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  1. 1

    Report on World Health Organization Regional AIDS Health Promotion Workshop, Arusha, Tanzania, 1-5 August, 1988. First draft.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1988 Nov 14. [3], 77 p.

    A recent report reviewed a World Health Organization (WHO) regional workshop on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health promotion in Tanzania. There were more than 40 health educators, physicians journalists, and graphic artists from 12 African countries for this workshop. The objectives were to exchange experiences in the are of AIDS health promotion planning, execution and evaluation; to review and discuss materials that were developed to support these programs; and to review and discuss difficulties and solutions in the administration and evaluation of these programs; to provide practical experience in targeting audiences, focus group interviews, designing and testing materials on target groups; and to develop specific plans for implementing health promotion programs. The workshop was designed to present different country topics on health promotion and epidemiology, to give focus group field experiences, to develop message and prototype materials, to pretest these materials, and to develop a strategy. The accomplishments of the workshop include the increased awareness of the AIDS health promotion activities, some common pitfalls to avoid, and insights on reaching high risk groups. There was also some confidence building and moral boosting. In addition there was increased experience in focus group interviews and direct contact with target audiences for those with less experience. The lessons learned include that materials can be produced and tested in a 1 week workshop and this format can accelerate health promotion strategic thinking and planning. Recommendations include a follow up workshop for further exchange of materials and experiences and to see if strategies developed have been implemented. Countries should find appropriate supply channels and proper storage and distribution of condoms and promotion of their use. They should also promote research dealing with social and cultural constraints in the use of condoms. There should also be a more clear organizational structure to ensure adequate coordination between all parties.
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  2. 2

    Visual communication materials for rural audiences: re-orienting artists and copy-writers.

    Chen P


    An agency of the Indian government cooperated with a United Nations Children Fund to produce posters for the child survival and development program in India. To make the posters and other visual communications more effective a workshop was planned for the artists, visualizers, and copywriters. Previous experience had shown that some visual materials were not always oriented to the local contexts and villages often misinterpreted the messages of these materials. The 12 day workshop was designed to assist artists to better understand the audiences needs. there had been little pretesting of art work for health communication and no consideration of the visual literacy of the audience. The first project in the workshop consisted of artists and copywriters visiting villages to pretest posters presently in circulation. After some reservations they quickly found that the villagers perception of the posters was entirely different than the message being conveyed. By going back and getting the villagers perceptions of common sights related to maternal and child health, the artist could better prepare communication materials. They also collected basic sociological data at each village. New posters were then prepared with the help of inputs from midwives, nurses, and other health care workers. By pretesting these materials again they were able to clarify the messages, and repeated testing showed the posters were more understandable. The participants in the workshop found that visual communications materials demand proper understanding of the subject matter and the audience. Pretesting of materials is necessary before production, and changes should be made to reflect the local culture and surroundings. Posters for rural illiterate audiences should have the minimum written text needed and visual literacy must be assessed.
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  3. 3

    AIDS education for a low literate audience in Zambia.

    Msimuko AK

    IPPF MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1988 Apr; 22(2):3-4.

    A workshop funded by the USA Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) was an effort by Zambia toward prevention and control of AIDS. The lack of educational materials about AIDS for a low-literate audience was the major problem addressed by the workshop. Other problems include the lack of collaborative effort in the development of materials on AIDS, and the lack of skills needed in the development of such materials in Zambia. 1 of the objectives of the workshop was to launch the Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia's (PPAZ) materials development project. The scope of this project includes the production of educational materials on AIDS for low-literate audiences and a counseling handbook for family planning workers. Print materials should be simply written, using words, idioms, and graphics that are familiar to the target audience. Other workshop objectives included the establishment of collaborative relationships between organizations involved in existing AIDS educational activities in Zambia, and the development of practical skills needed to produce print materials. Education was identified as the most important strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and PPAZ should be the executing agency of the print materials project. Audience research, using focus group techniques, focus group discussions, behavioral messages, and pretesting of messages, should be the most effective means of reaching targeted audiences. PPAZ is contracted by PATH to begin development of educational materials, and 2 committees have formed to implement the project and to establish interagency collaboration. Audience research was begun between January and March of 1988, focusing on people's beliefs, practices, and ideas about AIDS. The final phase of the project will be the printing, distribution, and use of the AIDS materials and the training of family planning field workers in the proper use of these materials.
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  4. 4

    Pretesting communication materials with special emphasis on child health and nutrition education. A manual for trainers and supervisors.

    Haaland A

    Rangoon, Burma, UNICEF, Rangoon, 1984 Feb. 62 p.

    This is a complete manual on how to pretest printed materials on child health and nutrition, prepared by UNICEF primarily for developing countries. It is charmingly illustrated with photographs, cartoons, and samples of visual materials. Pretesting means interviewing the intended audience to see if they understand and like the materials. Often illiterate rural people are unfamiliar with most of the visual conventions we take for granted, are embarrassed or threatened about certain content, or are put off by color selection, unfamiliar details or overly lengthy presentations, for example. The most common objection to pretesting is lack of time and money; yet losses on untested materials may be much higher. Detailed help is provided with techniques for interviewing, such as how to establish rapport, word questions, probe for information rather than yes answers, handle negative attitudes. Sections explain where, when, whom and how to interview many subjects, and how to evaluate results. Final sections deal with discussion questions, feedback from users, types of problems encountered with people of low visual literacy, and how to convince a supervisor of the need for pretesting.
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