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  1. 1
    036346

    The national immunization campaign of El Salvador: against the odds.

    Argueta RH; Jaramillo H

    Assignment Children. 1985; 69/72:397-414.

    The recent immunization campaign in El Salvador has been a success despite the civil war. Both the government and the guerrillas agreed that the goal of immunizing children was an ideal transcending all differences, and that immunization should be taken to all parts of the country and all Salvadorian children. The campaign had the personal support of the head of state, the church, UNICEF, PAHO/WHO, ICRC and other organizations who worked with the parties to implement the campaign. The 3 national immunization days, held on February 3, March 3, and April 21, 1985 were transformed into days of tranquillity. This article describes how the campaign was organized and presents an assessment of its achievements. An executive committee was created and both UNICEF and PAHO/WHO took part in its meetings. Specific commissions handled channeling, training, supplies, the cold chain, information and evaluation, and promotion and education. The plan of action proposed that all branches of government and the private sector support the immunization campaign and a national support council was establish for this purpose. The original goal was to immunize 400,000 children under 3 years of age against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, and measles. The goal was extended to cover children under 5 years of age. Funding was provided from both public and private organizations. Reasons the campaign was a success despite war conditions include: the campaign was backed by political commitment; the mechanisms created to implement the campaign functioned smoothly; mobilizing the media generated a change in opinion and attitude. The campaign rested on solid technical and political foundations. It reached 87% of children under 5 in the area.
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  2. 2
    034685

    Brazil.

    Population Crisis Committee [PCC]

    Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1985 Dec. 8 p. (Status Report on Population Problems and Programs)

    In 1985 Brazil's new civilian government took a potentially significant step towards political commitment to a national population program by appointing a national Commission for the Study of Human Reproductive Rights and by accepting large-scale external assistance to implement a nationwide maternal and child health program intended to include family planning services. Brazil's traditional pronatalist policy has been undergoing a change since 1974 and family planning is now viewed as an indispensable element of Brazil's development policy. Several laws which had long impeded the growth of family planning services have been revised or repealed. It is no longer illegal to advertise contraceptives, but abortion is only allowed in restricted circumstances. Approval for voluntary sterilization is easier to obtain. Brazilians who practice family planning obtain services primarily through commercial channels or the private sector. The government and private family planners are faced with a major problem of organizing family planning services for rural areas and the vast city slums. The estimated cost of a national family planning program for Brazil is between US$221 million for 1990 and US$182 to US$324 million for the year 2000. The various aspects of the government program are discussed. The private sector was instrumental in introducing family planning to Brazil. A private non-profit organization was established by a group of physicians to encourage the government to develop a national family planning program and to inform the public about responsible parenthood. This organization (BEMFAM) was given official recognition by the federal government and a number of states and declared a public convenience. Another organization (CPAIMC) was established to provide maternal and child health care in poor urban areas. The sources of external aid, accomplishments to date and remaining obstacles are discussed. Sources of external aid include: UNFPA, USAID, IPPF, the Pathfinder Fund and Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health (CPFH). A change in popular and official pronatalist attitudes has been effected.
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