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Conservation of West and Central African rainforests. Conservation de la foret dense en Afrique centrale et de l'Ouest.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xi, 353 p. (World Bank Environment Paper No. 1)This World Bank publication is a collection of selected papers presented at the Conference on Conservation of West and Central African Rainforests in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, in November 1990. These rainforests are very important to the stability of the regional and global environment, yet human activity is destroying them at a rate of 2 million hectares/year. Causes of forest destruction are commercial logging for export, conversion of forests into farmland, cutting of forests for fuelwood, and open-access land tenure systems. Other than an introduction and conclusion, this document is divided into 8 broad topics: country strategies, agricultural nexus, natural forestry management, biodiversity and conservation, forest peoples and products, economic values, fiscal issues, and institutional and private participation issues. Countries addressed in the country strategies section include Zaire, Cameroon, Sao Tome and Principe, and Nigeria. The forest peoples and products section has the most papers: wood products and residual from forestry operations in the Congo; Kutafuta Maisha: searching for life on Zaire's Ituri forest frontier; development in the Central African rainforest: concern for forest peoples; concern for Africa's forest peoples: a touchstone of a sustainable development policy; Tropical Forestry Action Plans and indigenous people: the case of Cameroon; forest people and people in the forest: investing in local community development; and women and the forest: use and conservation of forestry resources other than wood. Topics in the economic values section range from debt-for-nature swaps to environmental labeling. Forestry taxation and forest revenue systems are discussed under fiscal issues. The conclusion discusses saving Africa's rainforests.
Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1991 Nov; (39):1-31.This report discusses the challenges and costs involved in meeting the future needs for family planning in developing countries. Estimates of current expenditures for family planning go as high as $4.5 billion. According to a UNFPA report, developing country governments contribute 75% of the payments for family planning, with donor agencies contributing 15%, and users paying for 10%. Although current expenditures cover the needs of about 315 million couples of reproductive age in developing countries, this number of couples accounts for only 44% of all married women of reproductive age. Meeting all current contraceptive needs would require an additional $1 to $1.4 billion. By the year 2000, as many as 600 million couples could require family planning, costing as much as $11 billion a year. While the brunt of the responsibility for covering these costs will remain in the hand of governments and donor agencies (governments spend only 0.4% of their total budget on family planning and only 1% of all development assistance goes towards family planning), a wide array of approaches can be utilized to help meet costs. The report provides detailed discussions on the following approaches: 1) retail sales and fee-for-services providers, which involves an expanded role for the commercial sector and an increased emphasis on marketing; 2) 3rd-party coverage, which means paying for family planning service through social security institutions, insurance plans, etc.; 3) public-private collaboration (social marketing, employment-based services, etc.); 4) cost recovery, such as instituting fees in public and private nonprofit family planning clinics; and 5) improvements in efficiency.
Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1987 Sept-Oct; (34):921-51.Family planning services through the workplace is an idea that is attracting more attention, benefit's workers, employers, and nations. Large manufacturers and plantations in India first offered family planning to workers in the 1950s. Now also in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, South Korea, Turkey, Egypt, Kenya, and elsewhere, many large companies have added family planning to other health services. In some Latin American countries social security systems have added family planning for many workers. Many different groups, including compaines, labor unions, government-sponsored social marketing programs, and the military, run employment-based programs. Services are offered in workplace clinics, through referrals, in free-standing facilities, in social security hospitals, and in community clinics. Funding comes from employers, governments, unions, family planning associations, and USAID. The most effective programs offer supplies and services as well as information, offer them directly at the workplace, and use worker-volunteers to distribute pills and condoms. Successful programs require the full support of company management. Favorable cost-benefit projections can show managers that offering family planning makes financial sense and contributes to employee health.
The use of indicators of financial resources in the health sector. L'emploi des indicateurs de ressources financieres dans le secteur de la sante.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(4):450-62.This article provides an overview of the application of financial resource indicators in health. The focus is on indicators at the country level, although in certain instances related sub-national indicators are considered as well. 1st the different categories of financial resource indicators are described. The international experience in data collection, and problems of data availability and comparability are reviewed. Although the points addressed are relevant to all countries, the discussion is most applicable to the developing world where health information is limited. Particular attention is given to the design adn use of financial resource indicators in monitoring progress towards the goal of health for all. Finally, the steps that may be taken to increase the contribution of financial resource indicators to the health development process are discussed. Viewed economically, the health sector consists of production and consumption of services which have relatively direct influence on population health status. The different types of resources may be linked to their respective prices to show the financial flows that operate within the health system. The sources and uses of funds are identified. 3 types of financial resource indicators can be identified: health within the national economy, the provision of funds from primary sources and the functional and programmatic uses of funds. The 1st type is concerned with the aggregate availability of funds within the national economy and the fraction of those funds which are allocated to health. The 2nd component relates to the origins of the funds which make up the total health expenditure, under the broad headings of public, private and external sources of health finance. The 3rd type refers to the variety of used to which funds from these sources are put (expressed in terms of function e.g. salaries), program type (e.g. primary health care), or activity (e.g. health education).