Your search found 37 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    School feeding, school reform, and food security: Connecting the dots.

    Levinger B

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(2 Suppl 2):S170-S178.

    Universal access to basic education is a prerequisite for long-term food security, which, in turn, is critical to achieving the Millennium Development goals. This paper examines how Food for Education interventions can contribute to improved food security, improved education outcomes, and a broader set of development goals. Food for Education entails the distribution of food commodities to children who attend school. The commodities may be locally grown and purchased or contributed by aid donors. The food may be consumed by students in school snack, breakfast, or lunch programs. Alternatively, it may be given as a take-home ration for consumption by a family that regularly sends "at-risk" children (usually girls) to school. Four interrelated ideas are discussed: (1) the universalization of primary school education is a prerequisite for food security (defined here as availability of, access to, and proper biologic utilization of food supplies); (2) Food for Education boosts primary school participation and, therefore, food security; (3) the effects of primary school education on food security are greatest wherever "quality standards" are met, although important effects are present even when education quality is modest; and (4) efforts to improve primary education participation (demand) and efforts to improve primary education quality (supply) are highly interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Food for Education is a versatile resource that can be used to address a broad range of issues related to both education supply and demand. To be effective, Food for Education interventions must reflect local education supply and demand realities. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Educate girls. Fight AIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Global Coalition on Women and AIDS

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, [2006]. [4] p. (What's Real. Issue No. 1)

    Growing evidence shows that getting and keeping young people in school, particularly girls, dramatically lowers their vulnerability to HIV. By itself, merely attending primary school makes young people significantly less likely to contract HIV. When young people stay in school through the secondary level, education's protective effect against HIV is even more pronounced. This is especially true for girls who, with each additional year of education, gain greater independence, are better equipped to make decisions affecting their sexual lives, and have higher income earning potential -- all of which help them stay safe from HIV. Higher education levels are also clearly correlated with delayed sexual debut, greater HIV awareness and knowledge about HIV testing sites, fewer sexual partners, higher rates of condom use, and greater communication about HIV prevention between partners -- all factors that substantially lower HIV risk. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    The right to safety: building safe schools for children.

    Wisner B

    UN Chronicle. 2005 Dec; [2] p..

    In the run up to the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in 2004, many expert groups called attention to the exposure of schoolchildren to seismic risk. A major report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) dotted the "Is" and crossed the "Is". (2) It made clear that it is neither expensive nor technically difficult to reinforce most school buildings. An incremental approach of strengthening the source of the normal cycle of maintenance can further reduce the cost. Shortly before the Conference, Japan, the host country, announced funding for a new programme that focused on reducing the vulnerability of schoolchildren to earthquakes in the Asia Pacific region. (3) GeoHazards International ( and the OECD more recently have embarked on an international effort to develop an independent audit of school construction programmes at the national level in an effort to raise building code standards and enforcement practices in OECD countries. However, the problem is not on developing and disseminating international standards, but that there is so much corruption in public and private construction. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Gender, education and peace in southern Sudan.

    Kirk J

    Forced Migration Review. 2005 Nov; (24):55-56.

    The SPLM’s Secretariat of Education (SoE) has explicitly linked gender, education and peace within the Directorate of Gender Equity and Social Change. This forward-looking move recognises the potential of education to enhance a gender-just peace. The SoE now has the challenge of addressing very high expectations for education in ways which are regionally, ethnically and gender equitable. Regional disparities are significant: girls in Bahr El Ghazal, Upper Nile, Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile face considerable and practical challenges in accessing education as there are so few schools in these areas. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    Declaration in support of a global event on population and development in 2005.

    Population 2005. 2002 Mar-Apr; 4(1):2.

    More than 70 nongovernmental organizations have endorsed a declaration in support of a global event on population and development in 2005, which was prepared by the executive board of Population 2005 in February 2002. The statement was presented to the United Nations Commission on Population and Development at its 35th session in New York in April. The declaration reads as follows: In its Program of Action, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 set three sets of specific goals for: 1) provision of family planning and other reproductive health services 2) reduction of infant, child and maternal mortality, and 3) universal access to primary education, with particular attention to the girl child. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Why school feeding works.

    Meir U

    Forced Migration Review. 2005 Jan; (22):35-36.

    School meals encourage displaced children to attend class and help them concentrate on their studies. In 2003 the UN World Food Programme (WFP) fed more than 15 million children in schools in 69 countries, many of them recovering from conflict. From Afghanistan to Angola school-feeding schemes are assisting reintegration. Surveys show that when food is available at school, enrolments can double within a year and children's attention span and academic performance increase. Children who have lived through wars have unique needs and school feeding can be linked to additional school-based interventions to address them. Basic skills and training programmes can form the beginning of more structured schooling. Such programmes can promote psychosocial recovery and teach landmine awareness, youth health, vocational and life skills. Improving food security can slow the spread of HIV/AIDS by keeping young people health and active and removing the need for risky behaviour such as selling blood or sexual favours. The combination of food and education can help child soldiers safely trade in their weapons for food, learning and counselling. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Africa struggles to attain millennium goals.

    Fleshman M

    Africa Recovery. 2003 Oct; 17(3):[12] p..

    Nowhere are the signs more ominous than in sub-Saharan Africa, the world's poorest and least developed region. Africa entered the new millennium with the highest poverty and child mortality rates, and the lowest school enrolment figures in the world. Child mortality rates in Africa changed little during the 1990s, due largely to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which eroded the gains in infant and maternal health made by some countries. Much the same can be said for Africa's primary school enrolments, which rose from a world low of 56 per cent in 1991 to just 59 per cent a decade later. This is also partly a result of HIV/AIDS, which has forced many children, particularly girls, to withdraw from school to care for sick relatives and has reduced families' ability to pay school fees. Conflict, as Mr. Annan noted, is another major obstacle to progress on the MDGs, as education and health services collapse and hundreds of thousands of families flee their communities to become refugees or internally displaced people, and resources are invested in defence instead of development. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    The state of the world's children, 2004. Official summary.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2003 Dec. 59 p.

    The State of the World’s Children 2004 focuses on girls’ education – one of the most crucial issues facing the development community today. Girls are the focus because disparities and inequalities in education leave girls disadvantaged more than boys, because what benefits girls will also benefit boys (and the reverse is not always true), because girls are more vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse and other forms of exploitation when left uneducated. In this flagship publication, UNICEF presents its case for a human rights-based, multisectoral approach to development that will ensure girls an education, meet the commitments of the international community to education for all children, maximize benefits for families and nations and help achieve the world’s major development goals. As an alternative to the more traditional models of development, this approach values human well-being over economic performance. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Promoting girls' schooling in Orissa.

    Kar J; Kar J

    Indian Journal of Gender Studies. 2002 Jan-Jun; 9(1):61-79.

    The international community has largely felt the need for near-universal primary schooling as an essential aspect of basic human development (UN 1994; UNICEF 1990; USAID 1995). The Programme of Action chalked out at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 has underlined two major aspects of children's schooling. The first is universal primary education for both boys and girls, while the second is education for girls beyond the primary level. Principle 10 of the Programme states, 'Everyone has the right to education, which shall be directed to the full development of human resources and human dignity and potential, with particular attention to women and the girl child.' Highlighting the elimination of gender inequality in schooling along with higher educational attainment for the girl child, the Programme mentions: 'Beyond the achievement of the goal of universal primary education in all countries before the year 2015, all countries are urged to ensure the widest and earliest possible access by girls and women to secondary and higher levels of education' (para 4.8). That the main emphasis with respect to education beyond the primary level is to promote girls" schooling is evident in the summary of goals of the ICPD presented in the State of the World Population Report 1995 (UNFPA 1995: 10). The UN's analysis of the ICPD programme has also underlined the importance of women's education as an imperative issue in population development (UN 1994: 25). (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    School-age children: their nutrition and health.

    Drake L; Maier C; Jukes M; Patrikios A; Bundy D

    SCN News. 2002 Dec; (25):4-30.

    This paper addresses the most common nutrition and health problems in turn, assessing the extent of the problem; the impact of the condition on overall development, and what programmatic responses can be taken to remedy the problem through the school sys- tern. The paper also acknowledges that an estimated 113m children of school-age are not in school, the majority of these children living in Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. Poor health and nutrition that differentially affects this population is also discussed. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    UNICEF's priorities for children: 2002-2005. Second edition.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002 Nov. 25 p.

    UNICEF has committed its resources to achieving results for children in the following five priority areas: We will work to ensure that every girl and every boy completes a quality primary school education; We will work to promote integrated early childhood development, ensuring every child the best possible start in life; We will work to safeguard every child against disease and disability, emphasizing immunization ‘plus’; We will work to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS and ensure that children and young people already affected by the disease are cared for; And we will work to protect every child so that all children can grow up free from violence, exploitation, abuse and discrimination. We will maintain our focus on these five priorities in all circumstances including conflicts, emergencies and natural disasters. And, throughout the organization, we will link our daily activities and our planning to achieving specific goals for children in these five areas.
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  12. 12

    Education for All: Is the the world on track?


    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2002. 310 p.

    The Report is presented in six parts. Chapter 1 reaffirms why Education for All is of such overriding importance. Chapter 2 updates our understanding of progress towards, and prospects for, achieving the six EFA goals. Chapter 3 examines the international response to the call for EFA National Action Plans, the engagement of civil society in planning, and whether the distinctive challenges of HIV/AIDS, and conflict and emergency are being confronted. Chapter 4 assesses the costs of achieving the EFA goals and the availability of the resources to secure them. Chapter 5 explores whether the international commitments made in Dakar, and subsequently, are being met and, if so, by what means. Finally, Chapter 6 putts some of these threads together as a basis for looking forward and identifying opportunities for sustaining the momentum generated by the World Education Forum. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Primary schooling in sub-Saharan Africa: recent trends and current challenges.

    Lloyd CB; Hewett PC

    New York, New York, Population Council, 2003. 39 p. (Policy Research Division Working Paper No. 176)

    At the dawn of the twenty-first century we estimate that more than 37 million young adolescents aged 10–14 in sub-Saharan Africa will not complete primary school. Our estimates are based on data from nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys from 26 countries, collectively representing 83 percent of the sub-Saharan youth population. This number is nearly twice the entire population of children aged 10–14 in the United States, virtually all of whom will complete primary school. Reducing the number of uneducated African youth is a primary objective of the United Nations as laid out in the Millennium Development Goal for education, which sets 2015 as the target year for all children to have completed primary school and for boys and girls to have equal access to education at all levels. Achieving this goal will require a level of international resources and commitment not yet seen; it will also require better tools for monitoring educational progress at the country level. UNESCO draws on enrollment data derived from national management information systems to create two complementary indicators for assessing progress toward universal education: the net primary enrollment ratio and the grade four completion rate. Evaluation of these indicators suggests that they provide, at best, an incomplete and, at worst, a biased picture of levels, trends, and gender differences in school participation and grade attainment. Data from the DHS present a different and, arguably, more realistic picture of trends in schooling and current attendance among sub-Saharan African youth. Whereas steady growth has occurred in attendance and attainment for girls in the last 20 years, educational progress for boys has been stagnant. With the decline in educational disparities between boys and girls, the gap in schooling that remains is between the poorest and the richest households. The gap in schooling delineated by household wealth cannot be monitored even with the best management information systems. It can, however, be captured using household survey data that allow the linking of educational attainment to household economic circumstances. We conclude that current monitoring requirements cannot be fulfilled without substantial new investments in data collection and evaluation. (author's)
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  14. 14

    Promoting health through schools. Report of a WHO Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion


    The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Comprehensive School Health Education and Promotion, which met in September 1995, formulated recommendations for policy and programmatic measures that WHO, other UN agencies, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations could apply to enable schools to meet their full potential to improve the health of children, families, and communities. Since 71% of the developing world's population completes at least 4 years of primary schooling, the formal education system represents an ideal channel for health promotion. Moreover, good health is a key factor in school entry, attendance, and performance. Health issues schools can address include HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases, violence, unintended pregnancy and reproductive health, nutrition, sanitation and water control, immunization, oral health, malaria, respiratory infections, psychological problems, and alcohol and tobacco use. Health-promoting schools must provide enhanced access to services within the school and referral to the extended health system, identify and implement specific health interventions best carried out through schools, and integrate preventive and curative measures. The messages of school health programs must be reinforced by community organizations, families, and the media. Among the Committee's recommendations for school health programs are the following: expanded investment in education, especially for girls; creation of school environments that do not threaten physical and emotional health; critical health and life skills curricula; more effective use of schools as an entry point for health promotion and location for health interventions; mobilization and coordination of resources at the local, national, and international levels to support school health programs; collaboration between the school and community; and ongoing program monitoring and evaluation to ensure desired outcomes.
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  15. 15

    Integration of population education in APPEAL. Volume Two. Population education in universal primary education.

    UNESCO. Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific [PROAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, PROAP, 1992. [3], 100 p. (Population Education Programme Service)

    As part of the goal to integrate population education into primary school curriculum and literacy programs, workshops were held in 1989 and 1991. The noteworthy teaching materials for primary education included in this document were generated from the experiences in Indonesia and Pakistan. Workshop participants completed questionnaires on various aspects of population education and then visits were made to 3 primary schools in SD Jayagiri, SD Negeri Lembang V, and SD Negeri Cibodas, Indonesia; observations were made and teachers and principals identified their needs. A similar process led to the production of materials for Pakistan after visits to a Muslim community about 4 km from Islamabad and to Saidpur, Pakistan. The materials from Indonesia focused on core messages and submessages on small family size for family welfare, delayed marriage, responsible parenthood, population planning for environmental and resource conservation and development, reorientation of beliefs, and improved status for women. Each core unit had a submessage, objective, content, method or format, target audience, and learning activity. For example, the core message on small family size for family welfare contains the message that a family needs a budget. The objective is to develop an awareness of the relationship between family needs and family income. The content is to stress the limits to expenditures within family resources and a comparison of sharing available resources in a large family. The method or format is a script for radio directed to out-of-school children and class VI. Dialogue is presented in a scene about purchasing food at a local market. The noteworthy curriculum materials from Pakistan focuses on their problems, their population, family, teachings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, implications of population growth, living things and their environment, and Shimim's story. Each issue has a class time, subject, core message, and instructional objective. In Shimim's story, the social studies class is devoted for 45 minutes to the core message about elders as an asset to the family and society. Reading material is provided and the teacher directs questions about the material and tests students with true/false questions.
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  16. 16

    Prototype action-oriented school health curriculum for primary schools. Teacher's guide.

    UNICEF. Middle East and North Africa Regional Office; World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean

    Alexandria, Egypt, WHO, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, 1988. xii, 133 p.

    This Prototype Action-Oriented School Health Education Curriculum was the product of a joint WHO-UNICEF regional plan to promote health education in primary schools in the Eastern Mediterranean. Health education, conceptualized as an effort to help children to develop their physical and intellectual potential, appreciate the need to protect and promote the quality of life, and prepare future generations to achieve a healthier, more equitable world, is an important part of the goal of "health for all by the year 2000" and socioeconomic development in general. Primary schools are an ideal forum to use to work to prevent illness and empower people to shape their own futures free from disease. Even before children leave school, they can help to change prevalent ideas and practices and work to improve the health status of their families and communities. The role that the schools can play in enhancing health is facilitated by the high status awarded school teachers in developing countries. This guide for teachers outlines a prototypical health education curriculum that includes sections on responsibility and health; the human body; personal hygiene; oral health; care of the eyes, ears, nose, skin, hair, and feet; nutrition; social and mental health; the environment; first aid; disease transmission; needs and facilities in the community; the care of sick children; immunization; diarrhea; skin infections and wounds; infections due to worms and parasites; common respiratory infections; and other infectious diseases. The guide further suggests teaching techniques and aids for each of these subject areas.
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  17. 17

    Revised project request: In-school Population and Family Life Education.

    Yemen. People's Democratic Republic of

    [Unpublished] [1980]. 10 p. (UNFPA Project no. PDY-79-P07)

    The objectives of the In-School Population and Family Life Education Project of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen include the following: to launch a comprehensive population and family life education program to help in speeding population awareness and understanding of the country's demographic situation; to introduce population education into the new curricula at different levels of the school system; to introduce population and family life education into the preservice and inservice teacher training curricula of the higher college of education; to produce 2 university level reference books; to develop resource materials of audiovisual aids for training of key personnel; to prepare special training programs for pioneer teachers and other selected teachers to enable them to train inservice teachers and to produce instructional materials; to train approximately 1000 unity school level teachers and 160 pioneer teachers and 40 audiovisual pioneers in 4 years; to train approximately 1500 preservice teachers and 600 inservice teachers at the higher college of education; and to reinforce the research activities in the Education Research Center in the field of population and family life. The project is under the Ministry of Education's Educational Research Center (ERC) with the General Director of ERC as its national director and the Deputy Director of ERC as national coordinator. The activities of this school project include: curriculum development in university, secondary, and primary schools; production of textbooks, reference books, and audiovisual teaching aids for teachers and students at different levels; and a teacher training program. Teacher training in the regular preservice and inservice teachers training courses in the Higher College of Education will take place over the September 1981 through June 1984 period. The training of 160 pioneer teachers will occur through special courses held during March/April of 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1984. The training of 1000 selected teachers in the Ministry of Education training centers will take place during July/August 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984. The government contribution for this project is $273,440. The contribution of the UN Fund for Population Activities is $82,484 for 1980 and $198,858 for 1981. The approximate starting date of the project is October 1980, and the approximate date of completion is 1984.
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  18. 18

    Making right to education a reality.

    AFRICA RECOVERY. 1998 Dec; 12(3):3.

    This article reports on the public posture of UNICEF on children's rights to education in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing regions. The article focuses on several efforts to improve the quality of education in Africa. UNICEF reported in its "State of the World's Children 1999 Report" that sub-Saharan Africa needs an extra US$1.9 billion yearly for attaining universal primary education. The region currently spends about US$9 billion yearly on education. The region's debt service payments amounted to over US$12 billion in 1996. Education is viewed as a basic human right; yet discrimination against girls and access are constraints to achieving universal education. The governments of Africa agreed to support the 1990 World Conference on Education for All. The conference recognized the need for more and better schooling for girls and women and identified the social benefits. The 1998 level of girls' enrollment (51%) in sub-Saharan Africa was lower than in 1985. UNICEF's Girls' Education Program helps to reduce gender differences in educational access in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Another UNICEF-sponsored initiative among 20 African countries aims to increase girls' enrollment, improve educational systems, and increase the relevance of the curriculum. The Forum of African Women Educators targets 10-15 year old girls for schooling and works on strategic resource planning, which helps governments identify gender issues and close the gender gap in education. Education is a sound investment.
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  19. 19

    Spreading the health message through schools.

    CHILDREN IN FOCUS. 1996 Oct-Dec; 8(4):1-2.

    In 1978, the Child Health Education Project in Jamaica began as a pilot project of the Tropical Metabolism Research Unit at the University of the West Indies; it is now part of the Ministry of Health. Its original goal was to use the school setting to send health messages via the children to families and to communities. With the move to the Ministry of Health, it will be integrated into the general primary school curriculum and will reach over 330,000 children, 6-11 years of age, in some 800 schools. The program currently reaches about 400 schools. A teacher's guide, children's workbooks, and a book of health stories and songs entitled "Jamboree" are used; UNICEF provides technical and materials support and pays for textbook development and printing. Trainers, teachers, and stakeholders are reviewing the curriculum, and an evaluation of the project is underway. Dr. Beryl Irons, Senior Medical Officer in the Maternal and Child Health Unit of the Ministry of Health, who is involved with the training of teachers, states that the project has been successful; her teachers report that there is a good level of class participation and that the behavior of the children is affected. Dr. Irons calls the project "an excellent experiment."
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  20. 20

    Never too late.

    JICA NEWSLETTER. 1996 Nov; 6(4):2-6.

    Motivated by the belief that education has been central to Japan's economic success, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) promotes universal access to quality basic education. In developing countries, school children rarely learn science through experiments. A new JICA training course, the Science Experiment in Primary Education, involved teacher trainers from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy experiments that require simple, inexpensive materials were taught. Another JICA project in Satkhira, Bangladesh, sought to raise the economic status of women enrolled in a dressmaking program through a year-long evening literacy class at three sites. Elementary school diplomas (available with proof to a local teacher of basic literacy and minimal arithmetic skills) are required in Bangladesh to apply for nongovernmental organization-initiated vocational schools and loans to start businesses in areas such as dressmaking, agriculture, and livestock raising. By late 1993, the female literacy program had expanded to 18 villages.
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  21. 21

    [Population education] L'education en matiere de population.

    Niang M

    FAMILLE ET DEVELOPPEMENT. 1992 Dec; (63):6-9.

    Africa has the highest population growth rate in the world (3%). It has 650 million people (about 900 million in 2000). Rapid population growth has serious consequences which, if not addressed, will be disastrous. This worrisome situation has led some governments to adopt demographic policies to slow down population growth. The UN Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recommends that schools provide population education. Various population conferences have popularized population education in schools among African countries. UNESCO began its regional program on population education in Africa in 1969. National family life and population education (FL/PE) projects have increased from 4 in 1970 to 32 in 1990 (17 in French- and Portuguese-speaking Africa and 5 in English-speaking Africa). These projects teach students about the links between demographic problems and socioeconomic factors and contemporary culture. They aim for total development of the individual and improvement of the quality of life for the individual, family, and community. Topics covered in FL/PE are birth rate; fertility; health; and maternal, infant, and child mortality; unwanted pregnancy; illegal abortion; sexually transmitted diseases; rural-urban migration; and urbanization. Benin introduced FL/PE at all levels of its education system while Senegal, Guinea, Mauritania, and Zaire introduced it to only the primary and secondary school levels. Some countries teach FL/PE as one discipline while most countries (e.g., Senegal) have integrated it into other disciplines (e.g., geography). FL/PE should begin in primary schools because they have the most students and prepare students for middle schools, which provide FL/PE. Elementary education in Senegal is being overhauled to introduce current major problems bit by bit. Senegal also wants to incorporate FL/PE into literacy and adult education programs. Integration of FL/PE into other disciplines should be encouraged.
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  22. 22

    Improving primary education in developing countries.

    Lockheed ME; Verspoor AM; Bloch D; Englebert P; Fuller B; King E; Middleton J; Paqueo V; Rodd A; Romain R

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1991. xix, 429 p.

    The Education and Employment Division of the World Bank's Population and Human Resources Department conducted a four-year study on the effectiveness and efficiency of primary education in developing countries. The resulting book includes extensive reviews of the research and evaluation literature; consultations with policymakers in developing countries, representatives of donor agencies, and primary education specialists; and results of commissioned studies and of original research conducted in the division. Learning is the central theme of the book; it reminds people that learning occurs in schools and classrooms among teachers and children, not in government ministries of education or finance. It also tells readers that learning is foremost and that teacher training and instructional materials are important only if the children learn. Policymakers must consider the impact of the cost and financing of education on learning when making decisions. The goals of primary education include teaching children basic cognitive skills, developing attitudes and skills in children so they can function effectively in society, and promotion of nation-building. This publication examines five areas for improvement of primary education: inputs necessary for children to learn; methods for improving teachers and teaching; management requirements for promoting learning; ways to extend effective education to traditionally disadvantaged groups; and the means to afford enhanced education. The study reveals that there is limited research on children's learning and no research at all on change in learning. The chapters cover the following: primary education and development; a brief history of primary education in developing countries; improving learning achievement; improving the preparation and motivation of teachers; strengthening institutional capabilities; improving equitable access; strengthening the resource base for education; international aid to education; and educational reform: policies and priorities for educational development in the 1990s.
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  23. 23

    Lao PDR. Ministry of Education and Sports to offer population education.


    A mission (November 7-11, 1993) to Lao PDR by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) CST adviser on Population Education resulted in an outline of a pilot project that integrates population education into primary and secondary schools and into non-formal education programs. A Population Education Unit, which will be established in the General Education Department with the active participation of the Department of Teacher's Training, the Teacher Development Centre, the Pedagogical Institute, the Research Institute of Educational Sciences, and the Department of Non-formal Education, will execute the project. Population education concepts will be integrated as separate units in social sciences and biology in grades 6-11 and as part of "The World Around Us" in grades 4-5. In non-formal programs, the concepts will be integrated into basic literacy, skills development, health and family life education, and civic education. Messages will include population policies, population theories, demography, birth spacing and family life education, population and economic development, and population and quality of life aspects (health, food and nutrition, education, housing, employment, resources and environment, gender roles and responsibilities, values and beliefs, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, adolescent fertility, and areas of concern to target audiences). The Research Institute of Educational Services, the Non-formal Education Department, and the Pedagogical Institute will develop instructional and training materials, curricula, and guides. The draft materials will be tested in 2 primary schools, 2 lower secondary schools, and 1 adult education center. The shortage of staff, nationally and institutionally, trained in substantive and methodological aspects of population education, will be remedied by short-term attachment, training courses, and study visits abroad. A Documentation Centre will provide information to project personnel, including action research and evaluation studies to ensure qualitative improvements in the project.
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  24. 24

    School for beggars' children.

    Eferaro S; Uloko SD

    NIGERIA'S POPULATION. 1993 Oct-Dec; 5.

    The children of blind beggars lead their parents around to beg for alms instead of going to school. 5 years of research however, supported by the Human Development Foundation in Nigeria found that adult beggars want their children to get educated, but did not think it possible. A special school for beggars' children was established by the foundation in 1990 with 30 children aged 6-12 years. The children attend school daily from 2 to 5 P.M. and help their blind parents in the mornings and evenings. Students receive free uniforms, writing materials and books, and are fed free during school hours. This school has attracted the attention of UNICEF which has been offering aid in the form of technical and teaching materials. The program has proved so successful, however, that demand is outpacing the supply of available teachers and teaching space. More room and more teachers are needed. Fund-raisers are being organized to that end.
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    Heartbeat -- the rhythm of health. World Health Day, 7 April 1992.

    Nakajima H

    NURSING JOURNAL OF INDIA. 1992 Apr; 83(4):82-90.

    Heart attacks and stroke kill about 12 million people each year or 25% of all deaths. No other single disease takes so many lives or disables so many people each year. Besides many of these dead are <65 years old resulting in considerable premature deaths. Heart attacks and stroke caused by life style choices even affect people living in developing countries as these countries reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases and develop socioeconomically with their concomitant increase in life expectancies. People in these countries still develop heart diseases that almost do not even exist in developed countries including rheumatic heart disease and heart disease caused by Chagas' disease. Crowded living conditions caused by poverty and limited medical services cause strep throat which left untreated can turn into rheumatic fever and then to heart disease. Yet treatment with penicillin protects against all 3 conditions. About 300,000 new rheumatic heart disease cases arise each year. Yearly deaths from rheumatic heart disease equals about 60,000. Poverty is also responsible for Chagas' disease of which about 17 million suffer in Latin America. In developing countries, the middle class is at highest risk of hypertension. Health promotion activities have resulted in a decline in cardiovascular diseases in developed countries in Western Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. These activities include health education, diet changes, exercise, and no tobacco use. These activities also reduce the prevalence of other diseases thus keeping populations healthier longer. It is important that the healthy life styles begin when children are young. WHO dedicated World Health Day 1992 to heart health to promote heart healthy activities which can save 6 million lives yearly.
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