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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2014 Jul.  p.In this new consolidated guidelines document on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations, the World Health Organization brings together all existing guidance relevant to five key populations -- men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, people in prisons and other closed settings, sex workers and transgender people --and updates selected guidance and recommendations. These guidelines aim to: provide a comprehensive package of evidence-based HIV-related recommendations for all key populations; increase awareness of the needs of and issues important to key populations; improve access, coverage and uptake of effective and acceptable services; and catalyze greater national and global commitment to adequate funding and services.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, HIV/AIDS Branch, . 8 p. (Guidance Brief)This Brief has been developed by the Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on HIV and Young People1 to assist United Nations Country Teams (UNCT) and UN Theme Groups on HIV/AIDS in providing guidance to their staffs, governments, development partners, civil society and other implementing partners on HIV interventions for most-at-risk young people. It is part of a series of seven global Guidance Briefs that focus on HIV prevention, treatment, care and support interventions for young people that can be delivered through different settings and for a range of target groups.
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2006 Nov. 88 p. (Human Rights Watch Vol 18, No. 14(C))In 1990, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam became the first country in Asia, and the second country in the world, to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Since the early 1990s the government has taken positive steps to enact legislation and policies to protect the rights of children, especially those deemed vulnerable. But for street children in Hanoi-and likely other major cities as well-Vietnam is falling far short of its obligations under Vietnamese and international law, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Between 2003 and 2006, Human Rights Watch received credible reports of serious abuses of street children in Hanoi. Primarily poor children from the countryside who go to Hanoi to find work, street children are routinely and arbitrarily rounded up by police in periodic sweeps. They are sent to two compulsory state "rehabilitation" centers on the outskirts of town, Dong Dau and Ba Vi social protection centers, where they may be detained for periods ranging from two weeks to as much as six months. Social Protection Centers (Trung Tam Bao Tro Xa Hoi in Vietnamese), also known as Social Charity Establishments, Social Support Centers, Social Relief Centers, or Transit Centers, are closed institutions for beggars, homeless adults and children, sex workers, drug addicts, orphans, disabled and elderly people without family support, and street children. In theory, the centers are operated and administered by the Department of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs (DOLISA) together with local People's Committees. In fact, the Ministry of Public Security plays a significant role in their operation. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2006.  p.Practice what I preach, not what I do is never terribly persuasive. Yet the U.S. government has been increasingly reduced to that argument in promoting human rights. Some U.S. allies, especially Britain, are moving in the same disturbing direction, while few other powers are stepping in to fill the breach. This hypocrisy factor is today a serious threat to the global defense of human rights. Major Western powers historically at the forefront of promoting human rights have never been wholly consistent in their efforts, but even their irregular commitment has been enormously important. Today, the willingness of some to flout basic human rights standards in the name of combating terrorism has deeply compromised the effectiveness of that commitment. The problem is aggravated by a continuing tendency to subordinate human rights to various economic and political interests. (excerpt)
HIV / AIDS prevention, treatment and care among injecting drug users and in prisons. Ministerial Meeting on “Urgent Response to the HIV / AIDS Epidemics in the Commonwealth of Independent States”, Moscow, 31 March to 1 April 2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005. 9 p.There are an estimated 13.2 million injecting drug users (IDUs) worldwide. Of them, nearly one quarter (3.1 million) live in the 12 countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In addition, the region is home to a large number of non-injecting drug users, who are at risk of becoming injecting drug users. HIV infection among injecting drug users has grown rapidly. There is evidence for example that in the mid-1990s in cities such as Odessa, Svetlogorsk, Nikolayev and St. Petersburg, prevalence among injecting drug users rose up to 60% in a short period of time (less than eight months). In Kaliningrad, a total of 1335 new infections—80% of those due to unsafe injecting drug use—were identified between July 1996 and June 1997. From these HIV epicentres, the virus has, and continues to, spread quickly across the entire region. For example, by the end of 2000, the Russian Federation observed HIV epidemics in 30 cities and in 82 of 89 regions (oblasts). Other CIS countries are undergoing similar epidemics. HIV spreads rapidly among injecting drug users through the use of contaminated injecting equipment and because of poor access to treatment for drug dependency and HIV-prevention services. However, the virus is not only common among injecting drug users. Sexual partners of injecting drug users can also become infected through unsafe sexual behaviour. Children borne to female injecting drug users are frequently HIV-infected. A great number of injecting drug users are involved in sex work, thus spreading the epidemics even further. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Apr; 84(4):265-266.Nearly a decade after starting work with the Russian Federation to stem a tuberculosis (TB) epidemic, WHO is reporting slow but steady progress. The WHO-recommended DOTS treatment strategy is gradually taking hold across world's largest country, but its vast network of prisons and labour camps remains a hotbed of the disease. (excerpt)
Sixth Committee acts on wide variety of legal issue: protection of children, detained persons, among them.
UN Chronicle. 1986 Jan; 23: p..The Sixth Committee (Legal) in November addressed a wide variety of legal issues, including those related to protection of children and detained persons, peaceful settlement of disputes, review of the United Nations Charter, and the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations. The General Assembly on 11 December acted on drafts proposed by the Committee on those issues and others. In decision 40/422, adopted without a vote, the Assembly expressed appreciation at the work done in the Third and Sixth Committees in their common endeavour of elaborating a Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption, Nationally and Internationally. It also decided that informal consultations should be held early in the Assembly's 1986 session to achieve agreement on the remaining questions so that the draft Declaration could be adopted at that session. The item has been on the Assembly's agenda since 1980. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1985 Jul-Aug; 22: p..The imprisonment of children, slavery, genocide, and racial discrimination in South Africa and Namibia were among the topics acted upon by the Commission on Human Rights Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities at its meeting in Geneva (5-30 August). The Sub-Commission strongly condemned South Africa for "brutal acts of terrorism" carried out to suppress the black majority's realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms. It demanded the "immediate lifting" of the state of emergency and called upon the international community to continue its efforts towards total economic, cultural and political isolation of South Africa until that country abandoned its policy of apartheid and its illegal occupation of Namibia. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 Jul 2; 366(9479):1.Last week, WHO distributed to all European ministries of health one of the most important documents on prison health ever published. The report, Status Paper on Prisons, Drugs and Harm Reduction, brings together the wealth of evidence that shows that infectious disease transmission in prisons can be prevented and even reversed by simple, safe, and cheap harm-reduction strategies. Perhaps most importantly, the paper affirms WHO’s commitment to harm reduction, despite opposition from many governments who view such approaches as a tacit endorsement of illegal behaviour. The public-health case for action is strong, but political commitment to this method of combating health problems in prisons remains elusive. Indeed, health problems in prisons are numerous. Prisoners are often from the poorest sectors of society and consequently already suffer from health inequalities. Being in prison commonly exacerbates existing health problems—incarcerating anyone, especially vulnerable groups such as drug users and those with mental illness, has serious health and social consequences. (excerpt)
The World Health Organization European Health in Prisons project after 10 years: persistent barriers and achievements.
American Journal of Public Health. 2005 Oct; 95(10):1696-1700.The recognition that good prison health is important to general public health has led 28 countries in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to join a WHO network dedicated to improving health within prisons. Within the 10 years since that time, vital actions have been taken and important policy documents have been produced. A key factor in making progress is breaking down the isolation of prison health services and bringing them into closer collaboration with the country’s public health services. However, barriers to progress remain. A continuing challenge is how best to move from policy recommendations to implementation, so that the network’s fundamental aim of noticeable improvements in the health and care of prisoners is further achieved. (author's)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2001 Oct.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection - Key Material; UNAIDS/01.64 E)Engaging men as partners is a critical component in AIDS prevention and care as, in many contexts, men are the decision-makers in matters related to reproductive and sexual health. As reflected in the theme of the World AIDS Campaign of 2000-Men Make a Difference-men's roles and responsibilities in relation to the health of their female partners have a significant bearing on the course of the epidemic. The work of UNAIDS in this field has three broad objectives: motivating men and women to talk more openly about sex, sexuality, drug used and HIV/AIDS; encouraging men to take greater care of themselves, their partners and families; and promoting programmes that respond to the needs of both men and women. It is important that work with men and boys should not seek to replace work with women and girls, but rather complement it. Parallel programmes for men and boys are crucial in ensuring that men protect not only their own health but also the health of their families. By working in partnership with men, rather than apportioning blame, it is hoped that men can finally begin to be seen as part of the solution rather than part of a problem. Twelve projects were selected because they demonstrated such a perspective and represented a diverse range of interventions with men. It was believed that an analysis of their strategies and lessons learned would generate common ground on men's needs, associated with HIV/AIDS and their general health, and would provide insights into effective approaches for working with men. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2004 Jan 17; 363(9404):246-247.Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) started work in Siberian prisons in 1996, and has treated 10 500 patients in collaboration with regional penal authorities using the WHO-led DOTS strategy up until our withdrawal from the region in September last year. During that period, our doctors were faced with a substantial number of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis who cannot be cured with the first-line tuberculosis drugs we provide. In these prisons, around 22% of new cases and 40% of retreatment cases are multidrug-resistant, which are some of the highest rates recorded worldwide. Expensive treatment options, involving the use of quality second-line drugs for anything up to 2 years, were not available to us then. (excerpt)
Violence Watch. 2002 Oct-Nov; 4(4):1, 4.Children remain the instruments of positive change and development. According to Javier Peres du Cuellar former Secretary General of the United Nations, “the way a society treats children reflects not only its qualities of compassion and protective caring, but also its sense of injustice, its commitment to the future and its urge to enhance the human condition for coming generations.” Thus, the recent rejection of the Child Rights Bill by the Federal House of Representatives, is not only worrisome in that it is an outright denial of the existence abuse and exploitation in Nigeria, but also an irony it is happening in a democracy. It is indicative of the level of our development/growth as a nation in promoting the rights of disadvantaged groups. (excerpt)
Afghanistan. "Killing you is a very easy thing for us": human rights abuses in southeast Afghanistan.
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Jul. 102 p. (Vol. 15, No. 5(C))This report, based on research conducted from January through June 2003, documents human rights abuses in the southeast of Afghanistan, the most densely populated part of Afghanistan. If allowed to continue with impunity, these abuses will make it impossible for Afghans to create a modern, democratic state. Although many observers have noted the harmful effects of chronic insecurity in Afghanistan, few have sufficiently appreciated the extent to which continuing insecurity, at its heart, is due to policies and depredations of local government actors. Human Rights Watch found evidence of government involvement or complicity in abuses in virtually every district in the southeast. These include the provinces of Kabul, Wardak, Ghazni, Logar, Paktia, Paktika, Laghman, Nangarhar, Kapisa, and Kunar. The three main types of abuse documented in this report are violent criminal offenses—armed robbery, extortion, and kidnappings—committed by army troops, police, and intelligence agents; governmental attacks on media and political actors; and violations of the human rights of women and girls. Many of these violations are preventable, but solutions will require the concerted attention and action of international and Afghan authorities alike, which to date has not been sufficiently forthcoming. The report details specific accounts of the daily abuses suffered by Afghans: farmers in Paghman district in Kabul province staying awake at night in shifts to guard their property from thieving soldiers and police; bus and taxi drivers from Gardez in Paktia province being hijacked or beaten for not paying bribes to soldiers and police; people in Jalalabad being arbitrarily arrested by police or soldiers, accused of bogus crimes or “being a member of the Taliban,” and freed only after they or their family pay a ransom. It documents arbitrary arrests of and death threats against journalists by intelligence agents, police, and army officials, and detentions and intimidation of political opponents by government forces. It explains that many girls in areas such as Ghazni and Paghman are still unable go to school, and why women in areas such as Laghman fear attacks by local armed men if they speak about or promote women’s rights. These abuses are impeding the delivery of humanitarian aid and keeping some refugees and internally displaced persons from returning to their homes. The accumulation of cases, from an array of districts, demonstrates the problem’s pervasiveness and urgency. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1999 Sep. 9 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNAIDS/99.47/E)These guidelines provide standards--from a public health perspective--which prison authorities should strive to achieve in their efforts to prevent HIV transmission in prisons and to provide care to those affected by HIV/AIDS. It is expected that the guidelines presented in this paper will be adapted by prison authorities to meet their local needs. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 1998. 87 p. (WHO/TB/98.250)Tuberculosis (TB) is common in many prisons worldwide and treatment is often ill-informed and inadequate. In this perspective, the WHO and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) have joined forces to produce guidelines for the control of TB in prisons. This document presents the results of the collaborative effort of WHO and ICRC. The guidelines, based on recent experience, outline the many obstacles to effective diagnosis and treatment and it gives useful guidance as to how to overcome these obstacles. Outlined into three parts, these guidelines are primarily for prison authorities, policy- makers and decision-makers in relevant ministries, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and donor agencies, and National TB Program staff. Part I provides background information on TB and prisons, of particular relevance to prison authorities and decision-makers in relevant ministries. Part II provides guidelines for the control of TB in prisons, of particular relevance to prison health staff. Finally, Part III gives guidance to national prison authorities and NGOs on how to establish a prison TB control program.
[Unpublished] .  p.The prevalence of HIV and other diseases is much higher in many prisons around the world than it is in society, often with co-morbidity of two or more of the conditions. This is because of certain factors, including injecting of drugs with shared, unsterilized needles and syringes; unprotected penetrative sex between men; and tattooing using shared, unsterilized equipment. Since most prisoners are released into the community at some point, and some are imprisoned and released a number of times, these prisoners could transmit HIV and other diseases to other people. Considering the high prevalence rates of HIV, tuberculosis and hepatitis in prisons, the community and its leaders should act quickly and wisely on the issue. Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS field staff should be aware of specific responses to the high risks of HIV transmission in prisons. Examples of HIV interventions in prison settings are: The Hindelbank experiment in Switzerland, and Sustainable HIV/AIDS Prevention in Prisons in Ukraine.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Apr. 8 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)Both drug use and sexual contact between men are common in prisons around the world. Rates of HIV infection are also high in many prisons. General factors which can facilitate HIV transmission in prisons include overcrowding; a general climate of violence, tension, and fear; lack of information about HIV; and lack of adequate health facilities. Specific factors include the injection of drugs with shared, unsterilized needles and syringes; unprotected penetrative sex between men; and tattooing with shared, unsterilized equipment. Since prisons and prisoners are not completely cut off from the rest of the world, all possible steps should be taken to prevent HIV transmission in prisons for the benefit of both prisoners and the rest of society. Prisoners, prison staff, and visitors move in and out of prisons on a daily basis; many prisoners are incarcerated for only short periods; and others are repeat offenders who enter and exit the non-prison society on a regular basis. Providing discreet and easy access to condoms, and making sterile injection equipment available to prisoners are among the approaches recommended to help reduce the spread of HIV. One important, positive measure would be to transfer the delivery of health care in prisons to the control of public health authorities. Isolating prisoners because they are HIV-seropositive tends to not help reduce HIV transmission.
WORLD HEALTH. 1996 Sep-Oct; 49(5):24-5.The executive director of the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and its human rights advisor addressed the annual meeting of the UN Commission on Human Rights in April 1996. The address summed up the extent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: more than 21 million people, 1.5 million of whom are children and 9 million of whom are women, are infected with HIV; more than 5 million have died of AIDS; and 5 people are infected every minute. The protection of human rights is crucial to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. Key rights include the rights to information, education, health, and non-discrimination. Coerced sex and sexual violence against females must be stopped, since these actions put women and girls at risk of HIV infection. A conspiracy of silence keeps people and communities from knowing that AIDS is in their communities. It keeps governments from taking urgent action. An act of the Commission keeping HIV-related human rights a top priority will lead to breaking through this conspiracy of silence. More than 50% of new HIV cases are 15-24 years old. Among new HIV cases 15-19 years old, in some regions the girl to boy ratio is 2:1. The increase in the HIV infection rate in females leads to an increase in HIV-infected infants. By the year 2000, about 5 million children will have lost parents to AIDS. HIV/AIDS also adds the misery of stigmatization and discrimination to children infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. Governments need to implement efforts to reduce children's vulnerability to HIV, to protect children against HIV discrimination, and to provide children and their families with the support and services they need. Children have the right to HIV-related education and information. The prevalence and spread of HIV in prisons is increasing worldwide. Prison officials deal with the activities that spread HIV (sex and drug use) by using discipline rather than by providing education and condoms. Prisoners have the right to health, security of person, equality before the law, and freedom from inhuman treatment.
INTERNATIONAL NURSING REVIEW. 1993 Sep-Oct; 40(5):133.The World Health Organization [WHO] is recommending sweeping reforms in prisons in an effort to control the spread of AIDS. Guidelines prepared on the basis of a consultation organized by WHO recommend that condoms should be made available to prisoners if any possibility of sexual intercourse exists, and that wherever prisoners inject drugs prison services should consider introducing needle-exchange programs and providing bleach to clean injecting equipment, if such provisions are made for the community at large. In a survey of 55 prisons in 31 countries, it was revealed that most prisons have no effective measures for preventing HIV transmission through drug injecting. Nor do they have specific programs for women prisoners, even though their HIV rates are often higher than those of men. (full text)