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Private sector: Who is accountable? for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. 2018 report. Summary of recommendations.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 12 p.This report presents five recommendations, which are addressed to governments, parliaments, the judiciary, the United Nations (UN) system, the UN Global Compact, the Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) partners, donors, civil society and the private sector itself. Recommendations include: 1) Access to services and the right to health. To achieve universal access to services and protect the health and related rights of women, children and adolescents, governments should regulate private as well as public sector providers. Parliaments should strengthen legislation and ensure oversight for its enforcement. The UHC2030 partnership should drive political leadership at the highest level to address private sector transparency and accountability. 2) The pharmaceutical industry and equitable access to medicines. To ensure equitable, affordable access to quality essential medicines and related health products for all women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should strengthen policies and regulation governing the pharmaceutical industry. 3) The food industry, obesity and NCDs. To tackle rising obesity and NCDs among women, children and adolescents, governments and parliaments should regulate the food and beverage industry, and adopt a binding global convention. Ministries of education and health should educate students and the public at large about diet and exercise, and set standards in school-based programmes. Related commitments should be included in the next G20 Summit agenda. 4) The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners. The UN Global Compact and the EWEC partners should strengthen their monitoring and accountability standards for engagement of the business sector, with an emphasis on women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health. They should advocate for accountability of the for-profit sector to be put on the global agenda for achieving UHC and the SDGs, including at the 2019 High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development and the Health Summit. The UN H6 Partnership entities and the GFF should raise accountability standards in the country programmes they support. 5) Donors and business engagement in the SDGs. Development cooperation partners should ensure that transparency and accountability standards aligned with public health are applied throughout their engagement with the for-profit sector. They should invest in national regulatory and oversight capacities, and also regulate private sector actors headquartered in their countries.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2018. 80 p.In line with the mandate from the UN Secretary-General, every year the IAP issues a report that provides an independent snapshot of progress on delivering promises to the world’s women, children and adolescents for their health and well-being. Recommendations are included on ways to help fast-track action to achieve the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health 2016-2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals - from the specific lens of accountability, of who is responsible for delivering on promises, to whom, and how. The theme of the IAP’s 2018 report is accountability of the private sector. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will not be achieved without the active and meaningful involvement of the private sector. Can the private sector be held accountable for protecting women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health? And if so, who is responsible for holding them to account, and what are the mechanisms for doing so? This report looks at three key areas of private sector engagement: health service delivery the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines the food industry and its significant influence on health and nutrition, with a focus NCDs and rising obesity.
Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Mar 21; 6(1):8-16.Add to my documents.
Corporate evaluation on strategic partnerships for gender equality and the empowerment of women: final synthesis report.
2017 Jan.; New York, New York, UN Women, 2017 Jan. 118 p.In its Corporate Evaluation Plan 2014-2017, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women) Independent Evaluation Office (IEO) committed to conduct a corporate evaluation of UN Women’s work on fostering strategic partnerships. This Synthesis Report is the final product of the Corporate Evaluation on Strategic Partnerships for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (GEEW). The evaluation was conducted by an external independent team between September 2015 and September 2016 and managed by the UN Women IEO. The evaluation is intended to enhance UN Women’s approach to strategic partnerships for the implementation of the 2014-2017 Strategic Plan with the aim of ensuring that gender equality is reached by 2030. It is also expected to contribute to an understanding of how UN Women’s strategic partnerships can facilitate a strong position for gender equality and women’s empowerment within the current global development context and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Agenda 2030). The objectives of this formative evaluation were to: a. Assess the relevance of UN Women’s approaches to strategic partnerships given the changing global development landscape. b. Assess effectiveness and organizational efficiency in progressing towards the achievement of organizational results within the broader dynamic international context (e.g., Sustainable Development Goals [SDGs], etc.), with attention to achievement of specific organizational effectiveness and efficiency framework (OEEF) results. c. Determine whether or not the human rights approach and gender equality principles are integrated adequately in UN Women’s approach to its strategic partnerships. d. Identify and validate lessons learned, good practice examples and innovations of partnership strategies supported by UN Women. e. Provide actionable recommendations with respect to UN Women strategies and approaches to strategic partnerships.
World Bank Group gender strategy (FY16-23) : gender equality, poverty reduction and inclusive growth.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 98 p.By many measures, 2015 marks a watershed year in the international community's efforts to advance gender equality. In September, with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), UN Member States committed to a renewed and more ambitious framework for development. This agenda, with a deadline of 2030, emphasizes inclusion not just as an end in and of itself but as critical to development effectiveness. At the center of this agenda is the achievement of gender equality and empowerment of all women and girls (SDG 5). In addition to governments, the private sector is increasingly committed to reducing gaps between men and women not just because it is the right thing to do, but because it makes business sense. Gender equality is also central to the World Bank Group’s own goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. No society can develop sustainably without transforming the distribution of opportunities, resources and choices for males and females so that they have equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their families, communities, and countries. Promoting gender equality is smart development policy.
London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2015 Oct.  p.With support from the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition (RHSC) Innovation Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) is implementing the National Action for Financing (NAF) project to work with stakeholders to position funding for RH supplies as a critical element in the new development financing architecture. This publication aims to enable stakeholders to understand the implications of the changes and challenges to RH supplies funding. The advocacy messages and tactics described in this document can help influence decision-making, increase funding and improve access to RH supplies and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR). (Excerpt)
A practical guide for engaging with mobile network operators in mHealth for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p.The field of mobile health (mHealth) is experiencing a real need for guidance on public-private partnerships among players as diverse as the mobile industry, technology vendors, government stakeholders and mHealth service providers. This guide provides a practical resource for mHealth service providers (e.g. developers and implementers) to partner more strategically with one of these critical players -- the mobile network operators (MNOs). Despite the growing literature on how to develop partnerships, there is a lack of clear, practical strategies for the health community to engage with MNOs to better scale up mHealth services. This document distils best practices and industry-wide lessons by providing key motivators, challenges and recommendations for mHealth service providers to engage with MNOs for scaling up their initiatives. (Excerpts)
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013 Apr.  p.To meet the challenge of sustaining reproductive health commodity security in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the United Nations Population Fund and PATH developed workshops to increase awareness about total market approaches and develop an action plan for the region. This report describes two regional workshops that were held in April 2013.
Road-mapping a total market approach for family planning and reproductive health commodity security. Workshop materials.
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2013.  p.To meet the challenge of sustaining reproductive health commodity security in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the United Nations Population Fund and PATH developed workshops to increase awareness about total market approaches and develop an action plan for the region. These workshop materials are from two regional workshops that were held in April 2013.
Virological failure and HIV type 1 drug resistance profiles among patients followed-up in private sector, Douala, Cameroon.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2011 Feb; 27(2):221-30.The rate of virological failure was assessed in 819 patients followed up by the private sector of Douala, the economic capital of Cameroon, and treated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. In addition, genotypic resistance testing was carried out in the subgroup of 75 selected patients representative of the 254 patients in virological and/or immunological failure receiving a first-line (83%) or second-line (17%) regimen. Overall, 36% of patients treated by antiretroviral drugs (ARV) were in virological failure, as assessed by plasma viral load above 3.7 log(10) copies/ml under treatment for more than 6 months. According to the immunological status, 17% of patients showed a CD4 T cell count under 200 cells/mm(3) and 37% under 350 cells/mm(3), indicating either ongoing immunorestoration or immunological failure under treatment. Twenty percent of patients in virological failure showed wild-type viruses susceptible to all ARV, likely indicating poor adherence. However, 80% of them displayed plasma virus resistant at least to one ARV drug, mostly to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) class (80%), followed by the non-NRTI class (76%) and the protease inhibitor class (19%), thus reflecting the therapeutic usage of ARV drugs in Cameroon as recommended by the WHO. Whereas the second-line regimen proposed by the 2009 WHO recommendations could be effective in more than 75% of patients in virological failure with resistant viruses, the remaining patients showed a resistance genotypic profile highly predictive of resistance to the usual WHO second-line regimen, including in some patients complex genotypic profiles diagnosed only by genotypic resistance tests. In conclusion, our observations highlight the absolute need for improving viral load assessment in resource-limited settings to prevent and/or monitor therapeutic failure.
Lancet. 2010 Oct 30; 376(9751):1439-40.This commentary discusses how the pledges to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria from countries, the private sector, and innovative funding sources have fallen short of the demand estimates, despite the pledged sum being the largest amount ever mobilized for global health. The US $11.7 billion pledge for the 2011-2013 time range is an increase of more than 20% over 2007-2010 and will go toward maintaining programs at their current scale and support further significant expansion of health services in many countries. It explains that the shortfall to meet the $13 billion will result in challenging decisions about which new programs to support and a slower rate of scale-up for new programs.
Essential medicines for mothers and children: a key element of health systems. Access to medicines and public pharmaceutical policy.
Entre Nous. 2009; (68):14-15.Medicines, when used appropriately, are one of the most cost effective interventions in health care. European countries spend an important part of their health budget on medicines, from 12% on average for the EU countries to more than 30% for the Newly Independent States (NIS) countries. Whereas in EU countries the larger part of the medicines expenditures are publicly funded through taxes and/or social health insurance, in the NIS and in the south eastern European countries it is often the patients who have to pay directly for the drugs themselves. This means that many patients simply do not get the drugs they need because they cannot afford them, and also may force families to incur enormous expenses as they sell their belongings in order to pay for their drugs and their health care.
[Geneva, Switzerland], Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 2010 Jan 12. 17 p.The AMFm is an innovative financing mechanism to expand access to affordable artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for malaria, thereby saving lives and reducing the use of inappropriate treatments. The AMFm aims to enable countries to increase the provision of affordable ACTs through the public, private not-for-profit (e.g. NGO) and private for-profit sectors. By increasing access to ACTs and displacing artemisinin monotherapies from the market, the AMFm also seeks to delay resistance to the active pharmaceutical ingredient, artemisinin.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2009 May; 17(33):91-104.This paper examines why progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 on maternal health appears to have stagnated in much of the global south. We contend that besides the widely recognised existence of weak health systems, including weak services, low staffing levels, managerial weaknesses, and lack of infrastructure and information, this stagnation relates to the inability of most countries to meet two essential conditions: to develop access to publicly funded, comprehensive health care, and to provide the not-for-profit sector with needed political, technical and financial support. This paper offers a critical perspective on the past 15 years of international health policies as a possible cofactor of high maternal mortality, because of their emphasis on disease control in public health services at the expense of access to comprehensive health care, and failures of contracting out and public–private partnerships in health care. Health care delivery cannot be an issue both of trade and of right. Without policies to make health systems in the global south more publicly-oriented and accountable, the current standards of maternal and child health care are likely to remain poor, and maternal deaths will continue to affect women and their families at an intolerably high level.
Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxfam International, 2009 Feb. 55 p. (Oxfam Briefing Paper No. 125)'The realization of the right to health for millions of people in poor countries depends upon a massive increase in health services to achieve universal and equitable access. A growing number of international donors are promoting an expansion of private-sector health-care delivery to fulfil this goal. The private sector can play a role in health care. But this paper shows there is an urgent need to reassess the arguments used in favor of scaling-up private-sector provision in poor countries. The evidence shows that prioritizing this approach is extremely unlikely to deliver health for poor people. Governments and rich country donors must strengthen state capacities to regulate and focus on the rapid expansion of free publicly provided health care, a proven way to save millions of lives worldwide. (Excerpt)
Trips and public health: solutions for ensuring global access to essential AIDS medication in the wake of the Paragraph 6 Waiver.
Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy. 2008 Fall; 25(1):142-65.In 2003, the World Trade Organization (WTO) proposed a waiver to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), known as the "Paragraph 6 Waiver," in order to create flexibility for developing countries and to allow easier importation of cheap generic medication. ... To the companies who own pharmaceutical patents, the notion that a government can use their product without the permission of the patent holder seems unfair and counterproductive. ... Canada was one of the first countries to enact legislation for the sole purpose of exporting generic drugs to developing countries and its experience is indicative of the problems presented by compulsory licensing and the Paragraph 6 Waiver. ... Exact amounts and methods for determining remuneration vary but presumably a fair system would compensate patent holders for the loss of their patent rights while maintaining the system's cost effectiveness for countries issuing the compulsory licenses. (excerpt)
Repositioning family planning: Guidelines for advocacy action. Le repositionnement de la planification familiale: Directives pour actions de plaidoyer.
Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], 2008. 64 p.Countries throughout Africa are engaged in an important initiative to reposition family planning as a priority on their national and local agendas. Provision of family planning services in Africa is hindered by poverty, poor access to services and commodities, conflicts, poor coordination of the programmes, and dwindling donor funding. Although family planning enhances efforts to improve health and accelerate development, shifting international priorities, health sector reform, the HIV/AIDS crisis, and other factors have affected its importance in recent years. Traditional beliefs favouring high fertility, religious barriers, and lack of male involvement have weakened family planning interventions. The combination of these factors has led to low contraceptive use, high fertility rates in many countries, and high unmet needs for family planning throughout the region. Family planning advocates must take action to change this situation. Family planning, considered an essential component of primary health care and reproductive health, plays a major role in reducing maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality and transmission of HIV. It contributes to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the targets of the Health-for-All Policy for the 21st century in the Africa Region: Agenda 2020. In recognition of its importance, the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa developed a framework (2005-014) for accelerated action to reposition family planning on national agendas and in reproductive health services, which was adopted by African ministers of health in 2004. The framework calls for increase in efforts to advocate for recognition of "the pivotal role of family planning" in achieving health and development objectives at all levels. This toolkit aims to help those working in family planning across Africa to effectively advocate for renewed emphasis on family planning to enhance the visibility, availability, and quality of family planning services for increased contraceptive use and healthy timing and spacing of births, and ultimately, improved quality of life across the region. It was developed in response to requests from several countries to assist them in accelerating their family planning advocacy efforts.
Stakeholders' opinions and expectations of the Global Fund and their potential economic implications.
AIDS. 2008 Jul; 22 Suppl 1:S7-S15.OBJECTIVES: To analyse stakeholder opinions and expectations of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, and to discuss their potential economic and financial implications. DESIGN: The Global Fund commissioned an independent study, the '360 degrees Stakeholder Survey', to canvas feedback on the organization's reputation and performance with an on-line survey of 909 respondents representing major stakeholders worldwide. We created a proxy for expectations based on categorical responses for specific Global Fund attributes' importance to the stakeholders and current perceived performance. METHODS: Using multivariate regression, we analysed 23 unfulfilled expectations related to: resource mobilization; impact measurement; harmonization and inclusion; effectiveness of the Global Fund partner environment; and portfolio characteristics. The independent variables are personal and regional-level characteristics that affect expectations. RESULTS: The largest unfulfilled expectations relate to: mobilization of private sector resources; efficiency in disbursing funds; and assurance that people affected by the three diseases are reached. Stakeholders involved with the fund through the country coordinating mechanisms, those working in multilateral organizations and persons living with HIV are more likely to have unfulfilled expectations. In contrast, higher levels of involvement with the fund correlate with fulfilled expectations. Stakeholders living in sub-Saharan Africa were less likely to have their expectations met. CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholders' unfulfilled expectations result largely from factors external to them, but also from factors over which they have influence. In particular, attributes related to partnership score poorly even though stakeholders have influence in that area. Joint efforts to address perceived performance gaps may improve future performance and positively influence investment levels and economic viability.
Public-private partnerships: Managing contracting arrangements to strengthen the Reproductive and Child Health Programme in India. Lessons and implications from three case studies.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007.  p.Strengthening management capacity and meeting the need for reproductive and child health (RCH) services is a major challenge for the national RCH program of India. Central and state governments are using multiple options to meet this challenge, responding to the complex issues in RCH, which include social, cultural and economic factors and reflect the immense geographical barriers to access for remote and rural population. Other barriers are also being addressed, including lessening financial burdens and creating public-private partnerships to expand access. For example, the National Rural Health Mission was initiated in order to focus on rural populations, although departments of health face a number of challenges in implementing this initiative. In this document, we focus on a key area: the development of management capacity for working with the private sector. We synthesize the lessons learnt from three case studies of public-private partnerships in RCH: two are state initiatives, in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh, and the third is the national mother nongovernmental organization scheme. The case studies were conducted to determine how management capacity was developed in these three public-private partnerships in service delivery, by examining the structure and process of partnerships, understanding management capacity and competence in various public-private partnerships in RCH, and identifying the means for developing the management capacity of partners. (author's)
Public policy and franchising reproductive health: current evidence and future directions. Guidance from a technical consultation meeting.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2007.  p.To assist policymakers and researchers to take advantage of lessons learned in the area of private-provider networks, particularly franchises, and to explore the types of policy options available to facilitate a greater role for the private sector, the World Health Organization's Department of Reproductive Health and Research, in collaboration with the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Private Sector Partnerships-One project, convened a technical consultation from 7 to 9 December, 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland. The meeting, entitled "Public Policy and Franchising Reproductive Health: current evidence and future directions", brought together experts in private-provider networks and franchises as well as in public policy. The consultation: reviewed the evidence to date on the performance and impact of health networks and franchises in low- and middle-income countries; explored public policy options that can facilitate and support the delivery of reproductive health through private-provider networks and health franchises in low- and middle-income countries. This Guidance Note is based on the proceedings of the meeting and offers policymakers and researchers the latest evidence on private-provider networks and franchises, lessons learned in the field, and policy recommendations on how to mobilize private-provider networks and health franchises to help address reproductive health care needs in developing countries. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2008 Jan; 8(1):14.A report from the International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC) warns that meeting the "near universal access target" to AIDS drugs access by the 2010 deadline will require an enormous effort by governments, global agencies, and drug companies. According to the report, which looked at AIDS treatment access in 14 countries, "scale-up is working but high prices, patent and registration barriers, and ongoing stock-outs are core issues impeding AIDS drug delivery". "The issues highlighted in this report are real and widespread", said Nathan Ford of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; Johannesburg, South Africa). The HIV programmes run by MSF across the developing world are struggling against user fees, high drug costs, lack of human resources, and poor health infrastructure, he told TLID. The ITPC, a group of 1000 treatment activists from more than 125 countries, highlights that the high cost of antiretroviral drugs is a particular barrier in Argentina, China, and Belize. (excerpt)
Africa Renewal. 2007 Oct; 21(3):7.Until six years ago, Eugenia Uwamahoro and several of her eight children had to trek 2 kilometres each day to a river to get about 140 litres of water for drinking, cooking, washing and feeding her four cows. There was a water pump in her village, Nyakabingo, in Rwanda's Gicumbi district, but it hardly functioned. Then the Rwandan government, with financial support from the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), repaired the pump, and the community contracted a private manager to maintain it. "It has improved my life," Ms. Uwamahoro told African Renewal. "Now we can rest." Not only has the pump saved her considerable time and effort, but she also gets her household's daily water supply at lower cost than she would have from the private village water carriers who cart it up from the river. Many villagers "are happy to pay for the improved service," says Kamaru Tstoneste, who operates the pump. But some villagers cannot afford the cost. So community leaders compiled a list of the neediest households, and review it from time to time. "This group gets an agreed quantity of free supply," Mr. Tstoneste told Africa Renewal. Still, he adds, "Old habits die hard. There are those who refuse to pay for water and still go to the river." (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Sep. 15 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/07.25E; JC1362E)A project rolling out in rural Thailand, the Positive Partnerships Program (PPP), has shown that targeted economic assistance can boost self-esteem, ambition and hope-all of which help reinvigorate community bonds and have a beneficial impact in promoting enabling environments for HIV prevention and treatment efforts. This best practice document examines how and why PPP may serve as a flexible and adaptive model in other countries. The project has two distinct yet complementary goals. to enable people living with HIV to lift themselves out of poverty, through the provision of microcredit loans that allow people to set up small businesses in their communities; to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV through business partnerships between one HIV-positive person and one HIV-negative person. The enthusiastic response to PPP from people living with HIV and funders alike serves as a useful reminder of the need to develop comprehensive strategies in response to the AIDS epidemic that reflect a full range of economic, social, legal and political considerations-not just those narrowly based on health. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Jul. 48 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/07.22E; JC1260E)Nearly 600 000 people are living with HIV in Thailand. As in every other country, most are poor and many are isolated from their communities. Breaking down the mutually reinforcing barriers of poverty and stigma they face has proved immensely difficult. These barriers are not insurmountable, however. A new project rolling out in rural Thailand, the Positive Partnership Program (PPP), has shown that targeted economic assistance can boost self-esteem, ambition and hope-all of which help reinvigorate community bonds and have a major, positive impact on HIV prevention and treatment efforts. The core of PPP is the provision of microcredit loans to resource-constrained HIV-positive individuals who otherwise have no access to credit in conventional, affordable ways. These loans are intended to support the efforts of people living with HIV to lift themselves out of poverty by setting up small businesses in their communities. Closely linked to this poverty-reduction goal is another vital objective: the reduction of HIV-related stigma and discrimination. As conceptualized by PPP's implementing entity-the Population and Community Development Association (PDA), a Bangkok-based nongovernmental organization-a unique aspect of the PPP project greatly facilitates progress towards achieving these two goals simultaneously: loans are given out not to people living with HIV alone but to partnerships between an HIV-positive and an HIV-negative person. By the end of 2005, a total of 375 partnerships had been formed since the project began in January 2004. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Mar. 4 p. (UNAIDS Policy Brief)Nearly 40 million people in the world are living with HIV. In countries such as Botswana, Swaziland, and Lesotho people living with HIV make up a quarter or more of the population. People living with HIV are entitled to the same human rights as everyone else, including the right to access appropriate services, gender equality, self-determination and participation in decisions affecting their quality of life, and freedom from discrimination. All national governments and leading development institutions have committed to meeting the eight Millennium Development Goals, which include halving extreme poverty, halting and beginning to reverse HIV and providing universal primary education by 2015. GIPA or the Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV is critical to halting and reversing the epidemic; in many countries reversing the epidemic is also critical to reducing poverty. (excerpt)