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  1. 1

    World health statistics 2016. Monitoring health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2016. [136] p.

    The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2016 focuses on the proposed health and health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and associated targets. It represents an initial effort to bring together available data on SDG health and health-related indicators. In the current absence of official goal-level indicators, summary measures of health such as (healthy) life expectancy are used to provide a general assessment of the situation.
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  2. 2

    FAO / WHO launch expert report on diet, nutrition and prevention of chronic diseases [editorial]

    Public Health Nutrition. 2003 Jun; 6(4):323-325.

    This report and the subsequent commitment to a global strategy are extremely important for those of us working in Public Health Nutrition. They provide an important opportunity to promote the benefits of an evidence-based approach to solving major public health problems and raise the profile of nutrition. I have asked Este Vorster and Tim Lang to start off a discussion about the expert report. I look forward to other comments from readers. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Rehabilitation after cardiovascular diseases, with special emphasis on developing countries. Report of a WHO Expert Committee.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on Rehabilitation after Cardiovascular Diseases, with Special Emphasis on Developing Countries


    In October 1991, a WHO expert committee met to discuss rehabilitation after cardiovascular diseases, with special emphasis on developing countries. Cardiovascular diseases cause most of the premature mortality in developed countries and have emerged as a major public health problem in developing countries in the mid 1970s. Recommendations for rehabilitative care depend on the risk status of cardiac patients experiencing an early recurrence of cardiovascular events (high, intermediate, and low). Committee members have developed recommendations for functional assessment of patients and for physical activity components of care based on the levels of care facilities are equipped to provide (basic, intermediate, and advanced). Committee recommendations are directed to medical practitioners from a variety of fields (e.g., primary care, pediatric cardiology, and geriatrics) and to other health professionals involved in rehabilitative care. Implementation of cardiac rehabilitation in developing countries follows the introduction of the report, which provides guidelines for determining when patients can return to work and program requirements for basic, intermediate, and advanced facilities. The 3rd chapter is entitled exercise testing and training in rehabilitation of children and young adults with cardiovascular disease, e.g., Kawasaki disease and ventricular septic defect. Chapter 4 covers rehabilitation of severely disabled, medically complex cardiac cases, e.g., heart transplants and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The report also discusses existing and upcoming methods for education in the rehabilitation of patients with cardiovascular disease. After overall conclusions and recommendations, the report has 12 annexes, ranging in topics from a light exercise program to contraindications and special considerations for exercise testing.
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  4. 4

    Estimating Africa's AIDS toll.

    POPULI. 1994 Jun; 21(6):4.

    The Population Division of the UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Population Analysis has conducted a study of the AIDS pandemic's demographic impact in 15 Sun-Saharan countries. By 2005, these countries will have experienced 9 million AIDS deaths. 61% of these AIDS deaths will occur in just 4 countries (Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, and Zambia). The remaining 39% will occur in the 11 other countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zimbabwe). Population growth rates will still be high, even though so many people will die from AIDS. In fact, the population is projected to increase more than 2-fold (138.4-297.9 million, between 1980 and 2005). By 2000- 2005, life expectancy in Uganda will have decreased 11 years due to Aids. People with AIDS die in their most economically and socially productive years. Thus, AIDS is affecting the size and quality of the labor forces in Sub-Saharan Africa as well as the rural agricultural sector, leading to likely food shortages. AIDS also takes away breadwinners and caregivers from families. In Berlin in September, 1993, the UN reported these findings to the round-table meeting entitled Population Policies and Programmes: The Impact of HIV/AIDS. The aim of this meeting was preparation for the upcoming International Conference on Population and Development.
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  5. 5

    A price worth paying.

    Bobadilla JL; Jamison DT

    WORLD HEALTH. 1993 Jul-Aug; 46(4):30-1.

    The cost to eradicate the small pox virus was US$300 million. Smallpox eradication saved millions of lives. The US spent $100 million in a few months to make sure there would be no more cyanide poisonings from pain relievers in the Chicago area, but few if any lives were saved by this effort. Many public health needs force officials to determine which health interventions are the most cost effective. The World Bank and WHO have developed a common standard with which to make health care comparisons call the disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Officials relate the costs of preventing or treating a disease to the number of healthy years of life gained by an intervention to determine cost effectiveness. The formula is more involved for infectious diseases, since treating them prevents further infections, e,g., tuberculosis (TB). The 1993 World Development Report reveals TB is among the most cost-effective diseases to control in adults older than 15 year olds. Studies in sub-Saharan Africa show that the cost of treating a TB-infected patient can be as low as $20 and never higher than $100, equalling as little as $.90 for each year of life saved. The 6-month chemotherapy regimen is the most cost-effective intervention of TB control programs. Other cost-effective interventions are the 12-month treatment and hospitalizing patients throughout treatment. As much as 40% of public health expenditures are for interventions with low cost effectiveness, e.g., heart surgery and intensive care for premature babies. Yet, critical and very cost-effective interventions, such as TB treatment, receive little funding. The Report contends that if funding of higher cost-effective health interventions increases, governments could save millions of lives and billions of dollars. TB prevention will stem the development of multidrug resistant strains of TB. If the $100 million spent in 1992 to prevent cyanide deaths could have been spent to address the emerging disease, AIDS, perhaps many people would have not been infected with HIV.
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  6. 6

    China. Long-term issues and options in the health transition.

    Bumgarner JR

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xxvii, 133 p. (World Bank Country Study)

    In the early 1990s, the World Bank sent a team of specialists in demography, medicine, hospital administration, health policy, personnel, medical technology, and finance to China to examine the present health status of the population and to protect its future status. Before making any projections, however, they had to learn what demographic and epidemiologic factors would basically determine future health status. The main factors driving China's health transition included aging of the population; increased risk of developing chronic disease caused by changes in life style, dietary, environmental, and occupational risk factors; and changing morbidity and mortality patterns (i.e., shift from infectious to disabling and chronic diseases). The team mapped out specific strategies, which can indeed be achieved, to avert a health care crisis. The strategies revolved around a sustained effort of primary prevention of chronic diseases, especially circulatory diseases, which caused considerable premature mortality. The team illustrated how different formulas of total health expenditures would affect epidemiologic outcomes. The team learned that health care costs would probably increase due to unavoidable demographic trends (especially demographic aging), epidemiologic forces, and utilization and unit cost changes. Suggested primary prevention strategies alone would not be enough to control health expenditures to a level where feasible equity can be maintained. China must also greatly improve efficiency of hospital services, personnel, and technologies. The evaluation team concluded that the government needs to reassess policies for financing primary and preventive health services, the basis and conditions of insurance, and the role of prices and incentives in directing use and provision of services.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Heartbeat -- the rhythm of health. World Health Day, 7 April 1992.

    Nakajima H

    NURSING JOURNAL OF INDIA. 1992 Apr; 83(4):82-90.

    Heart attacks and stroke kill about 12 million people each year or 25% of all deaths. No other single disease takes so many lives or disables so many people each year. Besides many of these dead are <65 years old resulting in considerable premature deaths. Heart attacks and stroke caused by life style choices even affect people living in developing countries as these countries reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases and develop socioeconomically with their concomitant increase in life expectancies. People in these countries still develop heart diseases that almost do not even exist in developed countries including rheumatic heart disease and heart disease caused by Chagas' disease. Crowded living conditions caused by poverty and limited medical services cause strep throat which left untreated can turn into rheumatic fever and then to heart disease. Yet treatment with penicillin protects against all 3 conditions. About 300,000 new rheumatic heart disease cases arise each year. Yearly deaths from rheumatic heart disease equals about 60,000. Poverty is also responsible for Chagas' disease of which about 17 million suffer in Latin America. In developing countries, the middle class is at highest risk of hypertension. Health promotion activities have resulted in a decline in cardiovascular diseases in developed countries in Western Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. These activities include health education, diet changes, exercise, and no tobacco use. These activities also reduce the prevalence of other diseases thus keeping populations healthier longer. It is important that the healthy life styles begin when children are young. WHO dedicated World Health Day 1992 to heart health to promote heart healthy activities which can save 6 million lives yearly.
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  8. 8

    Diabetes in the Third World.

    Johnson TO

    WORLD HEALTH. 1991 May-Jun; 8-10.

    Developing countries now feel the effects of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Its incidence is growing in these countries. Today >50 million people suffer from diabetes, almost 50% of whom live in developing countries. Public health specialists believe that for every person known to have diabetes in a developing country there is probably at least 1 other person with it that has not been counted. For every known diabetic, health workers have not yet diagnosed it in perhaps 4 other people. The proportion of diabetics in developing countries is increasing due to higher life expectancy, rural-urban migration, shifts from traditional to modern life styles, changes in diet and physical inactivity, and obesity. Every other Micronesian living on Nauru has diabetes--the highest recorded rates for diabetes. The severest form of diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes) seems to be somewhat rare in most developing countries, but it may be that many children with this form of diabetes die without ever being diagnosed. The noninsulin dependent diabetes predominates and its effects contribute greatly to premature deaths. In some developing countries, a rare form of diabetes has emerged called malnutrition related diabetes. Low literacy levels hinder diabetes education efforts. In developing countries, diabetics face discrimination. Competition with other health conditions often results in diabetic care and management being considered a low priority. The leading cause of death from diabetes is nonavailability of insulin. Developing countries should adopt a primary health care approach to prevention and management of diabetes similar to what they do for acute diseases. Health education for the individual, family, community, and policymakers; intersectoral cooperation; and nongovernmental organization participation are needed to affect change in diabetes prevention and control.
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