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Perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies complicated by maternal morbidity: evidence from the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2018 Nov 20; 18(1):449.BACKGROUND: Twin pregnancy was associated with significantly higher rates of adverse neonatal and perinatal outcomes, especially for the second twin. In addition, the maternal complications (potentially life-threatening conditions-PLTC, maternal near miss-MNM, and maternal mortality-MM) are directly related to twin pregnancy and independently associated with adverse perinatal outcome. The objective of the preset study is to evaluate perinatal outcomes associated with twin pregnancies, stratified by severe maternal morbidity and order of birth. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS), a cross-sectional study implemented in 29 countries. Data from 8568 twin deliveries were compared with 308,127 singleton deliveries. The occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes and maternal complications were assessed. Factors independently associated with adverse perinatal outcomes were reported with adjusted PR (Prevalence Ratio) and 95%CI. RESULTS: The occurrence of severe maternal morbidity and maternal death was significantly higher among twin compared to singleton pregnancies in all regions. Twin deliveries were associated with higher rates of preterm delivery (37.1%), Apgar scores less than 7 at 5th minute (7.8 and 10.1% respectively for first and second twins), low birth weight (53.2% for the first and 61.1% for the second twin), stillbirth (3.6% for the first and 5.7% for the second twin), early neonatal death (3.5% for the first and 5.2% for the second twin), admission to NICU (23.6% for the first and 29.3% for the second twin) and any adverse perinatal outcomes (67% for the first twin and 72.3% for the second). Outcomes were consistently worse for the second twin across all outcomes. Poisson multiple regression analysis identified several factors independently associated with an adverse perinatal outcome, including both maternal complications and twin pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Twin pregnancy is significantly associated with severe maternal morbidity and with worse perinatal outcomes, especially for the second twin.
WHO recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes. Highlights and key messages from the World Health Organization's 2015 Global Recommendations.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2015 Aug.  p. (WHO/RHR/15.16; WHO/MCA/15.02; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00028)This evidence brief provides highlights and key messages from World Health Organization’s 2015 recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes. The brief summarizes the recommended practices to improve the quality of care related to preterm birth and the outcomes for preterm infants. Additionally, justifications and policy implications associated with the recommendations are outlined. This brief is intended for policy-makers, programme managers, educators and health care providers.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p. (WHO/RHR/15.17)This document presents the evidence base supporting the WHO recommendations on interventions to improve preterm birth outcomes in tabular form with over 50 tables presenting data on the interventions and their variations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p.The present guideline is focused on interventions that could be provided during pregnancy, labour and during the newborn period with the aim of improving outcomes for preterm infants. Recommendations on interventions to prevent and reduce the risk of preterm birth or modify risk in at-risk pregnant women are outside the scope of this guideline.The primary audience for this guideline includes health-care professionals who are responsible for developing national and local health-care protocols and policies, as well as managers of maternal and child health programmes and policy-makers in all settings. The guideline will also be useful to those directly providing care to pregnant women and preterm infants, such as obstetricians, paediatricians, midwives, nurses and general practitioners. The information in this guideline will be useful for developing job aids and tools for pre- and in-service training of health workers to enhance their delivery of maternal and neonatal care relating to preterm birth. (Excerpts)