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Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Options for Population Policy, 1993 Feb. , 24 p. (Policy Paper Series No. 2)While in 1960, 9% of 415 million married women of reproductive age in less developed countries were using some form of fertility control, by 1990, the proportion had increased to 51% of 716 million women. Contraceptive use has expanded most in East and Southeast Asia and in Latin America. There has been also progress in South Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. China accounts for over 40% of current users in the developing world. An approach to strategic planning at the sector level is outlined. OPTIONS for Population Policy II is a 5-year project funded by the Office of Population of the USAID. The goal of the project is to help USAID-assisted countries formulate and implement policies that address the need to mobilize and effectively allocate resources for expanding family planning (FP) services. The titles of the working papers published as part of an ongoing Policy Paper Series focusing on various aspects of operational policy in FP include: 1) Assessing Legal and Regulatory Reform in FP; 2) Strategic Planning for the Expansion of FP; 3) Policy Issues in Expanding Private Sector FP; 4) Communicating Population and FP Information: Targeting Policy Makers; and 5) Cost Recovery and User Fees in FP. Sector-level strategic planning is a 5-step process: 1) assessment of the current situation in the population/FP sector and examination of future prospects in the sector; 2) identification of the alternative program approaches that could be employed to achieve stated goals and objectives; 3) review and ranking of these programs for the selection of the one which best suits the needs and conditions of the country; 4) commitment by the decision makers to an action plan to implement the chosen program expansion strategy; and 5) agreement on arrangements for monitoring and periodic evaluations of programs.
Management information systems in maternal and child health / family planning programs: a multi-country analysis.
STUDIES IN FAMILY PLANNING. 1991 Jan-Feb; 22(1):19-30.Management and information systems (MIS) in maternal and child health were surveyed in 40 developing countries by trained consultants using a diagnostic instrument developed by UNFPA and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The instrument covered indicators of input (physical infrastructure, personnel, training, finances, equipment, logistics), output (recipients of services, coverage, efficiency), quality, and impact, as well as frequency, timeliness and reliability of information. The consultants visited national and 2 provincial level administrative and service points of public and private agencies. Information on input was often lacking on numbers and locations of populations with access to services. In 15 countries data were lacking on personnel posts filled and training status. Logistics systems for equipment and supplies were inadequate in most areas except Asia, resulting in shortfalls of all types of materials and vehicles coinciding with idle supplies in warehouses. Financial reporting systems were present in only 13 countries. Service outputs were reported in terms of current users in 13 countries, but the proportion of couples covered was unknown in 25 countries. 2 countries had cost-effectiveness figures. Redundant forms duplicated efforts in half of the countries, while data were not broken down at the usable level of analysis for decision-making in most. Few African countries had either manual or computer capacity to handle all needed data. Family planning data especially was not available to draw the total picture. Often information was available too late to be useful, except in Portuguese speaking countries. Even when quality data existed, managers were frequently unaware of it. It is recommended that training and consultancies be provided for managers and that these types of surveys be repeated periodically.
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care [PRITECH], 1989. , 19,  p. (USAID Contract No. AID/DPE-5969-Z-00-7064-00)A social marketing consultant sponsored by the US Agency for International Development visited the Philippines to assist in boosting oral rehydration solution ORS commercialization. The task includes following up on current ORS commercialization efforts in analyzing proposals from companies for strategies on rural distribution, promotion, pricing, and introduction scheduling as requested by the Department of Health (DOH) and to develop a plan of action that will lead to a final selection of companies and to develop the terms of reference for working relationship between the DOH and the selected companies. The 6 companies contacted were divided into 2 groups, 1 that insisted on using ORESOL exclusively, and those willing to use ORESOL as a generic name. All the advantages for the selected companies as well as the disadvantages for each, was weighted. Other factors considered were the political environment within the pharmaceutical market and the timing of the ORESOL launch. To provide DOH with the best objective decision, the Keptner-Tregoe decision making technique was used. This process showed an advantage to use the open market companies. An action plan outlining specific tasks to be done, responsibilities of various parties, and the dates of completion is described.
In: Schima ME, Lubell I, eds. Voluntary sterilization: a decade of achievement: proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Voluntary Sterilization, May 7-10, 1979, Seoul, Korea. New York, Association for Voluntary Sterilization, 1980. 76-7.The 22 participants in this task force, all senior government officials and ministers, recommended that efforts be made to repeal laws declaring sterilization illegal. Where no law proscribes sterilization it should be assumed that surgical contraception can be a component of family planning programs. Legal restrictions on eligibility for voluntary sterilization should also be lifted. The medical establishment and health professionals were viewed as vital to acceptance of voluntary sterilization by government decision makers. It was recommended that all governments be encouraged to establish national family planning programs with sterilization as a key component, and that recruitment and training be given top priority, preceding or occurring simultaneously with establishment and equipping of facilities. Training should take place within the country. Data collection, evaluation and management information systems were viewed as integral parts of all voluntary sterilization programs. Nongovernmental agencies were seen as initiators and catalysts that prompt governments to incorporate voluntary sterilization services in their family planning programs. Revision of the policies of international donors was recommended, to encourage rather than hamper the development and implementation of voluntary sterilization services.