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National Seminar on Population and Development in Malawi, 5 - 9th June, 1989, Chancellor College, Zomba. Report.
Zomba, Malawi, University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Demographic Unit, 1989. ix, 223 p. (UNFPA Project MLW/87/PO1)The role of population in planning for socioeconomic development in Malawi was the topic of a National Seminar held by the Demographic Unit of the University of Malawi in June 1989. 64 participants from the University, Government departments, parastatal, non-governmental and international agencies presented 41 papers. Each of these background and seminar papers are summarized, and 64 recommendations are outlines. The seminar was considered further evidence that the government is becoming aware that fertility, 7.6 children per woman, and related infant mortality, 150/1000, are excessive, according to the UNFPA representative in his keynote address, and the hope that future planning will take population into account. The range of topics covered in the papers included demography, spatial distribution, macroeconomic factors in development, refugees, industry, small enterprises, health services, water supply, education, rehabilitation, status of women, food supply, land ownership, sustainable resources and manpower development. Recommendations specified actions on rural development, roads, legalizing tobacco growing, fuelwood, equalizing food security, taxes, savings, finance, antitrust regulations, incentives for health service in rural areas, housing, female education, handicapped persons, refugees, data and research and many other issues.
Action now toward more responsible parenthood worldwide. (Proceedings of the Tokyo International Symposium, Tokyo, April 4-7, 1977).
Tokyo, Japan, Japan Science Society, 1977. 578 p.The Tokyo International Symposium reviewed the progress made since 1974 in integrating population policies with socioeconomic development, with additional focus on needs of rural areas. It was discovered that even countries experiencing economic growth have still failed to provide basic human needs - health, nutrition, housing, education, and employment - and that in densely populated rural areas, and marginal districts of cities, fertility decline has been slow or nonexistant. New evidence presented at the symposium suggested that now a new stage of population history is approaching, characterized by falling birth rates and slackening of world population growth; nevertheless, rapid population growth in developing countries has not ended because 1) of the high proportion of young people in many countries and 2) the fertility rates of the poorest half of the population are 50% higher than the national averages. While projections of world population are being revised downward, world population is still likely to grow from its present 4 billion to 6 billion by the turn of the century. All agencies, official or private, need to emphasize development of cost-effective methods which the government may adopt after a successful pilot study that take into account the social values, religious beliefs, and customs in each country. The symposium urges that additional resources be made available for a broad range of new initiatives in the following areas: 1) to make the fullest range of family planning services available in rural areas and marginal districts of cities; 2) to expand the social and economic roles of women and to improve their status in other fields; 3) to educate adolescents and young adults about their reproductive behavior and to underscore the impact that premature parenthood would have on themselves, their families, and communities; 4) to integrate family planning with development activities; and 5) to encourage program design by affected populations.
[Unpublished] 1984. i, 15, 5 p.This report ist presented in response to a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) /Sri Lanka request for a review of the population and family planning program in the country and for recommentdations on the future role of UASID in support of the Sri Lanka program. It is intended to help the USAID Mission to make decisions regarding both the substance of population program assistance and the manner in which it is provided. The central recommendation is that the Mission undertake bilateral support of both public and private sector programs as soon as possible. This report is organized into 3 parts: 1)a brief overview of the demographic situation; 2) a review of the present national program, both public and private; and 3) recommendations for future program directions. The report was prepared during a 3-week visit to Sri Lanka. The relatively high rate of population growth will become an even greater factor in Sri Lanka's development equation than it has been in the past, and unless there is a significant and rapid decrease in fertility, population growth will diminish development prospeccts for the remainder of the century. USAID currently provides about US$0.5 to US$0.7 million of annual support to Sri Lanka family planning services programs through 9 intermediaries. This does not include the annual assistance provided by the United Nations Fund for Population Activites and International Planned Parenthood Federation which total approximately US$1.5 million. The Family Health Bureau of the Ministry of Health is responsible for managing the Government's family planning program. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka currently manages 2 large family planning service projects. USAID should begin high-level discussions in earnest with the Sri Lanka government.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1976. (Syncrisis, The Dynamics of Health No. 18) 149 pThere is no sector of Pakistani life which more graphically reflects the great sacrifice it took to make Pakistan a viable state than the health sector. Malaria, tuberculosis, and cholera continue to constitute threats to health. Gastrointestinal, infectious, and other parasitic diseases continue to contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. These diseases are exacerbated by extremely primitive water supplies and waste disposal, bad housing, nutritional problems, and an increasingly heavy population growth. Public health resources to cope with these conditions have not previously been available. Pakistan's poor helth environment appears to result from widespread infectious and communicable diseases, poverty, and sociocultural attitudes which inhibit improving the environment, and ineffective policies administered by limited numbers of inadequately trained health workers, affecting both the urban poor and the rural population. In the latest 5-year plan, the 5th, 1975-1980, there is increasing attention to health. Regarding family planning, it has been suggested that the government has finally begun to recognize that urgent and dramatic steps are necessary to reduce Pakistan's population growth rate. The government has adopted a policy of using conventional contraceptives as the most acceptable method of contraception in Pakistan. A program of distributing the oral contraceptive without medical or paramedical constraints had been instituted, and the government has undertaken to subsidize the distribution of th oral contraceptive and the condom through some 50,000 outlets at 2.5 cents per monthly supply.
Paris, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Development Centre. (CD/P/236)In 1970 Africa's population assistance amounted to $.03 U.S. per head compared to $.058 per head for Latin America, $.036 per head for East and South Asia, and $.043 per head for Southeast and Southwest Asia. In 1970 11 countries received over $6 million leaving $400,000 for the remaining 31 independent less developed countries in Africa. It is estimated that the average annual costs of an effective national family planning program are between $.45-$.60 U.S. per capita. There is a high dependence on foreign assistance by countries with family planning programs, produced by the desire to begin activities as soon as possible before national financing can be arranged and the necessary infrastructure of health services and trained personnel can be created. Almost 80% of current assistance in population activities to Africa is for family planning. Denmark, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, The United Kingdom, and the United States channel assistance in the population field, either through international agencies or bilateral aid. The main emphasis of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities in Africa in 1970 has been on providing assistance in demography. In 1970 The International Planned Parenthood Foundation had 12 of its member associations in African countries and was the largest single supplier of money to Africa in 1969. The Population Council, the Ford Foundation, and the Pathfinder Fund are the other principal private agencies involved in population activities in Africa. Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Mauritius, Morocco, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Tunisia, Egypt, and Uganda are the principal recipients of aid for population programs in Africa. Although only 6 African governments have declared population policies including family programs, 28 countries receive some assistance in both demography and family planning from over 20 donor agencies. Population assistance should be available over a wide range of activities from building up medical infrastructures to preparing a national statistical basis. Expenditures of governments should match and in time exceed development assistance. Population assistance suffers from a lack of continuity, too strict criteria governing how aid must be spent, delays in approval and receipt of assistance, and local currency shortages.