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  1. 1

    Public-private mix for TB care and control. Focus on Africa. Report of the fourth meeting of the Subgroup on Public-Private Mix for TB Care and Control, 12-14 September 2006, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Sheikh K; Lal SS; Lonnroth K; Uplekar M; Yesudian HM

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Stop TB Department, 2007. 27 p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2007.378)

    The Subgroup on Public-Private Mix for DOTS Expansion (PPM Subgroup) was established by the global Stop TB Partnership's DOTS Expansion Working Group (DEWG) to help promote and facilitate active engagement of all relevant public and private health care providers in TB control. The members of the Subgroup include representatives from the private sector, academia, country TB programme managers, policy-makers, field experts working on the issue, international technical partners and donor agencies. At the first meeting of the Subgroup in November 2002, generic regional and national Public-Private Mix (PPM) strategies were developed and endorsed. The Subgroup's second meeting, which was held at the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia in New Delhi in February 2004, reviewed the growing evidence base emerging from numerous PPM initiatives. This meeting also broadened the scope of PPM to include the involvement of public sector providers not yet linked to national tuberculosis programmes (NTPs). Consequently, PPM has since stood for the engagement of all public and private health care providers through public-private, public-public and private-private collaboration in TB control. The third meeting of the Subgroup, held in Manila in April 2005, identified barriers and enablers for scaling up and sustaining PPM, and discussed how to mainstream PPM into regular TB control planning and implementation. The Subgroup's current fourth meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, in September 2006 had PPM for TB control in Africa as the main focus. The problems related to the HIV epidemic, human resources for health and health sector reforms pose special challenges to countries in Africa. The meeting examined how successful PPM approaches within Africa could be scaled up and how approaches applied in other regions could be adapted to African settings. Based on a global overview, the African experience in diverse country settings and field visits to examine working PPM models and after a great deal of deliberations and discussions, the Subgroup made recommendations which are presented in Section 6 of the report. A large part of the funding for the meeting was provided by USAID's Tuberculosis Control Assistance Program (TB CAP). (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Microcredit: moving women forward - Microcredit Summit Campaign - Brief article.

    Hughes D

    UN Chronicle. 2000 Summer; 37(2):[3] p..

    Elvia is 25. She is a single mother in Guatemala, a country where the non-governmental organization CARE reports that approximately 20 per cent of women under 18 become unwed mothers. Elvia comes from a large, poor family (11 brothers and sisters). She became pregnant at 19 and was abandoned by the baby's father. She later took loans from CARE and has created a sewing and chicken-raising business. With her mother, she sells 600 chickens every seven weeks. She vows to make sure her six-year-old daughter does not make the same mistakes she has made. It was with women like Elvia in mind that more than 2,900 people from 137 countries gathered from 2 to 4 February 1997 at the Microcredit Summit in Washington, D.C. The delegates launched a nine-year campaign to reach 100 million of the world's poorest families, especially the women of those families, with credit for selfemployment and other financial and business services by the year 2005. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Structural adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa. Report on a series of five senior policy seminars held in Africa, 1987-88.

    Mills CA

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989. [47] p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 18)

    In June 1986, the National Economic Management Division of the World Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI) designed a series of senior policy seminars on structural adjustment for Sub-Saharan Africa. The exercise led to three seminars in 1987: Lusaka I, Lusaka 11, and Abidjan I, and, after redesign, two more in 1988: Victoria Falls and Abidjan 11. Seminar participants were invited in teams typically composed of ministers, governors, permanent secretaries, senior advisors, and a significant number of senior technical staff of central banks, the core ministries of finance and planning, and spending ministries such as agriculture and industry. Twenty seven countries participated in the seminars. Of these, six participated in two separate seminars (see annex A). This report is a synthesized record of the five seminars and is likely to be of interest to all those interested in the reform process in Sub-Saharan Africa, namely, the seminar participants, other similarly placed policymakers, advisors to these policymakers, executives of the public and private sectors, staff of academic institutions, and the staff of international organizations such as the World Bank (the Bank) and the International Monetary Fund (the Fund) involved in studying the political economy of structural adjustment. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Second LDC conference adopts new Action Programme in Paris - least developed countries.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4):[4] p..

    A new Programme of Action aimed at advancing the world's poorest countries offers a "menu approach" for donors to increase their official aid to the least developed countries (LDCs), stressing bilateral assistance in the form of grants or highly concessional loans and calling on donors to help reduce LDC debt. The Programme was adopted by consensus at the conclusion of the Second United Nations Conference on the LDCs (Paris, 3- 14 September). The UN recognizes more than 40 developing countries as "least developed". Although individual nation's indicators vary, in general LDCs have a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately $200 a year, a low life expectancy, literacy rates under 20 per cent and a low contribution of manufacturing industries to GDP. Reflecting the emergence during the 1980s of new priorities in development strategy, the Programme of Action for the LDCs for the 1990s differs from the Action Programme adopted at the first UN Conference on LDCs held in 1981 in Paris. The new Programme emphasizes respect for human rights, the need for democratization and privatization, the potential role of women in development and the new regard for population policy as a fundamental factor in promoting development. Greater recognition of the role of non-governmental organizations in LDC development is also emphasized. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Enlisting business support for Africa's Millennium Goals.

    Africa Renewal. 2005 Oct; 19(3):21.

    Africa will not be able to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) unless it is able to mobilize all stakeholders, including the private sector, concluded more than 200 participants at a conference in London on 4 July. Coming on the eve of the Group of Eight summit in Scotland and on the same day as the opening of the African Union summit in Libya, the event formally launched a project of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), "Bending the Arc," which aims to encourage businesses in Africa to advance the MDGs. The meeting was organized by the NEPAD Secretariat, the African Business Roundtable (ABR) and the United Nations. It also received sponsorship from Coca-Cola, Visa International, Nestlé and other corporations. Making Africa more attractive to business is crucial if "we are to end Africa's dependency on aid and ensure the self-sustaining growth that is needed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in Africa," said Mr. Bamanga Tukur, president of the ABR and chair of the NEPAD Business Group. Mr. Mark Malloch Brown, chief of staff to the UN Secretary-General, lauded the project's aim, since achieving the MDGs "is beyond the reach of government alone." But he also cautioned against "pure private sector solutions" that may push the costs of water or information technologies out of reach of the poor. Africa needs "creative partnerships, where public guarantees, strong public regulations and, possibly, public start-up funds create the incentives and regulatory frameworks to allow the private sector to do its bit, and start to connect people to these vital infrastructures." (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Asian business leaders crucial in fight against AIDS, says WHO AIDS executive director.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Information

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1994 Apr 14. 3 p. (Press Release WHO/32)

    The most alarming trends of HIV infection in the world are in Asia, especially in the South and Southeast among IV drug users and female prostitutes in Myanmar, India, and Thailand. While the World Health Organization predicts there will have been more than 30-40 million HIV infections by the year 2000, the epidemic expansion will be most dramatic in Asia; the current cumulative infection total of over 2 million Asians is expected to grow to more than 10 million by the year 2000. There is neither cure nor vaccine on the horizon. On that note, Michael Merson, the Executive Director of the World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS, urged Asian business leaders at a conference on Asian business response to AIDS in Hong Kong on April 14, 1994, to take an active role in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. At the local and regional levels, business leaders need to establish AIDS-in-the-workplace programs based upon non-discrimination, care and support, and prevention. These programs would use education and information on AIDS to prevent members of corporate labor forces from becoming infected, promote the use of condoms and services for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and ignore demands for pre-employment HIV screening. This latter tactic is clearly an ineffective way to slow the epidemic. Corporate leaders should also not miss the opportunity to influence AIDS prevention policies at both the national and international levels.
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  7. 7

    National Seminar on Population and Development in Malawi, 5 - 9th June, 1989, Chancellor College, Zomba. Report.

    University of Malawi. Chancellor College. Demographic Unit

    Zomba, Malawi, University of Malawi, Chancellor College, Demographic Unit, 1989. ix, 223 p. (UNFPA Project MLW/87/PO1)

    The role of population in planning for socioeconomic development in Malawi was the topic of a National Seminar held by the Demographic Unit of the University of Malawi in June 1989. 64 participants from the University, Government departments, parastatal, non-governmental and international agencies presented 41 papers. Each of these background and seminar papers are summarized, and 64 recommendations are outlines. The seminar was considered further evidence that the government is becoming aware that fertility, 7.6 children per woman, and related infant mortality, 150/1000, are excessive, according to the UNFPA representative in his keynote address, and the hope that future planning will take population into account. The range of topics covered in the papers included demography, spatial distribution, macroeconomic factors in development, refugees, industry, small enterprises, health services, water supply, education, rehabilitation, status of women, food supply, land ownership, sustainable resources and manpower development. Recommendations specified actions on rural development, roads, legalizing tobacco growing, fuelwood, equalizing food security, taxes, savings, finance, antitrust regulations, incentives for health service in rural areas, housing, female education, handicapped persons, refugees, data and research and many other issues.
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  8. 8

    Action now toward more responsible parenthood worldwide. (Proceedings of the Tokyo International Symposium, Tokyo, April 4-7, 1977).

    Japan Science Society; Draper World Population Fund

    Tokyo, Japan, Japan Science Society, 1977. 578 p.

    The Tokyo International Symposium reviewed the progress made since 1974 in integrating population policies with socioeconomic development, with additional focus on needs of rural areas. It was discovered that even countries experiencing economic growth have still failed to provide basic human needs - health, nutrition, housing, education, and employment - and that in densely populated rural areas, and marginal districts of cities, fertility decline has been slow or nonexistant. New evidence presented at the symposium suggested that now a new stage of population history is approaching, characterized by falling birth rates and slackening of world population growth; nevertheless, rapid population growth in developing countries has not ended because 1) of the high proportion of young people in many countries and 2) the fertility rates of the poorest half of the population are 50% higher than the national averages. While projections of world population are being revised downward, world population is still likely to grow from its present 4 billion to 6 billion by the turn of the century. All agencies, official or private, need to emphasize development of cost-effective methods which the government may adopt after a successful pilot study that take into account the social values, religious beliefs, and customs in each country. The symposium urges that additional resources be made available for a broad range of new initiatives in the following areas: 1) to make the fullest range of family planning services available in rural areas and marginal districts of cities; 2) to expand the social and economic roles of women and to improve their status in other fields; 3) to educate adolescents and young adults about their reproductive behavior and to underscore the impact that premature parenthood would have on themselves, their families, and communities; 4) to integrate family planning with development activities; and 5) to encourage program design by affected populations.
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  9. 9

    Assessing institutional development: the legal framework that shapes public institutions.

    Stanton TH

    In: Evaluation and development: proceedings of the 1994 World Bank conference, edited by Robert Picciotto and Ray C. Rist. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. 83-92. (World Bank Operations Evaluation Study)

    This paper presents an introduction to the law of public institutions and the way in which the law shapes institutions that provide goods and services to the public. This introduction serves to help evaluators distinguish basic institutional types and understand how institutional choices can affect performance, capacity, accountability, and potential life cycles. The second part of this paper outlines the legal framework that helps to determine the quality of public institutions. It distinguishes between agencies of government and private instrumentalities of government. The law governing each of these types of institution differs with the legal framework that applies to private companies that serve private goals. The third part of this paper reviews some of the ways that the legal framework helps to determine the external environment, capacity and incentives, nature of service to public purposes, and life cycles of each type of institution. The final and concluding part of this paper suggests aspects of the legal framework of an institution that deserve scrutiny in an assessment of its quality.
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  10. 10

    Cairo Programme of Action: the role of civil society.

    IPPF AND CAIRO PLUS 5. 1998 Aug; (3):1.

    The 20-year Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 both recognizes the vital role played by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in population and development, and calls for greater and more structured cooperation between these groups. Indeed the language on the role of NGOs and civil society was the strongest to have ever come out of a UN conference and reflects an extraordinary level of participation by NGOs in the conference and its 3-year preparatory process. NGOs will be fully involved in the 5-year review process of the ICPD participating in both the NGO Forum and International Forum in the Hague in February 1999, as well as providing input into the UN Commission on Population and Development in March 1999 and UN General Assembly Special Session in June 1999. (full text)
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  11. 11

    Highlights from the Third Annual Inter-Agency Working Group on FGM Meeting, Cairo, Egypt, November, 1996.

    Research, Action and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women [RAINBO]

    [Unpublished] 1996. 13 p.

    In November 1996, more than 34 representatives from 20 organizations attended the Third Annual Inter-Agency Working Group meeting on female genital mutilation (FGM) in Cairo, Egypt. After opening remarks by the Chairperson of the Task Force on FGM in Egypt and the Egyptian Under Secretary of the Ministry of Health and Population, other discussions placed FGM in the larger context of women's human rights, reviewed the background of the Global Action Against FGM Project and the goals of the Inter-Agency Working Group, and provided an overview of the activities of RAINBO (Research, Action, and Information Network for Bodily Integrity of Women). A report was then given of a research workshop organized by RAINBO and the Egyptian Task Force on FGM immediately prior to the Working Group meeting. It was noted that data from the recent Demographic and Health Survey revealed an FGM prevalence rate of 97% in Egypt, and areas requiring more research were highlighted. Discussion following this presentation included mention of qualitative methods used in a recent study in Sierra Leone and recent research in the Sudan that led to recommended intervention strategies. During the second day of the Working Group meeting, participants provided a preview of the work of the Egyptian Task Force Against FGM; a description of RAINBO's effort to develop training of trainers reproductive health and FGM materials; and summaries of the work of nongovernmental organizations, private foundations, UN agencies, and bilateral donors. This meeting report ends with a list of participants.
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  12. 12

    No-scalpel vasectomy in the United States.

    Antarsh L

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the First International Symposium on No-Scalpel Vasectomy, Bangkok, Thailand, December 3-6, 1989. 10 p.

    The paper describes the introduction and use of the no-scalpel vasectomy in the United States. Vasectomy is popular in the U.S., with 336,000 of them performed in 1987 almost exclusively buy urologists, family practitioners, and surgeons. Receiving no government funding for the new procedure's introduction in the U.S., the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) turned to family planning clinics, Planned Parenthoods, and medical schools to reach experienced vasectomists interested in co-sponsoring orientation seminars for other doctors. Programs were held in 1988, in California, Massachusetts and New York, in which attendees were provided self-training packages, and asked to report their experiences with the new technique. Field reports were received from 25 physicians on 2,237 vasectomies, and included both positive and negative comments. Even though the technique is uncomplicated, physicians generally found the technique difficult to master with only teaching materials. Accordingly, the U.S. training model was modified to include a rubbermodel f the scrotal skin and underlying was with the training packet, visits to practitioners' offices by clinical instructors, a compressed training period of 1 day, and hands on training. A minimum of 6-9 cases is generally required to properly learn the technique. 3-4 training seminars will be conducted over the next year in different regions of the U.S. in addition to other efforts aimed at meeting demand for training from interested doctors. Care is taken in choosing instructors and participants, with interest especially strong in training of trainers. Of central concern to the AVSC is their ability to keep pace with growing demand for training, while ensuring 6-12 month follow-up and high-quality instruction and practice of the technique.
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  13. 13

    Population: from Bucharest to Mexico and beyond. Poblacion: de Bucharest a Mexico y mas alla.

    Nobbe C

    Tellus. 1984 Jul; 5(2):8-11, 25-8.

    Since the formulation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in Bucharest in 1974, about 80% of governments have endorsed family planning and fertility control. There has been a growing awareness by governments that population planning must be an integral part of general policy formulation. This article describes the issues of central concern to the 1984 International Population Conference in Mexico, highlighting those which result from new global developments over the past decade. Immigration, particularly by exiles and refugees from political persecution, are contributing much more to population instability than foreseen by the WPPA. Internal migration and massive population shifts from rural to urban areas are of increasing concern to governments in developing nations. In developed countries, there has been an emergence of anxiety over zero population growth. The role of privately sponsored programs for population control is much less prominent, as governments take more responsibility for formulating population policy. A report from a meeting of 90 such nongovernmental organizations held in 1983 was reluctantly accepted as an official document at the conference in Mexico. The Canadian Task Force on Population has identified 5 issues of special concern: status of women, the environment, aging, immigration, and family planning. The Task Force includes among its objectives the encouragement of a comprehensive population policy for Canada, focussing both on Canada's special concerns and on its place in the global community. For example, acid rain and improper soil conservation are threatening Canada's status as one of the few viable "bread baskets" for the world. The growing bulge in the population over age 65 will impose economic strain in the future. Sex education for adolescents in inadequate, with only 1/2 of Canadian schools addressing sex and sexuality in the curriculum.
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  14. 14

    Research on the regulation of human fertility: needs of developing countries and priorities for the future, Vol. 2, Background documents.

    Diczfalusy E; Diczfalusy A

    Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1983. 2 986 p.

    Volume 2 of papers from an international symposium starts with chapter 7--available methods of fertility regulation; problems encountered in family planning programs of developing countries. Natural family planning is discussed here, as well as contraceptives and male and female sterilization. Chapter 8 covers research problems with regard to epidemiological, service, and psychosocial aspects of fertility regulation. Family planning is stressed in this chapter. Chapter 9 discusses future methods of fertility regulation: progress in selected areas. New contraceptive agents are discussed, such as luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and its analogues, gossypol for men, and immunological methods of fertility regulation. Chapter 10 also discusses future methods of fertility regulation, but from the point of view of research needs and priorities as viewed by program directors and advisers. Views and research priorities of the Population Council, and the Indian Council of Medical Research are given. Research needs and priorities in China are discussed, as is the role of the World Health Organization's Special Program of Reseach, Development and Reserch Training in Human Reproduction. Lastly, chapter 11 covers the role of governments, agencies and industry in reseach on fertility regulation. The role of the Agency for International Development, the US National Institutes of Health; and the World Bank, among others, are discussed.
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  15. 15

    International consultation of NGOs on population issues in preparation of the 1984 United Nations International Conference on Population: report of the consultation.

    [Unpublished] [1984]. 83 p.

    196 individuals from 44 countries, representing national and international non-governmental organizations, bilateral agencies and intergovernmental organizations attended the consultation. The purposes of the consultation were: 1) to provide an overview of the contributions of non-governmental organizations to the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action through a wide range of population and population related programs carried out since the Plan was adopted in 1974; 2) to explore what non-governmental organizations believe needs to be done in the world population field during the balance of the century; 3) to prepare for participation in the January 1984 Conference Preparatory Committee meeting and in the Conference itself to be held in August 1984; and 4) to provide suggestions for activities of national affiliates relative to the 1984 Conference. This report provides a synopsis of the plenary sessions and their recommendations. Addresses by numerous individuals covered the following topics: the creative role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the population field; vital contributions of NGO's to the implementation of the world population plan of action; the family; population distribution and migration; population, resources, environment and international economic crisis; mortality and health; and NGO prospects for the implementation of the world population plan of action.
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  16. 16

    Problems of distribution, availability, and utilization of agents in developing countries. A. Industry perspectives.


    In: Institute of Medicine. Division of International Health. Pharmaceuticals for developing countries. (Conference proceedings, Washington, D.C., January 29-31, 1979) Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences, 1979. (IOM-79-001) p. 211-227

    A spokesman for the drug industry emphasizes that the health and well-being of the peoples of the developing world are far more dependent on political and economic decisions than on scientific and technological developments. The following tables provide evidence for the superiority of private sector drug distribution vs. public: 1) leading therapeutic classes by sales through retail pharmacies in selected developed and developing markets (e.g., all of Latin America together consumes less antidiabetic drugs than Holland); 2) national expenditure on health as a percentage of gross national product (i.e., GNP; in general, developed countries spend 5-8% of GNP on health care, of which 10-20% represents expenditure on drugs; whereas in low-income countries drug expenditure rarely rises to 2 U.S. dollars and often accounts for up to 50% of total health care); 3) distribution of public finance in selected developing countries (1975); 4) health care and development aid provided by major donor nations (1976); 5) structure of aid to health in capital aid only; 6) comparative rankings of the leading 10 therapeutic classes in selected developing countries; and 7) patent protection for pharmaceuticals in selected developing countries. It is pointed out that policies which restrict activities in multinational corporations, especially patent and trade name restrictions, have resulted in a heavy pull-out of multinationals from participation in drug delivery in developing countries. This is seen as further debilitating the already woeful, by industry standards, state of public sector health care delivery in developing nations.
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  17. 17

    Strengthening incentives and overcoming disincentives: panel presentation.


    In: Institute of Medicine. Division of International Health. Pharmaceuticals for Developing countries. (Conference proceedings, Washington, D.C., January 29-31) Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences, 1979. (IOM-79-001) p. 400-415

    This is a summary of the panel discussion held at a conference on Pharmaceuticals for Developing Countries. Discussion focussed on ways in which to provide pharmaceutical companies with incentives to develop new drugs needed in developing countries. The governments, in both the U.S. and the developing country, must use positive incentives and discontinue disincentives to the activity of drug companies in the market. Academic and business partnership and public- and private-sector partnership are both necessary. It was pointed out by all participants that the development of drugs for use in developing countries requires a long lead time. The drug distribution system in these countries must be improved. Attainment of self-sufficiency in drug production requires establishment of educational institutions and launching of chemical and pharmaceutical production industries. The changing policies and activities of the World Bank in this area are presented.
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  18. 18

    Contraceptive development for developing countries: unmet needs.


    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. 1976 Dec 10; 195(1118):187-198.

    In the past 15-20 years there have been advances in fertility regulation. These advances are modest gains that frequently involve a bioengineering input, include collaboration between public agencies and industry, and are closely related to the needs of developing nations. They are the result of the existence of specialized programs whose major goal is the development of new technology. However, a similar specialized public mechanism to undertake the wide range of activities related to product development and introduction of the new technology into family planning does not exist. The 3 major phases of the contraceptive development process are biomedical development, product development, and product introduction-market development. There are 4 areas that require more attention. The 1st of these is a product development laboratory that would accept responsibility for dosage form development, stability testing, quality control procedures, product and packaging modifications, and the production of supplies for biomedical research. Such a laboratory would increase the acceptability of existing methods and promote new developments. Also needed is a contraceptive information service, offering ''full disclosure'' product-related information to managers of family planning programs. A 3rd need is for a patent and licensing administration for the public sector; this would assure that new contraceptives developed with public funds would be made widely available to family planning programs at a reasonable cost. Finally, there is a need to establish a contraceptive introduction planning unit that would consider the program implications of new methods of fertility control and aid countries in planning for their introduction. The availabiltiy of a specialized capacity to take responsibility for public leadership in these 4 areas would contribute greatly to the development of new contraceptive methods that are appropriate to the needs of developing countries and to the success of present international contraceptive research and development efforts.(Authors', modified)
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  19. 19

    The contribution of voluntary family planning associations to African development.

    Deverell C

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The role of family planning in African development. Proceedings of a seminar held at University College, Nairobi, Kenya, December 13-16, 1967. London, England, IPPF, 1968. p. 56-61

    Family planning could contribute to the betterment of African society in 2 ways: 1) by improving the health and economic prospects of individual families, and 2) by contributing to national economic development. Voluntary organizations have a role to play in these 2 objectives. The affiliate associations of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) believe that all parents have a right and a responsibility to practice responsible parenthood. IPPF seeks to propagandize in favor of family planning, to encourage the establishment of family planning facilities, and to heighten public awareness of the interrelatedness of population and development issues so that governments will adopt a responsible role in this field. Both the proselytizing and promotional roles of IPPF will be needed for a long time to come. Even when governments take over total responsibility for a national family planning program, there is still a role for voluntary associations to play. These associations can humanize mass programs and provide public feedback to the government planners. Obstacles to family planning remain on the world scene. Among them are the shortage of medical personnel and the gap between human attitudes and human behavior.
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  20. 20

    Women's organisations.

    Hussein A

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). Preventive medicine and family planning. Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Europe and Near East Region of the IPPF, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 5-8, 1966. London, England, IPPF, 1967. p. 222-224

    Women's organizations played a significant part in the family planning movement in the United Arab Republic (UAR). In 1962 the President of the UAR made his 1st public pronouncement in favor of family planning. Soon after, the Cairo Women's Club staged the 1st series of public lectures on the subject in the country. This series served to bring the subject into the open. With national and international assistance, other UAR women's groups began to establish family planning clinics around the country. Through the Joint Committee for Family Planning, a number of women's groups attracted international aid to the movement in the UAR, effected cooperation with the national Ministry of Social Affairs, and evolved standardized procedures for registration, education, training, and evaluation to be used by all the family planning clinics in the country. In 1967, the government established a national family planning program. The voluntary women's groups can still serve as a testing ground for the national program.
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  21. 21

    Keynote address.

    Sai FT

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). East and South East Asia and Oceania Region (ESEAOR). Regional Medical Committee and Family Planning Organization of the Philippines. Seminar workshop on the role of FPA clinics in relation to community-based family planning services, Manila, February 6-11, 1975. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IPPF/ESEAOR, 1975. 1-6.

    The Family Planning Associations and the International Planned Parenthood Federation have performed useful international and national education work in the last 20 years. Now that most national governments have taken over the responsibility of funding family planning, these organizations must investigate other areas where they can be useful. The international conferences in 1975 indicated that worldwide concerns are more comprehensive than just family planning. The technology of family planning is not the only area of importance. There are political, economic, ethical, and legal considerations involved. The role of the medical profession in family planning must be reconsidered. Society can be its own educator and supplier in this field. Distributive justice must be achieved. The consumer must be considered in all family planning programs.
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  22. 22

    Creative community health planning: an acute general hospital and a family planning affiliate.

    Alexander RS; Miller M

    In: Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA). National Executive Directors Council. Papers 1975 presented at Professional Staff Day, Seattle, Washington, October 19, 1975. New York, PPFA, 1975. p. 20-26

    In mid 1971 an affiliation was effected between the Mount Sinai Medical Center and the Planned Parenthood Association (PPA) of Wisconsin. In March, 1972, PPA began operations in an expanded scale in facilities adjacent to the Medical Center. PPA approached the Medical Center because of: 1) the strategic location of the Center; 2) availability of adjacent space; 3) previous existing interest in family planning by the gynecological staff of the Center; 4) a history of ambul atory service for the medically indigent; and 5) existent interprofessio nal relationships. The Center felt a need for a wider role in the community. An operating agreement was drawn up between the 2 parties, which respected the identity of PPA and maintained the freedom of choice which PPA requires. A federal grant to PPA for expanded subsidized serv ice and an experiment with integrated family planning-comprehensive heal th care facilitated the affiliation. The arrangement has benefitted patients, both staffs, and the community. PPA's total patient load has increased steadily since 1971. This affiliation between a family planning agency and a hospital is the first of its kind in the country. It may be a pattern for future such arrangements.
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  23. 23

    Basic Document. Caribbean Regional Employers' Seminar on Population and Family Welfare Planning.

    In: International Labour Office. Caribbean Regional Employers' Seminar on Population and Family Welfare Planning, Port-of-Spain, 10-14 April 1973. Geneva, International Labour Office, 1973. p. 167-209

    The objectives to be examined in this seminar of participants from employer organizations in the English speaking Caribbean are the relationship between population programs and national development, the employers' role and objectives in regard to population problems, the population problem as it relates to the welfare of the workers and their families, and the contribution that can be made to this problem area by employers and work-related health, welfare and educational services. The following section reports the international actions that have been taken in response to population growth as well as how on a national level this growth is negatively affecting the efforts of the International Labour Office to improve the employment situation. Tables and discussion elaborate on the population of both the world and the Caribbean in the 3rd section. A review of the family planning activities of 16 countries is given next in order to illustrate how other governments, employers and workers are using family planning as a mean of dealing with population growth. The means to reduce fertility and affect population development are presented in the 5th section. Section 6 simply refers the reader to Annex B for a report of suggestions from employers of other regions who have already participated in this same seminar. The other annex provides the family planning policy programs in selected countries in the Caribbean. The final section raises the following issues for discussion: 1) employment and population issues; 2) family planning and work related issues; 3) coordination and collaboration of family planning agencies with employers and workers organizations; 4) further action that can be taken by employer organizations; 5) family planning measures that can be taken; and, 6) international assistance that would be helpful.
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  24. 24

    The role of government agencies in supporting research on fertility regulation.

    Lauridsen E

    In: Diczfalusy E, Diczfalusy A, ed. Research on the regulation of human fertility: needs of developing countries and priorities for the future, Vol. 2. Background documents. Copenhagen, Denmark, Scriptor, 1983. 901-10.

    The role of governments in research on fertility regulation is to support, finance, coordinate, legislate and take regulatory action necessary to assure the development of new and improved contraceptive technologies. The major advances in contraceptive technology in the 1940s and 1950s were made possible by funding support from industry and private foundations. In the late 1960s government funding, particularly in the US, assumed an increasingly important role. During this same time, 2 UN organizations were formed in addition to several nonprofit institutions whose purpose was to promote research on fertility regulation for developing countries. Worldwide funding for research and training in human reproduction peaked in 1972-1973 at around US 100 million with 20-25% allocated for research on fertility regulation. The level of funding has since declined, most markedly the contribution from private industry. The funding needs for research on human reproduction, including fertility regulation, are in excess of present levels. Funding requirements may be 3-7 times higher than current levels. The prospects for future funding are not optimistic. However, it is hoped that the increased informational focus on parliamentarians and the 1984 World Population Conference will contribute to a reversal of this current trend in decreasing funding levels. The increased emphasis on safety and efficacy of new drugs and devices has lengthened the time between the development of a product and the approval for marketing. The 6 to 8 years between the granting of a patent to the marketing of a product has decreased active patent life. This, together with problems of product liability, has contributed to the declined in industrial investment in research and development on fertility regulating agents. The need for a global institution to establish standards for new contraceptive products is advocated, and WHO should be responsible. Patent laws should be eased. (author's modified)
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  25. 25

    Summary of preparatory activities for the International Conference on Population--1984.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    [Unpublished] 1983 Oct. 4 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Papers E/ECA/POP/8)

    During the 2nd session in 1981, the Economic and Social Council of the U.N. decided to convene in 1984 an International Conference on Population focusing on questions of highest priority and contributing to and reviewing the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974. Preparatory activities for the Conference had as a principal goal, the preparation of 2 documents which would serve as the basis for its discussions. The 1st document is a review and appraisal of progress made towards achieving the goals and recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action. The 2nd document sets forth specific recommendations for further implementation of the Plan of Action. 4 expert group meetings were held, 1 for each of the demographic issues of the highest priority identified by the Population Commission: 1) economic, social, demographic and political factors related to family and fertility; 2) population distribution and development strategies with reference to rural development, urbanization, and internal and international migration; 3) economic, social, demographic and political factors linked to health and mortality; and 4) interrelationships between population, resources, environment and development. 10-15 experts were invited to each meeting along with other selected inter and nongovernmental organizations concerned with population. In general, expert groups were asked to attach importance to practical implications of each of the topics on their agenda. The Population Division prepared a background report reviewing the theme of each meeting and the Secretariat commissioned a series of papers on specific issues by individual experts. It is thought that the proceedings of the 4 expert group meetings will be published in the future. The Population Division also carried out a survey among governments concerning their appraisal of their country's demographics trends and population policies. Also, the Population Division prepared its 4th biennial report on the monitoring of population trends and projections of populations. Topics included population size, mortality, fertility, urbanization, distribution, internal and international migration, interaction between populations, resources, environment and development and the integration of demographic factors in development planning and policy making. A series of consultations are also being held in other regions to help ensure the substantive contribution of the regional commissions to the Conference.
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