Your search found 16 Results
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013 Apr.  p.To meet the challenge of sustaining reproductive health commodity security in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the United Nations Population Fund and PATH developed workshops to increase awareness about total market approaches and develop an action plan for the region. This report describes two regional workshops that were held in April 2013.
Road-mapping a total market approach for family planning and reproductive health commodity security. Workshop materials.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013.  p.To meet the challenge of sustaining reproductive health commodity security in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the United Nations Population Fund and PATH developed workshops to increase awareness about total market approaches and develop an action plan for the region. These workshop materials are from two regional workshops that were held in April 2013.
Essential medicines for mothers and children: a key element of health systems. Access to medicines and public pharmaceutical policy.
Entre Nous. 2009; (68):14-15.Medicines, when used appropriately, are one of the most cost effective interventions in health care. European countries spend an important part of their health budget on medicines, from 12% on average for the EU countries to more than 30% for the Newly Independent States (NIS) countries. Whereas in EU countries the larger part of the medicines expenditures are publicly funded through taxes and/or social health insurance, in the NIS and in the south eastern European countries it is often the patients who have to pay directly for the drugs themselves. This means that many patients simply do not get the drugs they need because they cannot afford them, and also may force families to incur enormous expenses as they sell their belongings in order to pay for their drugs and their health care.
Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3): p..Large-scale corruption in developed and developing countries is closely connected to contracting-out, concessions, and privatization. The encouragement of privatization of public services and infrastructure by the World Bank and others has multiplied the potential scale of this business. At the same time it has multiplied the incentives for multinational companies active in these sectors to offer bribes in order to secure concessions and contracts. One of the sectors most at risk is water and sanitation. The concessions invariably involve long-term monopoly supply of an essential service, with considerable potential profit. Often, major construction works are involved, which are themselves a source of profit. (excerpt)
Consultative meeting on "Accelerating an AIDS Vaccine for Developing Countries: Issues and Options for the World Bank", Paris, April 13, 1999.
[Unpublished] 1999. 7 p.The World Bank’s AIDS Vaccine Task Force sponsored a meeting at the World Bank European office in Paris on Tuesday, April 13, 1999, to consult with key shareholders, bilateral and multilateral donors, and representatives from developing countries on ways that the World Bank could accelerate the development of an AIDS vaccine that would be effective and affordable in developing countries. The 32 participants included representatives from the North and South, from AIDS control programs, foreign affairs ministries, and ministries of finance, both technical experts and policy makers. An issues paper, “Accelerating an AIDS vaccine for developing countries: Issues and options for the World Bank”, served as background for the meeting. (excerpt)
Africa Recovery. 2003 Dec;  p..On 28 November the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) posted an online audio interview with UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan about the struggle against HIV/AIDS. The transcript of this important broadcast appears below in its entirety. It has been edited slightly for clarity. The Secretary-General was speaking to Ms. Carrie Gracie on "The Interview" programme for BBC World Service radio. It is reproduced with the permission of the BBC. BBC: Over the past two weeks the BBC World Service has been running an AIDS season and we've heard many aspects of the illness. But today we want to get a sense of your personal contribution and whether you think that you're winning the battle. So I want to start by asking you about the enemy. When did you first realize what a serious enemy you were up against with AIDS? Annan: I think it was when I discussed the issue with the World Health Organization [WHO] and UNAIDS [the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS] and looked at the figures and the statistics and the devastation it was causing in many African countries, and at the attitude of the leaders. We needed leadership. We needed leadership at all levels. But it was most important to get the presidents and the prime ministers speaking up and that was not happening. I thought we should do whatever we can to raise awareness and to get them involved. (excerpt)
London, FPA, 1972. 48 p.Currently, public authorities pay for almost 2/3 of the family planning consultations conducted by the Family Planning Association, and this is the most significant development since the publication of the last Family Planning Association Report. Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. The Family Planning Association handed over the management of 39 clinics to public authorities in the 1971-1972 year. However, despite this progress, family planning service provision by public authorities throughout England continues to be uneven in quality and extent. Spending by local health authorities for each woman at risk varies from 1 penny per woman at risk in Burnley (excluding the city of London) to 179 pence at Islington. In addition to the problem of inconsistency in spending, there appears to be no immediate prospect of a comprehensive family planning service - one that is available to all, is free of charge, and is backed by an adequate education campaign. Although government help for the extension of domiciliary family planning service is impressive, it should not obscure the false economies in spending on other contraceptive delivery services such as general practitioners, specialist clinics, and specialized advisory centers. Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. The Association's basic policy continues to be to turn over the responsibility for the management of clinic and domiciliary contraceptive services as quickly and as smoothly as possible to the public authorities. Already there is concern that some clinic services managed by public authorities may become less attractive, particularly to young people, and that differences in the quality of service will increase under local public management as well as that backup services will be neglected. Also existing is the realization that the public authorities do not do enough to attract people to the use of contraception.
Partnership with civil society. A review of progress since the International Conference on Population and Development.
[Unpublished] 1999. Prepared for the NGO Forum on ICPD Plus 5, The Hague, Netherlands, February 6-7, 1999  i.A technical report reviews the progress made by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) in partnership with civil society, including nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), in achieving the objectives of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Program of Action. The analysis is based on an examination of several documents and reports of consultations, technical meetings and round tables in 1997-98 in various thematic areas in the context of the ICPD+5 review. Chapter II charts the progress of UNFPA support for and collaboration with civil society/NGOs at international, regional and national levels since the ICPD. Chapter III examines the report of the Dhaka Round Table, the Inquiry responses, and other ICPD+5 review reports. Chapter IV presents the actions proposed by civil society and NGOs. Chapter V presents conclusions and includes suggestions for mechanisms that would enhance and sustain collaboration, cooperation, coordination, and partnership among international organizations. Furthermore, the lessons from success stories of women's empowerment in implementing the Program of Action need to be transferred to other countries.
HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL. 1998; 13(3):183-5.Engaging private sector business in partnerships to promote health is one of the most important challenges for all who are concerned with improving health in the 21st century. The Jakarta Declaration is a major step toward realizing that goal. The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum is an international organization formed by 50 multinational companies from Europe, America, the Middle East, and Asia to promote the active involvement of businesses in country and community development. Member companies include many of the leading investors in emerging markets, employ approximately 25 million people directly and indirectly through their supply chains, and operate in every country and territory in the world. The Forum works through national and international partnerships in more than 30 countries around the world, and also brings together the major global hotel chains with 10% of the world's hotel rooms in the International Hotels Environment Initiative global alliance. This paper discusses why concern should be had over private sector involvement, why businesses want to be involved, what business can bring to the partnership, and the conditions for effective partnerships.
ADVANCES IN CONTRACEPTION. 1990 Sep; 6(3):169-76.Clinical trials of vaginal rings containing progestins or ethinyl estradiol and progestins by WHO, the Population Council and private firms are reviewed. Contraceptive steroids can be formulated into Silastic vaginal rings because they are released continuously from this material (zero-order kinetics). Vaginal rings have the advantage of avoiding the 1st pass effect on the liver, as well as self- administration, unrelated to the timing of coitus and regulation of withdrawal bleeding with removal for 7 days per cycle. The shell vaginal ring, with an inert core, a layer of Silastic containing the progestogen, and an outer Silastic layer is designed to regulate release by the thickness of the outer layer. The WHO tested rings releasing 200 mcg norethisterone/day resulting in too many menstrual side effects; and 50 mcg/day with too high a failure rate. A ring releasing 20 mcg levonorgestrel is expected to perform well. The Population Council designed rings releasing 152 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 252 mcg levonorgestrel, and 183 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 293 mcg levonorgestrel. These resulted in pregnancy rates of 2/100 woman years, and continuation rates of 50%, but unacceptably adverse lipid effects. Women discontinued for vaginal symptoms. Compared to a similar combined oral pill, the rings offered no advantage. WHO subsequently introduced a ring releasing 20 mcg levonorgestrel: efficacy was 3.8 and continuation over 50%. A new segmented ring with desogestrel is causing fewer androgenic effects and bleeding complaints. Another ring in current trials gives off 120 mcg desogestrel and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol with no pregnancies and good acceptability in 100 women to date. Availability of Silastic material and quality control in manufacture are seen as obstacles to overcome for mass production of these vaginal rings.
PEOPLE. 1987; 14(2):33.3 agencies in Turkey are placing family planning centers in factory settings: the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT), the Confederation of Trade Unions (TURK-IS), and the Family Health and Planning Foundation, a consortium of industrialists. The FPAT started with 27 factories 7 years ago, educating and serving 35,000 workers. The 1st work with management, then train health professionals in family planning, immunization, infant and child care, maternal health, education, motivation techniques, record-keeping and follow-up. Worker education is then begun in groups of 50. New sites are covered on a 1st-come-1st-served basis. This program is expected to be successful because newcomers to city jobs are beginning to see the need for smaller families, and accept family planning. TURK-IS has conducted seminars for trade union leaders and workers' representatives and provided contraceptives in 4 family planning clinics and in 20 hospitals run by Social Security, a workers' health organization. They have distributed condoms in factories and trained nurses to insert IUDs in factory units. The businessmen have opened family planning services in 15 factories, with support from the Pathfinder Fund, and hope to make the project self-supporting.
International Journal of Health Services. 1986; 16(1):121-39.This article analyzes the patterns of health sector aid to India since 1947, summarizing criticisms such as the extension of dependency relationships, inappropriate use of techniques and models (maintenance costs of large projects are often too high for poor undeveloped countries), and Malthusianism in population programs. The major source of foreign assistance has been the US, amounting to US$107 million from 1950-1973; this figure is broken down to detail which foundations and agencies provided assistance, and how much, over this time period. Foreign assistance for family planning is also discussed. Most health policies adopted in India today predate independence and were present in plans established by the British. New patterns in health aid are described, such as funding made available in local currency to be spent on primary care and especially maternal and child health. The focus of foreign aid has been preventive in emphasis and oriented towards the primary care sector. In some periods it has contributed a substantial share of total public sector expenditures, and in some spheres, it has played a major role, particularly the control of communicable diseases. However, the impact of less substantial sums going to prestige medical colleges or to population control programs should not be ignored. Several aid categories have been of dubious origin (PL-480 counterpart funds and US food surpluses as the prime examples). However, the new health aid programs do not deserve the ready dismissal they have received in some quarters.
In: Methodological foundations for research on the determinants of health development, by World Health Organization [WHO]. [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Office of Research Promotion and Development, 1985. 1-7. (RPD/SOC/85)Health development planning is part of overall development planning and is influenced by the total development process. Those dealing with health planning may present the health sector's development as the most important aspect of development whereas there may be more urgent problems in other sectors. All socioeconomic plans aim at improving the quality of life. There is some correlation between spending on health programs and the health indices. The health indices are poor in countries which accord low priority to health. A table gives measure of health status by level of GNP/capita in selected countries. No direct correlation appears between income and mortality. This paper examines the functions of health development planning; health development plans; intersectoral collaboration; health information; strategy; financial aspects; implementation, evaluation and reprogramming; and manpower needs. A health development plan usually includes an analysis of the current situation; a review of the immediate past plan and previous plans; the objectives, strategy, targets and physical infrastructure of the plan; program philosophy with manpower requirements; financial implications; and the role of the private sector and nongovernment organizations and related constraints. The main health-related determinants include: education, increased school attendance, agriculture and water, food distribution and income, human resources programs and integrated rural development. The strategy of health sector development today is geared towards development of integrated health systems. Intercountry coordination may be improved with aid from the WHO. Health expenditures in countries including Bangladesh, India and Norway is presented.
Tellus. 1984 Jul; 5(2):8-11, 25-8.Since the formulation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) in Bucharest in 1974, about 80% of governments have endorsed family planning and fertility control. There has been a growing awareness by governments that population planning must be an integral part of general policy formulation. This article describes the issues of central concern to the 1984 International Population Conference in Mexico, highlighting those which result from new global developments over the past decade. Immigration, particularly by exiles and refugees from political persecution, are contributing much more to population instability than foreseen by the WPPA. Internal migration and massive population shifts from rural to urban areas are of increasing concern to governments in developing nations. In developed countries, there has been an emergence of anxiety over zero population growth. The role of privately sponsored programs for population control is much less prominent, as governments take more responsibility for formulating population policy. A report from a meeting of 90 such nongovernmental organizations held in 1983 was reluctantly accepted as an official document at the conference in Mexico. The Canadian Task Force on Population has identified 5 issues of special concern: status of women, the environment, aging, immigration, and family planning. The Task Force includes among its objectives the encouragement of a comprehensive population policy for Canada, focussing both on Canada's special concerns and on its place in the global community. For example, acid rain and improper soil conservation are threatening Canada's status as one of the few viable "bread baskets" for the world. The growing bulge in the population over age 65 will impose economic strain in the future. Sex education for adolescents in inadequate, with only 1/2 of Canadian schools addressing sex and sexuality in the curriculum.
In: Greep, R.O., Koblinsky, M.A., and Jaffe, F.S. Reproduction and human welfare: a challenge to research. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1976. p. 393-426The reproductive sciences, which had been tabooed and traditionally underfinanced, began to receive modest, but still inadequate, support in the last decade. A survey was conducted to determine past and present levels of funding for contrceptive development and reproductive biology and to estimate future funding levels. Limitations of the survey are mentioned. The total amounts spent by the U.S., 15 other industrialized countries, 9 nations and regions in the developing world, international agencies, private foundations, and the pharmaceutical industry are tabultaed. The dollar amount has increased 4-fold in the last 10 years; the impact of inflation lowers this amount in actual spending power. Of the 8 countries that have supported this type of research with the greatest funds, 6 had plateaued or were decreasing support as of 1964. Government agencies have led the field in funding with the U.S. in 1st place, mainly through the Center for Population Research of the National Institute of Child Health adn Human Development, other branches within the National Institutes of Health, and the Agency for International Development. Support is in the following 4 areas: 1) basic research in the reproductive sciences, 2) strengthening of professional capacity, 3) contraceptive development, and 4) evaluation of currently used contraceptives. Through the decade, nations other than the U.S. have taken over a larger share of the financing and of the researching. Funding levels are still inadequate and it is predicted that, unless current trends are reversed, there will be less research activity in the contraceptive/reproductive field in the future.
London, IPPF, November 1975. 28 p.This is a reference book for individuals working in family planning, population, and related fields. It lists 120 associations and 74 officially established government programs with 16 additional governments providing some services in family planning. 38 countries, mostly in Africa, Still have no organized family planning services available. Demographic and family planning information is given for Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania, and each country in all 5 of these regions. The nature of family planning services available is indicated for each country.