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[Washington, D.C.], Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security, 2001 Apr. 4 p. (Meeting the Challenge: Securing Contraceptive Supplies)This paper was prepared by Population Action International for the UN Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security, which provides an overview of the need for security in reproductive health (RH) supplies. It notes that the last few decades have seen an enormous increase in the use of RH services around the world. However, as donors, nongovernmental organizations, private sector initiatives and program providers work to meet the need for all RH services, new demands continue to drain available resources. Four major factors contribute to the growing shortfall of contraceptive supplies: 1) growing interest in contraceptive use; 2) more people of reproductive age; 3) insufficient, poorly coordinated donor funding; and 4) inadequate logistics capacity in developing countries. Population projections indicate that in the coming decades, millions more men and women will need and want to use contraceptives. Thus, many actors in both the public and the private sectors, and both in-country and internationally, have important roles to play in attaining contraceptive commodity security throughout the developing world.
GLOBAL AIDSNEWS. 1993; (3):7.Although treating and preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) help reduce the spread of HIV, data must be obtained on the types and levels of these STDs, as well as the behavioral factors leading to their spread, before effective prevention interventions may be developed and implemented. To that end, the Department of Epidemiology of the All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, the World Health Organization, the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, the Calcutta National Medical College, and the Society for Community Development joined forces to conduct a STD/HIV survey and intervention project for prostitutes and clients in Sonagachi, a red light area in Calcutta. The cluster sample community-based survey of sexual practices and STD/HIV prevalence was the first of its kind in India. The survey revealed STD prevalences up to 50% among the prostitutes, but an HIV prevalence of only slightly more than 1%. These findings suggest an urgent need for general health care services in the area emphasizing the prevention and treatment of STDs. An integrated intervention project financially supported by the Norwegian Agency for Development was therefore developed to prevent the spread of STDs and HIV among prostitutes and their clients. The project provides basic health care services for prostitutes through a public health clinic on premises provided by a local youth club; provides educational programs and activities based on peer education and training, with materials developed for prostitutes and clients; and promotes and provides condoms.
FRONT LINES. 1989 Dec; 6, 13.Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost.
Washington, D.C., TvT Associates, MORE Project, 1990 Mar. , 26,  p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3030-C-00-8167)A revitalized, nearly self-sufficient, factory-based contraceptive distribution project has existed in St. Lucia since the beginning of 1990. Seeded in 1981, with 1-year funding from the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the project was on shaky financial footing through the 1980s. The Family Planning Association (FPA) of St. Lucia, with the technical assistance of the Maximizing Results of Operations Research (MORE) project, has, however, turned the project into a viable distribution program financially-backed by factories employing almost 2,500 workers. This successful turnaround is due largely to the accomplishments of a MORE business consultant who made 2 field visits in 1989. In addition to helping the FPA expand the project, the consultant developed a business plan, and encouraged factory owners and business leaders to back the project. He held both individual meetings and a formal group presentation. The business plan, and activities and results of the field visits are presented in the report. The consultant found a 1-to-1 sales approach best in recruiting company members for the project, supports continued application of the formal presentation, suggests a hotel setting for business group meetings, and notes island-wide consensus for support of the project. Although not quite finalized, and expected to work on a restricted operating budget, the project's largest remaining obstacle is where to locate the nurse.
General lessons learned from evaluations of MCH/FP projects in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Dec. iv, 41 p.4 maternal-child health/family planning (MCH/FP) projects were evaluated by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the Southern Africa Region between 1981-1984. The projects were in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia. An overriding finding at the time of the Evaluation Missions was the acceptance of family planning (child spacing) by all 4 governments, when at the onset of the projects, family planning was either not included in the project documents or was included only as a minor contributant to the MCH programs. The intervention by UNFPA was very important for the acceptance and promotion of family planning activities by the governments. The Evaluation Missions concluded that there were 3 primary reasons for the successful intervention: UNFPA has a broad mandate to provide assistance in MCH and FP, a commitment to development projects in line with the governments' priorities, and the ability to fund projects very quickly, facilitating project implementation. Each of the 4 projects is assessed in terms of population policy changes, MCH/FP program strategy and serive delivery, organization of the MCH/Fp unit, health education, training, evaluation and research systems, and administration and management. Essential factors affecting the project are outlined and recommendations made. The last section discusses general lessons derived from the MCH/FP projects evaluated. 5 areas are identified where similar problems exist to varying degrees in all the projects evaluated. These are: training of medical personnel in FP (the main MCH/FP service provider in these projects was the nurse/midwife); supervision of personnel and the supply and distribution of contraceptives; research and evaluation, especially regarding the sociocultural setting of target populations and the inadequacy of existing service statistics and other sources of data; project monitoring (technical and financial) and finally project execution by the World Health Organization (WHO). Specifically in regard to the recruitment of experts, the provision of supplies and equipment, and the provision of funds for local costs, WHO execution has been deficient.
Sex education and family planning services for adolescents in Latin America: the example of El Camino in Guatemala.
[Unpublished] 1984. ix, 54,  p.This report examines the organizational development of Centro del Adolescente "El Camino," an adolescent multipurpose center which offers sex education and family planning services in Guatemala City. The project is funded by the Pathfinder Fund through a US Agency for International Development (USAID) population grant from 1979 through 1984. Information about the need for adolescent services in Guatemala is summarized, as is the organizational history of El Camino and the characteristics of youngg people who came there, as well as other program models and philosophies of sex education in Guatemala City. Centro del Adolescente "El Camino" represents the efforts of a private family planning organization to develop a balanced approach to serving adolescents: providing effective education and contraceptives but also recognizing that Guatemalan teenagers have other equally pressing needs, including counseling, health care, recreation and vocational training. The major administrative issue faced by El Camino was the concern of its external funding sources that an adolescent multipurpose center was too expensive a mechanism for contraceptive distribution purposes. A series of institutional relationships was negotiated. Professionals, university students, and younger secondary students were involved. Issues of fiscal accountability, or the cost-effectiveness of such multipurpose adolescent centers, require consideration of the goals of international funding agencies in relation to those of the society in question. Recommendations depend on whether the goal is that of a short-term contraception distribution program with specific measurable objectives, or that of a long-range investment in changing a society's attitudes about sex education for children and youth and the and the provision of appropriate contraceptive services to sexually active adolescents. Appendixes are attached. (author's modified)
[Introduction: community and commercial programs in Latin America] Introduccion: programas comunitarios y comerciales en America Latina.
In: Estrada A, ed. [Family planning in Latin America: community and commercial programs]. Planificacion familiar en America Latina: programas comunitarios y comerciales. Washington, D.C., Batelle, Aug. 1981. 3-41.Introduces the importance of bilateral family planning programs in Latin America. These programs, both community and commercial, provide permanent and reversible methods of birth control. Female sterilization, vasectomy, condoms and the pill are the methods of choice provided by these organizations. The difference between the commercial and community programs lies in the method of distributing birth control. The commercial enterprises are connected with clinics, and pharmacies and supermarkets. Clients must receive some form of instruction in order to procure birth control devices at a nominal cost. The community programs are primarily operative outside the urban areas, in isolated mountain villages where no clinics are located. Representatives of PROFAMILIA set up informal offices to prescribe and distribute birth control. These representatives, while not usually medical personnel, are trained as counselors and either provide a temporary and reversible method of birth control or arrange to accompany the client to a city where appropriate sterilization procedures may be provided. The various branches of PROFAMILIA in Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Brazil and Haiti are financed through the UN Family Planning Association. The pill, diaphragms, spermicides and condoms are supplied through Syntex, Emko and Akwell Companies of the United States, Eisai of Japan and Schering, Wyeth and Norwich of Colombia.
In: Zatuchni GI, Sobrero AJ, Speidel JJ, Sciarra JJ, ed. Vaginal contraception: new developments. Hagerstown, Md., Harper and Row, 1979. 66-81.Although condoms are still produced from a variety of materials, the popularity of the condom increased mainly after the dipped latex process was developed in the 1930s. Condoms went with US troops all over the world during World War Two. It is only in recent years that strict quality standards were established. Many countries, including the US, measure quality in the number of pinholes acceptable per unit, the number of acceptable holes varying considerably between countries. Japan has made a standard based on leakage as measured by sodium ion concentration. Various types, colors, names, and sizes of condoms are popular in different countries. Large scale distribution in recent years has raised the question of shelf life. It is generally thought that a condom kept in a sealed tinfoil package will stay good indefinitely. Nonetheless, for management as well as safety purposes smaller shipments are preferred over large shipments in mass distribution programs. Condom popularity is partly associated with the number and accessibility of distribution points; therefore, it has become more prevalent to use both government units and regular commercial distribution points for popularizing the condom, and there is reason to believe that this type of program will grow. In light of the current interest in integration of contraceptive programs with health care and development efforts, population specialists should look closely at the condom and the commercial resources available for its distribution. A series of tables gives gross numbers of condoms supplied by international donor agencies in the developing countries, 1975-78.
People. 1975; 2(4):5-11.A survey of selected countries to illustrate the variety of approaches used in supplying contraceptives through the community is presented; and the agencies involved are listed. The various types of community-based distribution schemes in 33 countries of Latin America, Africa and Asia are identified and briefly described. The personnel and methods utilized in individual countries include rural community leaders, fieldworkers, satisfied contraceptive users, paramedical and lay distributors, women's organizations, commercial marketing, education programs, market day strategies, and government saturation programs. The community-based program for distributing oral contraceptives with technical assistance from BEMFAM, an IPPF affiliate, in northeastern Brazil is described in detail, with emphasis onsocial marketing techniques and the mobilization of resources. In addition to IPPF, other agencies working in community-based distribution include Family Planning International Assistance, International Development Research Centre, Population Services International, The Population Council, UNFPA, USAID, and Westinghouse Health Systems Population Centre.
Initiatives in Population 2(1): 28-35. March 1976.The Philippines Department of Labor, in conjunction with the U.N. Fund for Population Activities, is sponsoring a pilot family planning program. The industrial program, supervised by the Labor Management Coordinating Council, aims at integrating family planning services into the health services or clinics of 1000 corporations with at least 200 employees within the 2-year period ending June 1977. Family planning seminars are conducted at 3 levels within the corporations and include training sessions for medical personnel. Companies have found that provision of family planning services is more economical in the long run than provision of family welfare services for employees and families.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to population education projects executed by the ILO in Bangladesh: BGD/74/PO4--pilot project for family planning motivation and services in industry and plantations; and BGD/80/PO3--population and family welfare motivation and services in industry (November 1982).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983 Dec. 42,  p.This evaluation covers 2 population education projects in Bangladesh; it is part of a comprehensive evaluation study of selected population education projects executed by the International Labor Organization (ILO). The projects are assessed, conclusions drawn and recommendations made in terms of the achievement of the country level project objectives, training and educational activities undertaken and information, education and communication (IEC) materials produced for population education projects, the extent to which projects have been integrated into the relevant country level programs and into Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning (MCH/FP) programs, the strategies used and the impact on the various target audiences. The projects are reported on as if they were 1 project, as the 2nd is really a continuation of the 1st. The evaluation shows that the project has greatly expanded its coverage of workers in the organized sector; family planning services are now available to more than 25% of the industrial labor force; activities are carried out by a small cadre of staff who have all received training in family planning motivation and service delivery. Most motivation and service activities have taken place at the industrial establishments. During the pilot project, 50% of the total target of workers was enrolled as new family planning acceptors and 42% of the total target was enrolled in the new project. However project staff tend to focus more on enrolling new acceptors than on following up those who fail to return for more contraceptives. The number of couples years of protection provided through the project for the years 1980-1982 is 40,571 years. Considerable progress has been made in providing services through industrial clinics. Family planning services, primarily condoms and pills, are being provided to workers through the dispensaries/1st aid rooms of the industrial units participating. Integration of a family planning unit in the Department of Labor has also been achieved. The curricula and materials developed for training various cadres of project staff and volunteer worker motivators show a good balance between learning subject matter and the techniques for motivating and educating workers. However, selection of materials is limited and training needs remain. Finally, there has been little attention given by the Department of Labor and Management to how the present provision of welfare services impact on the adoption of family planning, and how to link welfare activities and employment benefits to family planning. The evaluation methodology and reporting procedures are included as an appendix.