund through a US Agency for International Development (USAID) population grant from 1979 through 1984. Information about the need for adolescent services in Guatemala is summarized, as is the organizational history of El Camino and the characteristics of youngg people who came there, as well as other program models and philosophies of sex education in Guatemala City. Centro del Adolescente "El Camino" represents the efforts of a private family planning organization to develop a balanced approach to serving adolescents: providing effective education and contraceptives but also recognizing that Guatemalan teenagers have other equally pressing needs, including counseling, health care, recreation and vocational training. The major administrative issue faced by El Camino was the concern of its external funding sources that an adolescent multipurpose center was too expensive a mechanism for contraceptive distribution purposes. A series of institutional relationships was negotiated. Professionals, university students, and younger secondary students were involved. Issues of fiscal accountability, or the cost-effectiveness of such multipurpose adolescent centers, require consideration of the goals of international funding agencies in relation to those of the society in question. Recommendations depend on whether the goal is that of a short-term contraception distribution program with specific measurable objectives, or that of a long-range investment in changing a society's attitudes about sex education for children and youth and the and the provision of appropriate contraceptive services to sexually active adolescents. Appendixes are attached. (author's modified)
Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 92 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XVII)This article uses available statistics to analyze health conditions in Bangladesh and their impact on the country's socioeconomic development. Background information on the country is first given, after which population characteristics, health status, nutrition, national health policy and adminstration, health services and programs, population programs, environmental sanitation, health sector resources, financing of health care and donor assistance are examined. Bangladesh's 3% annual population increase is expected to increase already great population pressure and to have a negative impact on the health status of the population. Although reliable health statistics are lacking, infant mortality is estimated at 140 per 1000, 40% of all deaths occur in the 0-4 age group, and maternal mortality is high. Infectious diseases exacerbated by malnutrition are the main causes of death. 4 key factors are responsible for the general malnutrition: 1) rapidly growing population, 2) low per capita income, 3) high incidence of diarrheal diseases, and 4) dietary practices that restrict nutrient intake. Most of the population has access only to traditional health services, and medical education is hospital oriental and curative, with minimal emphasis on public health. The level of environmental sanitation is extremely low.
Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Communication Institute, May 1977. (A synthesis of Population Communication Experience Paper No. 3) 84 pThe extent to which conferences and meetings have been involved in the development of the meetings have been involved in the development of the population/family planning field and particularly in the development of communication as a component of population/family planning programs is examined. Significant international, regional, and problem-oriented meetings that have taken place during the last decade are reviewed in terms of their purpose, subject matter, sponsorship, and impact on world awareness and national policies and programs. Topics covered include the roles of various agencies and organizations which organize fund conferences related to population communication, conferences with and for the mass media, conferences and meetings as components of specific projects, and the development of meetings on the national level. A detailed case study of a conference is presented to show how conferences are planned, conducted, and evaluated, and to identify desirable and undesirable aspects of conference management. An overall look at conferences and identification of their positive elements and their major shortcomings, by presenting guidelines for conference planners and managers, and by assessing trends and alternatives for population/family planning conferences in the future, is included.(AUTHORS', MODIFIED)
In: Stamper, B.M. Population and planning in developing nations: a review of sixty development plans for the 1970's. New York, Population Council, 1977. p. 87-90In Kenya's Development Plan 1966-1970 it is stated that the population problem seriously impacts on the future development of the country and noted that the government has decided to emphasize measures to promote family planning education. The 1970-1974 Kenya plan estimates the size of its population as 10.7 million in 1969 and assumes a rate of growth of 3.1%/year throughout the duration of the plan. The crude birthrate is estimated to be 50/1000 population and the crude death rate to be 19/1000 population. The 1974 population is estimated as 12.4 million. Included in the plan is a current estimate and a future projection of the size of the working-age population but neither a current estimate or a future projection of the school-age population is provided. Rapid population growth is recognized as a contributing cause of the country's unemployment problem, and population pressures on health services and on housing are discussed. The government plans to double the existing 130 family planning clinics outside of Nairobi and increase the part-time family planning workers from 300 to 700. The program proposed in the plan has not been fully implemented. Contraceptives were being offered by only about 1/3 of the government's clinics by 1974, and they are not available to a large proportion of the population. Some private family planning activities have been in operation in Kenya since as early as 1952, and the Family Planning Association of Kenya was created in 1962. The 1974-1978 development plan proposes a comprehensive program for achieving specific demographic targets. The new 5-year family planning program, financed by the government of Kenya and 8 international donors, hopes to have some 400 full-time service points and another 17 mobile units to serve another 190 places on a part-time basis.
In: Greep, R.O., Koblinsky, M.A., and Jaffe, F.S. Reproduction and human welfare: a challenge to research. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1976. p. 367-392Prior to World War 2, financing for scientific research ahd largely been the province of industry, universities, and private philanthropy. Governments made few efforts in basic scientific research except where related to agriculture or the military. The history of support for research in the reproductive sciences in the U.S. is traced from the 1920s. Following World War 2, the U.S. government took the lead in supporting fundamental research, especially medical research through the National Institutes of Health. This branch of government was prohibited from research connected with birth control until 1959. The history of the development of the oral contraceptive, through industry support and private philanthropy, is traced. The Population Council, with Rockefeller support, was started in 1952 to engage in reproductive research. With the backing of President Johnson and establishment of an explicit Agency for International Development program in population, government support for reproductive research increased substantially in 1965. Historic taboos in this field also delayed population research programs on the international level until the late 1960s. 3 developed countries besides the U.N. - Britain, Germany, and France - and 1 developing country - India - also support programs in basic reproductive research.
In: Greep, R.O., Koblinsky, M.A., and Jaffe, F.S. Reproduction and human welfare: a challenge to research. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1976. p. 393-426The reproductive sciences, which had been tabooed and traditionally underfinanced, began to receive modest, but still inadequate, support in the last decade. A survey was conducted to determine past and present levels of funding for contrceptive development and reproductive biology and to estimate future funding levels. Limitations of the survey are mentioned. The total amounts spent by the U.S., 15 other industrialized countries, 9 nations and regions in the developing world, international agencies, private foundations, and the pharmaceutical industry are tabultaed. The dollar amount has increased 4-fold in the last 10 years; the impact of inflation lowers this amount in actual spending power. Of the 8 countries that have supported this type of research with the greatest funds, 6 had plateaued or were decreasing support as of 1964. Government agencies have led the field in funding with the U.S. in 1st place, mainly through the Center for Population Research of the National Institute of Child Health adn Human Development, other branches within the National Institutes of Health, and the Agency for International Development. Support is in the following 4 areas: 1) basic research in the reproductive sciences, 2) strengthening of professional capacity, 3) contraceptive development, and 4) evaluation of currently used contraceptives. Through the decade, nations other than the U.S. have taken over a larger share of the financing and of the researching. Funding levels are still inadequate and it is predicted that, unless current trends are reversed, there will be less research activity in the contraceptive/reproductive field in the future.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Preventive medicine and family planning. Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Europe and Near East Region of the IPPF, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 5-8, 1966. London, England, IPPF, 1967. p. 222-224Women's organizations played a significant part in the family planning movement in the United Arab Republic (UAR). In 1962 the President of the UAR made his 1st public pronouncement in favor of family planning. Soon after, the Cairo Women's Club staged the 1st series of public lectures on the subject in the country. This series served to bring the subject into the open. With national and international assistance, other UAR women's groups began to establish family planning clinics around the country. Through the Joint Committee for Family Planning, a number of women's groups attracted international aid to the movement in the UAR, effected cooperation with the national Ministry of Social Affairs, and evolved standardized procedures for registration, education, training, and evaluation to be used by all the family planning clinics in the country. In 1967, the government established a national family planning program. The voluntary women's groups can still serve as a testing ground for the national program.
In: Fukutake, T. and Morioka, K., eds. Sociology and social development in Asia. Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, 1974. p. 39-60The history of the development of a population policy in Ceylon is given. Ceylon has a high rate of growth due to a declining death rate and a high steady birthrate. A continuing economic crisis has been aggravated by the high birthrate, and the unemployment rate is over 12%. Increased food production has been inadequate, and welfare policies have limited funds available for productive investment. The Family Planning Association (FPA) in Ceylon was founded in January 1953 and has received financial support from several sources, most importantly from the Swedish International Development Authority. In the 3 plans during 1955-1965 emphasis has been laid on the relation between economic development and population growth. The Sirimavo Bandaranaike Government's Short-Term Implementation Programme of 1962 stated the urgency of the economic problem and its connection with the rate of population growth. From 1965 the Government of Ceylon made family planning an official responsibility. Family planning work was taken over by the Dept. of Health. The FPA has devoted itself to the dissemination of propaganda on family planning. Official policy on family planning has tended to become ambivalent because of a charge that family planning could turn the ethnic balance against the Sinhalese. In April 1971 there was an insurrection that threatened the existence of the government, and realizing it was due to unemployment, living costs, and fragmentation of land, the Government incorporated a note that facilities for family planning among all groups are essential.
People. 1975; 2(4):5-11.A survey of selected countries to illustrate the variety of approaches used in supplying contraceptives through the community is presented; and the agencies involved are listed. The various types of community-based distribution schemes in 33 countries of Latin America, Africa and Asia are identified and briefly described. The personnel and methods utilized in individual countries include rural community leaders, fieldworkers, satisfied contraceptive users, paramedical and lay distributors, women's organizations, commercial marketing, education programs, market day strategies, and government saturation programs. The community-based program for distributing oral contraceptives with technical assistance from BEMFAM, an IPPF affiliate, in northeastern Brazil is described in detail, with emphasis onsocial marketing techniques and the mobilization of resources. In addition to IPPF, other agencies working in community-based distribution include Family Planning International Assistance, International Development Research Centre, Population Services International, The Population Council, UNFPA, USAID, and Westinghouse Health Systems Population Centre.
Paris, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Development Centre. (CD/P/236)In 1970 Africa's population assistance amounted to $.03 U.S. per head compared to $.058 per head for Latin America, $.036 per head for East and South Asia, and $.043 per head for Southeast and Southwest Asia. In 1970 11 countries received over $6 million leaving $400,000 for the remaining 31 independent less developed countries in Africa. It is estimated that the average annual costs of an effective national family planning program are between $.45-$.60 U.S. per capita. There is a high dependence on foreign assistance by countries with family planning programs, produced by the desire to begin activities as soon as possible before national financing can be arranged and the necessary infrastructure of health services and trained personnel can be created. Almost 80% of current assistance in population activities to Africa is for family planning. Denmark, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, The United Kingdom, and the United States channel assistance in the population field, either through international agencies or bilateral aid. The main emphasis of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities in Africa in 1970 has been on providing assistance in demography. In 1970 The International Planned Parenthood Foundation had 12 of its member associations in African countries and was the largest single supplier of money to Africa in 1969. The Population Council, the Ford Foundation, and the Pathfinder Fund are the other principal private agencies involved in population activities in Africa. Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Mauritius, Morocco, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Tunisia, Egypt, and Uganda are the principal recipients of aid for population programs in Africa. Although only 6 African governments have declared population policies including family programs, 28 countries receive some assistance in both demography and family planning from over 20 donor agencies. Population assistance should be available over a wide range of activities from building up medical infrastructures to preparing a national statistical basis. Expenditures of governments should match and in time exceed development assistance. Population assistance suffers from a lack of continuity, too strict criteria governing how aid must be spent, delays in approval and receipt of assistance, and local currency shortages.
Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.
In: Diczfalusy E, Diczfalusy A, ed. Research on the regulation of human fertility: needs of developing countries and priorities for the future, Vol. 2. Background documents. Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1983. 901-10.The role of governments in research on fertility regulation is to support, finance, coordinate, legislate and take regulatory action necessary to assure the development of new and improved contraceptive technologies. The major advances in contraceptive technology in the 1940s and 1950s were made possible by funding support from industry and private foundations. In the late 1960s government funding, particularly in the US, assumed an increasingly important role. During this same time, 2 UN organizations were formed in addition to several nonprofit institutions whose purpose was to promote research on fertility regulation for developing countries. Worldwide funding for research and training in human reproduction peaked in 1972-1973 at around US 100 million with 20-25% allocated for research on fertility regulation. The level of funding has since declined, most markedly the contribution from private industry. The funding needs for research on human reproduction, including fertility regulation, are in excess of present levels. Funding requirements may be 3-7 times higher than current levels. The prospects for future funding are not optimistic. However, it is hoped that the increased informational focus on parliamentarians and the 1984 World Population Conference will contribute to a reversal of this current trend in decreasing funding levels. The increased emphasis on safety and efficacy of new drugs and devices has lengthened the time between the development of a product and the approval for marketing. The 6 to 8 years between the granting of a patent to the marketing of a product has decreased active patent life. This, together with problems of product liability, has contributed to the declined in industrial investment in research and development on fertility regulating agents. The need for a global institution to establish standards for new contraceptive products is advocated, and WHO should be responsible. Patent laws should be eased. (author's modified)