Your search found 400 Results

  1. 1
    390049
    Peer Reviewed

    American Mock World Health Organization: An Innovative Model for Student Engagement in Global Health Policy.

    Lei M; Acharya N; Kwok Man Lee E; Catherine Holcomb E; Kapoor V

    Global Health: Science and Practice. 2017 Mar 24; 5(1):164-174.

    The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class."
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  2. 2
    389944
    Peer Reviewed

    Providing Family Planning Services at Primary Care Organizations after the Exclusion of Planned Parenthood from Publicly Funded Programs in Texas: Early Qualitative Evidence.

    White K; Hopkins K; Grossman D; Potter JE

    Health Services Research. 2017 Oct 20;

    OBJECTIVE: To explore organizations' experiences providing family planning during the first year of an expanded primary care program in Texas. DATA SOURCES: Between November 2014 and February 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with program administrators at 30 organizations: 7 women's health organizations, 13 established primary care contractors (e.g., community health centers, public health departments), and 10 new primary care contractors. STUDY DESIGN: Interviews addressed organizational capacities to expand family planning and integrate services with primary care. DATA EXTRACTION: Interview transcripts were analyzed using a theme-based approach. Themes were compared across the three types of organizations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Established and new primary care contractors identified several challenges expanding family planning services, which were uncommon among women's health organizations. Clinicians often lacked training to provide intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants. Organizations often recruited existing clients into family planning services, rather than expanding their patient base, and new contractors found family planning difficult to integrate because of clients' other health needs. Primary care contractors frequently described contraceptive provision protocols that were not evidence-based. CONCLUSIONS: Many primary care organizations in Texas initially lacked the capacity to provide evidence-based family planning services that women's health organizations already provided. (c) Health Research and Educational Trust.
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  3. 3
    375396

    Community health worker programmes in the WHO African Region: Evidence and options. Policy brief.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa. Health Systems and Services Cluster

    Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo, WHO, Regional Office for Africa, 2017. 23 p. (Policy Brief)

    Community health worker (CHW) programmes have seen a renaissance in the last two decades and now many countries in Africa boast of such national or substantial sub-national programmes. The 2013 Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health concluded that CHWs and other frontline primary health care workers “play a unique role and can be essential to accelerating MDGs and achieving UHC”, and called for their integration into national health systems. The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak of 2014-2015 highlighted the imperative of ensuring the functioning of the health systems at the community level for both their day-to-day resilience and disaster preparedness. The purpose of this policy brief is to inform discussions and decisions in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region on policies, strategies and programmes to increase access to primary health care (PHC) services and make progress towards universal health coverage (UHC) by expanding the implementation of scaled-up CHW programmes. This brief summarizes the existing evidence on CHW programmes with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa and offers a number of context-linked policy options for countries seeking to scale up and improve the effectiveness of their CHW programmes, particularly with regard to needs such as those of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the three countries that were the most affected by the 2014-2015 EVD outbreak. For the purposes of this policy brief, a broad definition of CHW is used. CHWs are individuals “carrying out the functions related to health care delivery [who are] trained in some way in the context of the intervention [but have] no formal professional or paraprofessional certificated or degreed tertiary education [in a health-related field]”). WHO states that CHWs “should be members of the communities where they work, selected by the communities, answerable to the communities for their activities, and supported by the health system but not necessarily a part of its organization”. For the purposes of this brief, a working definition for a scaled-up CHW programme has been developed, where the term refers to a programme that is designed to be more than a pilot or demonstration project and has the intention of covering a substantial population size or geographic area, depending on the country’s context. (Excerpts)
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  4. 4
    371987

    The effectiveness of the WHO training course on complementary feeding counseling in a primary care setting, Ismailia, Egypt.

    El-Sayed H; Martines J; Rakha M; Zekry O; Abdel-Hak M; Abbas H

    Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association. 2014 Apr; 89(1):1-8.

    BACKGROUND: The adequacy and timing of complementary feeding of the breastfed child are critical for optimal child growth and development.Considerable efforts have been made to improve complementary feeding in the first 2 years of life. One of them was the WHO complementary feeding counseling course (CFC). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO CFC on knowledge and counseling abilities of primary healthcare physicians; on caretaker's knowledge and adherence to physicians' recommendations and their feeding practices; and on children's growth. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: A single-blinded randomized-controlled study was carried out in 40 primary healthcare centers divided into matched pairs according to their location, either in rural or urban areas, and training of the selected physicians on integrated management of childhood illness. One center from each pair was selected randomly for its physician to receive CFC training in nutrition counseling and the matched center was selected as a control. Forty primary healthcare center physicians and 480 mother-child (6-18 months) pairs were included in the study. The mother-child pairs recruited were visited at home within 2 weeks, 90, and 180 days after the initial consultation with trained health workers. Special questionnaires were used to collect information on healthcare providers' knowledge of nutrition counseling and practice (counseling skills); maternal knowledge of basic nutrition-counseling recommendations, maternal compliance with the recommended feeding practice; child dietary intake; and gains in weight and length. RESULTS: CFC-trained physicians were more likely to engage in nutrition counseling and to deliver more appropriate advice. This was reflected in improvements in maternal recall of complementary feeding messages, which were higher in the intervention group compared with the control group. Six months after the consultation, children in the intervention group had significantly greater weight gains compared with the control group (0.96 vs. 0.78 kg; P=0.038). Children in the intervention group, who were 12-18 months of age at the time of recruitment, had significantly less faltering in length gain compared with the control group (height/age Z-score; 0.23 vs. 0.04; P=0.004). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Nutrition counseling training improved counseling abilities of primary healthcare physicians and led to improvements in mothers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding. In turn, this led to improved growth of children. We recommend wide and regular utilization of the CFC course to improve the knowledge and skills of health workers who provide counseling to mothers for complementary feeding.
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  5. 5
    335895

    Community health care: Bringing health care at your door. Report of side event at 67th World Health Assembly.

    Global Health Workforce Alliance

    [Geneva, Switzerland], World Health Organization [WHO], Global Health Workforce Alliance, 2014. [5] p.

    The side event held at the 67th World Health Assembly provided an opportunity to deliberate on integrated community health care (CHC) in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Universal Health Coverage (UHC). The session also explored effective policies and strategies that could be used to remove the obstacles to deliver quality health care and positioning community health workers (CHWs) as an integral part of local health teams.
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  6. 6
    360520
    Peer Reviewed

    Suboptimal patterns of provider initiated HIV testing and counselling, antiretroviral therapy eligibility assessment and referral in primary health clinic attendees in Blantyre, Malawi.

    MacPherson P; Lalloo DG; Choko AT; Mann GH; Squire SB; Mwale D; Manda E; Makombe SD; Desmond N; Heyderman R; Corbett EL

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2012 Apr; 17(4):507-17.

    OBJECTIVE: To understand reasons for suboptimal and delayed uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) by describing the patterns of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and outcomes of ART eligibility assessments in primary clinic attendees. METHODS: All clinic attendances and episodes of HTC were recorded at two clinics in Blantyre. A cohort of newly diagnosed HIV-positive adults (>15 years) was recruited and exit interviews undertaken. Logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with referral to start ART. Qualitative interviews were conducted with providers and patients. RESULTS: There were 2398 episodes of HTC during 18,021 clinic attendances (13.3%) between January and April 2011. The proportion of clinic attendees undergoing HTC was lowest in non-pregnant women (6.3%) and men (8.5%), compared with pregnant women (47.2%). Men had more advanced HIV infection than women (79.7% WHO stage 3 or 4 vs. 56.4%). Problems with WHO staging and access to CD4 counts affected ART eligibility assessments; only 48% completed ART eligibility assessment, and 54% of those reporting WHO stage 3/4 illnesses were not referred to start ART promptly. On multivariate analysis, HIV-positive pregnant women were significantly less likely to be referred directly for ART initiation (adjusted OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13-0.63). CONCLUSIONS: These data show that provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) has not yet been fully implemented at primary care clinics. Suboptimal ART eligibility assessments and referral (reflecting the difficulties of WHO staging in primary care) mean that simplified eligibility assessment tools are required to reduce unnecessary delay and attrition in the pre-ART period. Simplified initiation criteria for pregnant women, as being introduced in Malawi, should improve linkage to ART. (c) 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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  7. 7
    333226

    Planning and implementing an essential package of sexual and reproductive health services: Guidance for integrating family planning and STI / RTI with other reproductive health and primary health services.

    Williams K; Warren C; Askew I

    [New York, New York], Population Council, 2010 Oct. [56] p.

    The goal of this guidance document is to provide a framework for developing an essential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) package. It focuses on two priority areas: 1) integrating family planning into maternal and newborn care services, and 2) integrating services for preventing and managing sexually transmitted infections / reproductive tract infections into primary healthcare services. This guidance document comprises three sections. The Introduction explains and justifies why the development and implementation of an essential SRH package should be planned and framed within the World Health Organization's six Building Blocks of Health Systems. The second section presents the "How To" steps and checklist tools for planning, implementing and scaling up, including specific examples for the two priority areas indicated above. The third section provides the evidence-base supporting the recommendations and action-points proposed in each tool. This evidence-base includes key findings and summary recommendations from a literature review (in matrix format) and a bibliography of the references included in the literature review.
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  8. 8
    332934

    Primary health care as a strategy for achieving equitable care: a literature review commissioned by the Health Systems Knowledge Network.

    De Maeseneer J; Willems S; De Sutter A; Van de Geuchte L; Billings M

    [Johannesburg, South Africa], University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Health Policy, Health Systems Knowledge Network, 2007 Mar. [42] p.

    In this paper we want to explore the contribution that primary health care can make to address the social determinants of health in the context of a changing society. The concept of primary health care, endorsed by the World Health Organisation in the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978, has been implemented in very different ways all over the world. We look at the main features of primary health care: what are the conditions that enable the introduction of primary health care, what is the evidence of the primary health care approach to promote health equity and inter-sectoral action and how may the health systems enhance the impact of primary health care on health equity, taking account of contextual factors. The aim is to draw an operational framework that may contribute to further developments in health systems contributing to more equity. Addressing social determinants of health should take into account the actual evolutions in the changing society, in order to assess adequately the changing needs that will be presented to the health care system.. (Excerpt)
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  9. 9
    332932

    Challenging inequity through health systems. Final report: Knowledge Network on Health Systems. WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health.

    Gilson L; Doherty J; Loewenson R; Francis V

    [Johannesburg], South Africa, University of the Witwatersrand, Centre for Health Policy, Health Systems Knowledge Network, 2007 Jun. [146] p.

    The way that health systems are designed, financed and operated acts as a powerful determinant of health. The Health Systems Knowledge Network reviewed the evidence on different approaches to improving health equity outcomes through health systems. The focus was on innovative approaches that effectively incorporate action on the social determinants of health, and on strategies of policy development and implementation. Key themes were: Using the health sector to leverage inter-sectoral actions that address the social determinants of health; Enabling social empowerment in support of health equity; Identifying key elements of vision and health system architecture necessary to secure social protection and universal coverage; Building and maintaining national policy space for health policies that seek social justice; and Strengthening management and stewardship capacities within the health sector. The Health Systems Knowledge Network was chaired by Lucy Gilson of the Centre for Health Policy, and made up of 14 experienced policy-makers, academics and members of civil society from around the world. The Network engaged with other sections of the Commission and also commissioned a number of systematic reviews and case studies. This is the final report of the network.
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  10. 10
    346095
    Peer Reviewed

    Putting people first: a primary health care success in rural India.

    Vlassoff C; Tanner M; Weiss M; Rao S

    Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2010 Apr; 35(2):326-330.

    Background: The World Health Report, 2008, contains a global review of primary health care on the 30th anniversary of the Declaration of Alma-Ata. The period covered by the study reported on here corresponds with that of the Report, allowing for a comparison of achievements and challenges in one primary health care centre vis-a-vis the WHO standards. Materials and Methods: This study uses qualitative and quantitative data from a rural primary care facility in Western Maharashtra, collected over three decades. It analyzes the four groups of reforms defined by WHO in the context of the achievements and challenges of the study facility. Results: According to the WHO Report, health systems in developing countries have not responded adequately to peoples needs. However, our in-depth observations revealed substantial progress in several areas, including in family planning, safe deliveries, immunization and health promotion. Satisfaction with services in the study area was high. Conclusion: Adequate primary health care is possible, even when all recommended WHO reforms are not fully in place.
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  11. 11
    331886

    Women and health: Today's evidence tomorrow's agenda.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2009. 91 p.

    The report calls for action both within the health sector and beyond to improve the health and lives of girls and women around the world. The report provides the latest and most comprehensive evidence available on women's specific needs and health challenges over their entire life. The report includes the latest global and regional figures on the health and leading causes of death in women from birth, through childhood, adolescence and adulthood, to older age.
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  12. 12
    341765
    Peer Reviewed

    The WHO/PEPFAR collaboration to prepare an operations manual for HIV prevention, care, and treatment at primary health centers in high-prevalence, resource-constrained settings: defining laboratory services.

    Spira T; Lindegren ML; Ferris R; Habiyambere V; Ellerbrock T

    American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2009 Jun; 131(6):887-94.

    The expansion of HIV/AIDS care and treatment in resource-constrained countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, has generally developed in a top-down manner. Further expansion will involve primary health centers where human and other resources are limited. This article describes the World Health Organization/President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief collaboration formed to help scale up HIV services in primary health centers in high-prevalence, resource-constrained settings. It reviews the contents of the Operations Manual developed, with emphasis on the Laboratory Services chapter, which discusses essential laboratory services, both at the center and the district hospital level, laboratory safety, laboratory testing, specimen transport, how to set up a laboratory, human resources, equipment maintenance, training materials, and references. The chapter provides specific information on essential tests and generic job aids for them. It also includes annexes containing a list of laboratory supplies for the health center and sample forms.
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  13. 13
    328498
    Peer Reviewed

    Community participation: lessons for maternal, newborn, and child health.

    Rosato M; Laverack G; Grabman LH; Tripathy P; Nair N; Mwansambo C; Azad K; Morrison J; Bhutta Z; Perry H; Rifkin S; Costello A

    Lancet. 2008 Sep 13; 372(9642):962-71.

    Primary health care was ratified as the health policy of WHO member states in 1978.(1) Participation in health care was a key principle in the Alma-Ata Declaration. In developing countries, antenatal, delivery, and postnatal experiences for women usually take place in communities rather than health facilities. Strategies to improve maternal and child health should therefore involve the community as a complement to any facility-based component. The fourth article of the Declaration stated that, "people have the right and duty to participate individually and collectively in the planning and implementation of their health care", and the seventh article stated that primary health care "requires and promotes maximum community and individual self-reliance and participation in the planning, organization, operation and control of primary health care". But is community participation an essential prerequisite for better health outcomes or simply a useful but non-essential companion to the delivery of treatments and preventive health education? Might it be essential only as a transitional strategy: crucial for the poorest and most deprived populations but largely irrelevant once health care systems are established? Or is the failure to incorporate community participation into large-scale primary health care programmes a major reason for why we are failing to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 for reduction of maternal and child mortality?
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  14. 14
    327008

    The state of Africa's children 2008. Child survival.

    UNICEF

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2008 May. 54 p.

    Every year, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) publishes The State of the World's Children, the most comprehensive and authoritative report on the world's youngest citizens. The State of the World's Children 2008, published in January 2008, examines the global realities of maternal and child survival and the prospects for meeting the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) - the targets set by the world community in 2000 for eradicating poverty, reducing child and maternal mortality, combating disease, ensuring environmental sustainability and providing access to affordable medicines in developing countries. This year, UNICEF is also publishing the inaugural edition of The State of Africa's Children. This volume and other forthcoming regional editions complement The State of the World's Children 2008, sharpening from a worldwide to a regional perspective the global report's focus on trends in child survival and health, and outlining possible solutions - by means of programmes, policies and partnerships - to accelerate progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    325498

    Prevention of HIV infection in infants: Documenting and learning from the Ukraine experience.

    Thorne C; Newell ML; Zhylka N

    Kyiv, Ukraine, UNICEF, 2007. 100 p.

    The aim of this review is to document the experience of PMTCT in Ukraine to date, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of lessons learned within the current PMTCT programme. The report is structured around the four pillars of PMTCT: primary prevention of HIV infection within the context of MTCT; prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women; prevention of transmission from HIV positive women to their child; providing care and support to HIV positive women, their infants and their family. Since the initiation of the first national PMTCT programme in Ukraine in 2001, Ukraine has made substantial progress towards prevention of HIV infection in infants. Evaluation of the first programme in 2003 by a national and international team, including WHO and UNICEF, allowed consolidation of effort and the development of the next phase of the PMTCT programme. Furthermore, the findings facilitated the development of 'The Strategic Framework for the Prevention of HIV Infection in Infants in Europe' (2004). This outlined strategies for the implementation of the prevention of HIV infection in infants at a national level, with the aim of achieving the Dublin Declaration PMTCT goals. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    322021

    Handbook of supply management at first-level health care facilities. 1st version for country adaptation.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 73 p. (WHO/HIV/2006.03)

    All first-level health care facilities, namely primary health care clinics and outpatient departments based in district hospitals, use medicines and related supplies. It takes a team effort to manage these supplies, involving all health care facility staff: doctors, nurses, health workers and storekeepers. This is especially true in small facilities with only one or two health workers. Each staff member should know how to manage all supplies at the health care facility correctly. Each staff member has an important role. The Handbook of Supply Management at First-Level Health Care Facilities describes all major medicines and supply management tasks, known as the standard procedures of medicines supply management at first-level health care facilities. Each chapter covers one major task, explains how the task fits into the process of maintaining a consistent supply of medicines, and recommends which standard procedures to use. Annexes at the back of the handbook contain various checklists and examples of forms which can be introduced as needed at your health care facility. This handbook is part of a package used in an integrated training and capacity-building course targeted at first-level health care facilities. It can be used in conjunction with the existing Integrated Management of Adult and Adolescent Illness (IMAI) strategy developed by WHO. It can also be used for basic training activities independent of IMAI training courses. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    321302
    Peer Reviewed

    Management of acute diarrhoea in primary care in Bahrain: Self-reported practices of doctors.

    Ismaeel AY; Al Khaja KA; Damanhori AH; Sequeira RP; Botta GA

    Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 2007 Jun; 25(2):205-211.

    This nationwide study was conducted to assess the extent of adherence of primary-care physicians to the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended guidelines on the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), antimicrobials, and prescribing of other drugs used in treating symptoms of acute diarrhoea in Bahrain. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was carried out in primary-care health centres. During a six-week survey period (15 August-30 September 2003), 328 (25.2%) completed questionnaires were returned from 17 of 20 health centres. In a sample of 300 patients, oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution was prescribed to 89.3% (n=268) patients; 12.3% received ORS alone, whereas 77% received ORS in combination with symptomatic drugs. Antimicrobials were prescribed to 2% of the patients. In 11.4% of the cases, rehydration fluids and other drugs were given parenterally. The mean number of drugs was 2.2+0.87 per prescription. In approximately one-third of the patients, three or more drugs were used. Primary-care physicians almost always adhered to the WHO guidelines with respect to ORT and antimicrobials. However, in several instances, ORT was prescribed along with polypharmacy, including irrational use of drugs for symptomatic relief. Effective health policies are needed to reduce the unnecessary burden on the healthcare system. (author's)
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  18. 18
    314919

    The global AIDS crisis, "3 by 5", and a renewed commitment to primary health care. WHO, World Social Forum, 2004.

    McClure C; Grubb I; Singh A; Villar E

    Contact. 2004 Jan; (177-178):20.

    On September 2003 at the United Nations General Assembly, the new Director General of the World Health Organization, Dr. Lee, stated: "The AIDS treatment gap is a global public health emergency. We must change the way we think and change the way we act. Business as usual means watching thousands of people die every single day." To address this AIDS treatment crisis, WHO and UNAIDS have committed to leading the "3 by 5" initiative, which targets delivering antiretroviral treatment (ART) to 3 million people in developing countries by the end of 2005. As evident from the experience in industrialized countries since 1996, access to ART has turned HIV/AIDS into a manageable condition, dramatically reducing mortality and morbidity, and allowing people living with HIV/AIDS to live productive, healthy lives. However, in developing countries, these drugs are currently available to only a fraction of those in need. WHO launched the "3 by 5" strategy in December 2003, basing the key elements of the strategy on information gained from numerous pilot programmes that show that it is feasible to provide ARTs in even the very poorest of settings. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    312301

    Integrating sexual and reproductive health-care services.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. [3] p. (Implementing the Global Reproductive Health Strategy. Policy Brief No. 2)

    This policy brief is intended to give guidance to policy-makers and others engaged in planning and implementing policies and programmes in sexual and reproductive health. It elaborates on one area of action in the WHO Global Reproductive Health Strategy, raising issues for consideration when integrating the components of sexual and reproductive health services in a broader health-care context. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    312055

    Supportive and palliative care for people living with HIV / AIDS.

    Schietinger H

    CommonHealth. 2005 Spring; 36-43.

    As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO):2 Palliative medicine is the study and management of patients with active, progressive, far advanced disease for whom the prognosis is limited and the focus of care is the quality of life. [It is] the active total care of patients whose disease is not responsive to curative treatment. Control of pain, of other symptoms, and of psychological, social, and spiritual problems, is paramount. The goal of palliative care is achievement of the best quality of life for patients and their families. Many aspects of palliative care are applicable earlier in the course of the illness, in conjunction with treatment. Palliative care: Affirms life and regards dying as a normal process; Neither hastens, nor postpones, death; Provides relief from pain and other distressing symptoms; Integrates the psychological and spiritual aspects of patient care; Offers a support system to help patients live as actively as possible until death; and Offers a support system to help families cope during a patient's illness and with their own bereavement. In short, palliative care comprehensively addresses the physical, emotional, and spiritual impact a life-threatening illness has on a person, no matter the stage of the illness. It places the sick person and his/her family, however defined, at the center of care and aggressively addresses all of the symptoms and problems experienced by them. Many healthcare providers apply certain elements of the palliative care treatment approach-- such as comprehensive care and aggressive symptom management-- to the care of all of their patients, not only those who are terminally ill, offering the type of care we would all like to receive when we are sick. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    310785

    The World Summit on Social Development, health, and Latin America [editorial]

    Cohn A

    Cadernos de Saude Publica. 1995 Apr-Jun; 11(2):175-176.

    The World Summit on Social Development (WSSD) convened by the United Nations (UN) in March this year meant that social development was emerging as a global issue for the first time in history. While the Summit was a significant step forward in the world debate to the extent that it focused on human beings and the notions of equality and equity, in the Latin American context it also laid bare the essential contradiction between current economic stabilization and adjustment policies and social development as a priority. In this sense, one can raise the hypothesis that the Latin American image transmitted by various countries in various ways in the world scenario was one of a continent marked by internal economic problems prevailing over social issues. For example, one noted the absence of heads of state from the most economically significant countries, like Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina, the fact that only the Brazilian and Chilean delegations were present in the negotiations over the Summit's final position papers, and the very nature of the official documents submitted to the UN by the various countries, wavering between a bureaucratic and officialist tone in their final reports. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    296618

    UNICEF calls for priority focus on girl child.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3):[2] p..

    All programmers of the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) and strategies in the 1990s will address explicitly the status of the girl child and her needs, particularly in nutrition, health and education, with a view to eliminating gender disparities. The recommendation was made by the UNICEF Executive Board at its 1990 regular session. Endorsing the priority focus given to the girl child, the Board also asked UNICEF to implement gender-sensitive monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess progress made in reducing disparities between girls and boys in health care and primary education programmes. The Board also requested UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant to highlight the girl child in the annual report on women in development and to submit to the 1992 Board session and every second year thereafter, a full report on progress made on the situation of the girl child. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    294423
    Peer Reviewed

    Primary health care in complex humanitarian emergencies: Rwanda and Kosovo experiences and their implications for public health training. [Soins de santé primaire dans le cadre d'urgences humanitaires complexes : les expériences du Rwanda et du Kosovo, et leurs implications dans le domaine de la formation en santé publique]

    Gardemann J

    Croatian Medical Journal. 2002; 43(2):148-155.

    In a complex humanitarian emergency, a catastrophic breakdown of political, economic, and social systems, often accompanied by violence, contributes to a long-lasting dependency of the affected communities on external service. Relief systems, such as the Emergency Response Units of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, have served as a sound foundation for fieldwork in humanitarian emergencies. The experience in emergencies gained in Rwanda in 1994 and Kosovo in 1999 clearly points to the need for individual adjustments of therapeutic standards to preexisting morbidity and health care levels within the affected population. In complex emergencies, public health activities have been shown to promote peace, prevent violence, and reconcile enemies. A truly democratic and multiprofessional approach in all public health training for domestic or foreign service serves as good pattern for fieldwork. Beyond the technical and scientific skills required in the profession, political, ethical, and communicative competencies are critical in humanitarian assistance. Because of the manifold imperatives of further public health education for emergency assistance, a humanitarian assistance competence training center should be established. Competence training centers focus on the core competencies required to meet future needs, are client-oriented, connect regional and international networks, rely on their own system of quality control, and maintain a cooperative management of knowledge. Public health focusing on complex humanitarian emergencies will have to act in prevention not only of diseases and impairments but also of political tension and hatred. (author's)
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  24. 24
    296143
    Peer Reviewed

    Traditional medicine development for medical and dental primary health care delivery system in Africa.

    Elujoba AA; Odeleye OM; Ogunyemi CM

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2005; 2(1):46-61.

    Traditional African Medicine (TAM) is our socio-economic and socio-cultural heritage, servicing over 80% of the populations in Africa. Although, it has come a long way from the times of our ancestors, not much significant progress on its development and utilization had taken place due to colonial suppression on one hand, foreign religions in particular, absolute lack of patriotism and political will of our Governments, and then on the other hand, the carefree attitudes of most African medical scientists of all categories. It is incontrovertible that TAM exhibits far more merits than demerits and its values can be exploited provided the Africans themselves can approach it with an open mind and scientific mentality. The degree of sensitization and mobilization by the World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged some African countries to commence serious development on TAM. The African Regional Director of the WHO has outlined a few guidelines on the responsibilities of all African nations for the realistic development of TAM, in order to sustain our health agenda and perpetuate our culture. The gradual extinction of the forests and the inevitable disappearance of the aged Traditional Medical Practitioner should pose an impending deadline for us to learn, acquire and document our medical cultural endowment for the benefit of all Africans and indeed the entire mankind. (author's)
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  25. 25
    294350

    Adolescent health and development in nursing and midwifery education.

    Keeney GB; Cassata L; McElmurry BJ; World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2004. [63] p. (WHO/ EIP/HRH/NUR/2004.1; WHO/ FCH/ CAH/04.4)

    One in five people in the world today are adolescents between 10 and 19 years of age, and 85% of adolescents live in developing countries. Throughout the world, adolescence is considered to be a time of relative health and, as a result, a wide range of adolescent health issues is being neglected. In response to this need, the World Health Organization (WHO) departments of Child and Adolescent Health and Development (CAH) and Human Resources for Health (HRH) embarked on an initiative to focus on adolescent health and development by strengthening the educational preparation of nurses and midwives. Nurses and midwives are in a unique position by virtue of their education, numbers, and diversity of practice arenas to contribute to promoting the highest attainable standard of health among adolescents. Preparing providers to meet adolescents' health needs is a challenge requiring planned educational experiences within the nursing and midwifery curriculum. Integrating adolescent health and development into pre-service nursing and midwifery curricula provides the background for identifying core competencies and for the integration of essential content into curricula. This background paper and accompanying tools provide the foundation for the work of a global partnership of WHO Collaborating Centres to achieve the aims of this vital initiative. (author's)
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