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  1. 1
    319047
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluating the potential impact of the new Global Plan to Stop TB: Thailand, 2004 -- 2005.

    Varma JK; Wiriyakitjar D; Nateniyom S; Anuwatnonthakate A; Monkongdee P

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Aug; 85(8):586-592.

    WHO's new Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 advises countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) to expand case-finding in the private sector as well as services for patients with HIV and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The objective of this study was to evaluate these strategies in Thailand using data from the Thailand TB Active Surveillance Network, a demonstration project begun in 2004. In October 2004, we began contacting public and private health-care facilities monthly to record data about people diagnosed with TB, assist with patient care, provide HIV counselling and testing, and obtain sputum samples for culture and susceptibility testing. The catchment area included 3.6 million people in four provinces. We compared results from October 2004-September 2005 (referred to as 2005) to baseline data from October 2002-September 2003 (referred to as 2003). In 2005, we ascertained 5841 TB cases (164/100 000), including 2320 new smear-positive cases (65/100 000). Compared with routine passive surveillance in 2003, active surveillance increased reporting of all TB cases by 19% and of new smear-positive cases by 13%. Private facilities diagnosed 634 (11%) of all TB cases. In 2005, 1392 (24%) cases were known to be HIV positive. The proportion of cases with an unknown HIV status decreased from 66% (3226/4904) in 2003 to 23% (1329/5841) in 2005 (P< 0.01). Of 4656 pulmonary cases, mycobacterial culture was performed in 3024 (65%) and MDR-TB diagnosed in 60 (1%). In Thailand, piloting the new WHO strategy increased case-finding and collaboration with the private sector, and improved HIV services for TB patients and the diagnosis of MDR-TB. Further analysis of treatment outcomes and costs is needed to assess this programme's impact and cost effectiveness. (author's)
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  2. 2
    297212

    Close your eyes to the HIV problem today and tomorrow you'll be living in a country of old people and won't have a partner to play chess with.

    Connections. 2005 Jan; [2] p..

    What is the best way to tackle the HIV/AIDS problem in Russia when the scale of this infection's spread has passed all the bounds? What can be done when the efforts of numerous HIV-service organizations and domestic and international NGOs to implement short-term educational programs and information campaigns are not effective enough to appeal to the common sense of both those who are at risk and those who have the power to stop the virus from spreading further? Do the people of this country have eyes and, if so, what does their future look like when some 80 percent of the estimated 1.5 million HIV-positive Russians are under the age of 30 . . . when only 3,000 out of the 50,000 who are in dire need of treatment have access to it? Will this country still be a strong power if one million young people die from AIDS by 2008, as forecasted by Vadim Pokrovsky, head of the Federal AIDS Center, unless appropriate steps are done by the government to prevent it? (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    161774

    Research on the regulation of human fertility: needs of developing countries and priorities for the future, Vol. 2, Background documents.

    Diczfalusy E; Diczfalusy A

    Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1983. 2 986 p.

    Volume 2 of papers from an international symposium starts with chapter 7--available methods of fertility regulation; problems encountered in family planning programs of developing countries. Natural family planning is discussed here, as well as contraceptives and male and female sterilization. Chapter 8 covers research problems with regard to epidemiological, service, and psychosocial aspects of fertility regulation. Family planning is stressed in this chapter. Chapter 9 discusses future methods of fertility regulation: progress in selected areas. New contraceptive agents are discussed, such as luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and its analogues, gossypol for men, and immunological methods of fertility regulation. Chapter 10 also discusses future methods of fertility regulation, but from the point of view of research needs and priorities as viewed by program directors and advisers. Views and research priorities of the Population Council, and the Indian Council of Medical Research are given. Research needs and priorities in China are discussed, as is the role of the World Health Organization's Special Program of Reseach, Development and Reserch Training in Human Reproduction. Lastly, chapter 11 covers the role of governments, agencies and industry in reseach on fertility regulation. The role of the Agency for International Development, the US National Institutes of Health; and the World Bank, among others, are discussed.
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