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  1. 1

    Expanding the role of non-governmental organizations (NGO's) in national forestry programs. The report of three regional workshops in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

    Hazlewood PT

    Washington, D.C., World Resources Institute, [1987]. 44 p.

    Efforts of the World Resources Institute (WRI), the World Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have resulted in a common framework to save tropical forests--the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. A 1st step includes national forestry sector reviews to coordinate aid agency and government involvement in identifying investment priorities and significant policy reforms to reverse deforestation and promote sustainable development and then incorporating them into their national development plans. This represents a shift from the focus of national government and aid agency forestry programs of the late 1970s, which was on commercial or industrial forestry, to forestry which provides for people's basic needs. To be successful, this plan requires the involvement of farmers and local communities. Involving NGOs and their capabilities can complement government and development assistance programs. NGOs' greatest contribution is the promotion of community based, participatory forestry programs that benefit economically or socially disadvantaged groups. WRI and the Environment Liaison Centre hosted 3 regional workshops to discuss NGOs roles in reforestation. Participants agreed that, to establish a basis for constructive collaboration, NGOs, governments, and aid agencies must mutually understand their complementary roles. Further governments and aid agencies must change policies and procedures to assist and enhance NGO involvement in policymaking and the project cycle. This includes finding new mechanisms to direct funds to NGOs, and for governments and aid agencies to respect the autonomy of the NGO and therefore enable it to achieve its goals.
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  2. 2

    Health development planning.

    Mahmoud SH

    In: Methodological foundations for research on the determinants of health development, by World Health Organization [WHO]. [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Office of Research Promotion and Development, 1985. 1-7. (RPD/SOC/85)

    Health development planning is part of overall development planning and is influenced by the total development process. Those dealing with health planning may present the health sector's development as the most important aspect of development whereas there may be more urgent problems in other sectors. All socioeconomic plans aim at improving the quality of life. There is some correlation between spending on health programs and the health indices. The health indices are poor in countries which accord low priority to health. A table gives measure of health status by level of GNP/capita in selected countries. No direct correlation appears between income and mortality. This paper examines the functions of health development planning; health development plans; intersectoral collaboration; health information; strategy; financial aspects; implementation, evaluation and reprogramming; and manpower needs. A health development plan usually includes an analysis of the current situation; a review of the immediate past plan and previous plans; the objectives, strategy, targets and physical infrastructure of the plan; program philosophy with manpower requirements; financial implications; and the role of the private sector and nongovernment organizations and related constraints. The main health-related determinants include: education, increased school attendance, agriculture and water, food distribution and income, human resources programs and integrated rural development. The strategy of health sector development today is geared towards development of integrated health systems. Intercountry coordination may be improved with aid from the WHO. Health expenditures in countries including Bangladesh, India and Norway is presented.
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