Your search found 31 Results

  1. 1
    335713

    Adolescent fertility since the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2013. [65] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/337)

    This report presents new estimates of the levels and trends in adolescent fertility worldwide from 1990-1995 to 2005-2010. It highlights key social and demographic factors underlying adolescent fertility, including early marriage, first sex, contraceptive use and education. This period coincides with assessments of progress in implementing the Programme of Action of the ICPD and the Millennium Development Goals, which include a focus on reducing early childbearing, expanding access to reproductive health and investing in the human capital of youth, especially girls.
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  2. 2
    191694

    On being an adolescent in the 21st century.

    Van Look PF

    In: Towards adulthood: exploring the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in South Asia, edited by Sarah Bott, Shireen Jejeebhoy, Iqbal Shah, Chander Puri. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2003. 31-42.

    The World Health Organization defines “adolescence” as 10–19 years old, “youth” as 15– 24 years old, and “young people” as 10–24 years old. Nevertheless, adolescence should be considered a phase rather than a fixed age group, with physical, psychological, social and cultural dimensions, perceived differently by different cultures. As a group, adolescents include nearly 1.2 billion people, about 85% of whom live in developing countries. Behaviours formed in adolescence have lasting implications for individual and public health and, in many ways, a nation’s fate lies in the strength and aspirations of its youth—important reasons to invest in adolescent health and development. This presentation describes the general situation of adolescent health (exploring adolescent sexual and reproductive health in particular) and highlights some key elements of successful programmes. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    191646

    Broadening the horizon: balancing protection and risk for adolescents.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2002. [8] p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/01.20)

    Adolescence is a period of rapid development when young people acquire new capacities and are faced with new challenges. It is a time of opportunity but also of vulnerability to risk behaviours which can have lifelong consequences, especially for health. Health risk behaviours may undermine adolescent health and development. For example, unprotected sexual relations may lead to unplanned pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection, including HIV. So far, programming for adolescent health and development has focused mainly on providing information and services to reduce risk behaviours and mitigate their consequences. But this is not enough. The evidence now shows that enhancing protective factors, in addition to reducing risk, is equally important. Programming strategies need to strike a balance, addressing both risk and protective factors. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    182582

    Nepal's nightmare: saving its young from AIDS.

    Poudel K

    London, England, OneWorld International Foundation, 2003 Aug 4. 3 p.

    In a recent report on the State of Children's Rights, 2003, by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Child Workers in Nepal (CWIN), 9.9 percent of the HIV infected population consists of children below 19. "HIV has already infected 41 children below 13 years of age," says CWIN president Gauri Pradhan. Although HIV cases are rising, the government is yet to provide sufficient funds to combat the syndrome. It sanctioned US $5 million for an AIDS prevention and control program in 2002. Donors contributed more than that. Another major hitch is a shortage of test centers. There are only a dozen HIV test facilities in Nepal's major hospitals. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    093246

    Feasibility of operating adolescent clinics.

    Dominica. Ministry of Health; Tulane University

    In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar. [2] p. (DMA-02)

    Teenage pregnancies have been a major health concern in Dominica. Although fertility rates were declining overall, 26% of all live births in 1984 were to teenagers 19 years old and under, the majority of whom were unmarried. Family planning (FP) services were available on request to teens at most clinics but the Ministry of Health (MOH) initiated plans to make contraception more accessible to this age group by establishing youth clinics in collaboration with the UNFPA and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Tulane University was asked to design and implement an operations research study to test the feasibility of operating these clinics with the objective of reducing teenage pregnancy by providing sex education and making contraceptives readily available. The project was designed at a cost of US $17,326 to test 2 alternative strategies in 6 communities. One rural and one urban community were assigned to each of 2 treatment groups, and another urban community and rural community formed the control group. Treatment group 1 had a separate youth clinic facility established, open 2 days a week to teen clients. Services provided included family life education, FP counseling, distribution of contraceptive methods, and general health care. Group 2 had youth clinics which operated from the existing health centers, with different hours for the teen clients. In the control group, there were no special services provided for the younger age group, although FP services were provided at the local health center or clinic. Although the 4 clinics were established, there was official reluctance to publicize the fact that contraceptives were among the services available. As a result, the project was terminated early. Using a quasi-experimental design, the study was to be based on pre/post-intervention surveys and the collection of service statistics. The baseline survey indicated that knowledge about the reproductive process was higher among older teens, but 90% of all respondents did not know the most fertile time for a woman. Knowledge of FP methods increased with age among both males and females. Over 90% of all teens knew at least one contraceptive method. 78% of males claimed to have had sex as did 46% of females. The reported use of contraceptives during first sexual encounter was significantly higher for females than males. Over 50% of the males who claimed to have had sex said they disapproved of premarital sex, as did nearly 66% of the females. More than 75% of respondents wanted more information on sexually transmitted diseases and contraceptive methods and thought sex education should be taught in schools.
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  6. 6
    034623

    Adolescents: planning contraceptive and counselling services.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Central Council

    [Unpublished] 1985. 114 p.

    This document is a practical guide to help those Planned Parenthood Associations which want to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. In the section devoted to adolescent sexuality and contraception, contributors cover culture and subculture, health and sexuality, sexual behavior and contraceptive services, the adolescent experience, the question of opposition to services for adolescents, and statistical indices. 1 section is devoted to examples of contraceptive counseling services for adolescents in Sweden, Italy, France, the UK, and Poland. Another section summarizes service provision examples. The 5th section presents methodology for the establishment of adolescents services and the final section discusses methodology testing of new projects. This report contends that the case for the rapid development of contraceptive/counseling services, tailored to the needs and desires of young people, is justified on moral as well as on sociological, psychological, and health grounds. It rejects totally the argument that any measure which could facilitate the sexual debut of the unmarried or legally dependent adolescent should be resisted. It does recognize public concern about family breakdown and the potential health risks of sexual activity but considers the examples given as measures designed to combat rather than ignore these. Taking into account sociological, psychological, and medical evidence, the contributors to this report challenge the following presumptions: sexual activity among the young is always and necessarily morally unacceptable and socially destructive; adolescents will resort to promiscuous sexual activity in the absence of legal deterrents such as refusal of access to contraceptive/counseling services; the potential health risks of sexual activity and use of contraceptives during adolescence provide sufficient justification for deterrent measures, including refusal of contraceptive/counseling services; and the scale of sexual ignorance and prevalence of unplanned pregnancy among adolescents can only be reduced by disincentives and deterrents to sexual activity itself. The case for the provision of contraceptive/counseling services rests on their potential to help adolescents to recognize and resist repressive forms of sexual activity, which are destructive of humanmanships. Evidence suggests that it is not difficult to attract a large cross-section of an adolescent public to use contraceptive/counseling services, where established.
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  7. 7
    138148

    World AIDS Day -- December 1, 1998.

    MMWR. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT. 1998 Nov 20; 47(45):973.

    Talking with young people about AIDS is the theme designated by the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS for World AIDS Day, December 1, 1998. Approximately 30 million people were living with HIV/AIDS by the beginning of 1998, many of whom were infected as adolescents or young adults. In the US, in areas reporting both AIDS cases and HIV infection, 3% of people with AIDS and 14% of those with HIV infection reported during January 1994 to June 1997 were aged 13-24 years. Reducing rates of high-risk sexual and drug-using behaviors among teenagers and young adults should therefore continue to be an important primary HIV prevention priority. Data from 12 local and state health departments participating in the Supplement to HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project indicate that many HIV-infected adolescents and young adults continue having sexual intercourse without condoms and with multiple sex partners, although some adopt sexual risk reduction behavior after learning that they are infected. Additional information on World AIDS Day and AIDS and HIV infection in teenagers and young adults may be obtained from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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  8. 8
    138710

    Impact of HIV and sexual health education on the sexual behaviour of young people: a review update.

    Grunseit A; Kippax S

    [Geneva, Switzerland], Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 1997. 63 p. (UNAIDS/97.4)

    This report provides a review of the empirical literature on the effects of HIV/AIDS and sexual and health education on adolescent sex behavior. The review was commissioned by the UNAIDS Policy, Strategy, and Research Department and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS. This review includes 53 studies that evaluated specific interventions: controlled and other intervention studies, cross sectional surveys, and international or national comparison studies. Four specific issues were discussed: methodological limitations, education issues, features of successful programs, and the gender social context. Seven basic points were raised by the studies: 1) Education on sexual health and/or HIV/AIDS does not encourage sex activity; 2) good quality programs help delay first intercourse and provide the means to protect adolescents from HIV, sexually transmitted diseases, and from unwanted pregnancy; 3) adolescents can learn responsible, safe sex behavior; 4) sexual health education should begin before the onset of sexual activity; 5) education should be gender-sensitive for both genders; 6) adolescents learn about sexual health issues from multiple sources; and 7) adolescents are a heterogeneous group and should be reached with multiple strategies. Effective education programs were found to be grounded in Social Learning Theory and to have a focused curriculum, attention to social influences, practice in communication and negotiation skills, and openness in communicating about sex. Effective programs help adolescents with skills in decoding mass media messages. Program evaluation should have a solid study design and valid, appropriate statistical techniques.
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  9. 9
    138004

    Country watch: Cambodia.

    Mielke J

    SEXUAL HEALTH EXCHANGE. 1998; (2):10-2.

    In 1996-97, UNICEF commissioned the Save the Children Fund UK to explore sexuality among youth in Cambodia in an effort to learn about the psychosocial factors which influence sexual risk-taking behavior in that population. Based upon the results of that study and ongoing participatory research, UNICEF is developing a series of interactive teaching video packages which model real-life situations. Most communities throughout the country have private video parlors accessible to community educators. The minidramas presented in the videos can be used to facilitate group discussions on issues such as problem identification, problem solving, assessing personal risk for HIV infection, and how to reduce HIV infection risks in a range of situations. Use of the videos stimulates two-way communication for participatory problem solving. Each video package comes with a facilitator guide including discussion questions, while flip-chart versions may be used in areas without access to video. These latter versions depict the story of each problem situation and model behavior options using a series of pictures.
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  10. 10
    136174

    Sexual health education does lead to safer sexual behaviour. UNAIDS review. Press release.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Oct 22. 3 p. (UNAIDS Presse Release)

    A review commissioned by the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) found that sexual health education for children and youth promotes safer sexual behavior and does not increase their sexual activity. Examined were 68 reports on sexual health and HIV/AIDS prevention education from France, Mexico, Switzerland, several Nordic countries, the UK, and the US. In most cases, studies compared indicators such as adolescent pregnancy rates, sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection rates, and self-reported sexual activity in youth who were exposed to educational interventions and those who were not. Only three studies (all of which had serious methodological problems) found an association between sexual health education and increased sexual interaction. 22 studies reported that HIV and/or sexual health education either delayed the age at onset of sexual activity, reduced the number of sexual partners, or reduced unplanned pregnancy and STD rates. Characteristics of programs that succeeded in not only increasing knowledge but also producing behavioral change included the following: a focused curriculum with clear statements about behavioral aims, clear delineation of the risks of unprotected sex and methods to avoid them, attention to social and media influences on sexual behavior, practice in sexual communication and negotiation skills, encouragement of openness about sex, and a grounding in theories emphasizing the social nature of learning.
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  11. 11
    133153
    Peer Reviewed

    Sexuality education and young people's sexual behavior: a review of studies.

    Grunseit A; Kippax S; Aggleton P; Baldo M; Slutkin G

    JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT RESEARCH. 1997 Oct; 12(4):421-53.

    Sexuality education for children and young adults is one of the most heavily debated issues facing policy-makers, national AIDS program planners, and educators, provoking arguments over how explicit education materials should be, how much of it there should be, how often it should be given, and at what age instruction should commence. In this context, the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS' Office of Intervention Development and Support commissioned a comprehensive literature review to assess the effects of HIV/AIDS and sexuality education upon young people's sexual behavior. 52 reports culled from a search of 12 literature databases were reviewed. The main purpose of the review is to inform policy-makers, program planners, and educators about the impact of HIV and/or sexuality education upon the sexual behavior of youth as described in the published literature. Of 47 studies which evaluated interventions, 25 reported that HIV/AIDS and sexuality education neither increased nor decreased sexual activity and attendant rates of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 17 reported that HIV and/or sexuality education delayed the onset of sexual activity, reduced the number of sex partners, or reduced unplanned pregnancy and STD rates Only 3 studies found increases in sexual behavior associated with sexuality education. Inadequacies in study design, analytic techniques, outcome indicators, and the reporting of statistics are discussed.
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  12. 12
    128590

    Sexual behaviour of young people.

    PROGRESS IN HUMAN REPRODUCTION RESEARCH. 1997; (41):1.

    20% of the world's population is aged 10-19 years. Annually, almost 15 million young women under age 20 become mothers. However, surveys in developing countries show that 20-60% of the pregnancies and births to women under age 20 are mistimed or unwanted. While later marriage age in many places has provoked a decline in birth rates among young women, levels of sexual relations before marriage are increasing. Such sexual behavior opens sexually active young women to the risks of unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Millions of young people become infected with STDs annually. Among all age groups in the US, young women aged 15-19 have the highest incidence of gonorrhea among females and young men aged 15-19 have the second highest incidence among males. At least half of all people infected with HIV are under age 25. The UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP) completed 9 studies in 1996 on adolescent reproductive health. 14 studies were completed before 1996, and 18 are still underway.
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  13. 13
    118401

    IPPF enshrines rights of young people in charter. Secretary general outlines challenges for IPPF in adolescent reproductive health.

    Brueggemann I

    JOICFP NEWS. 1996 Dec; (270):1-2.

    The secretary general of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was the guest speaker at the Reproductive Health symposium, held in Tokyo on October 28. The event was held to mark the opening of the new Reproductive Health Center which houses the IPPF-affiliated Family Planning Federation of Japan as well as the Japan Family Planning Association and JOICFP. The symposium's theme was the reproductive health of adolescents. Excerpts from the secretary general's keynote address are presented. She explains how 4 years ago the IPPF created its Vision 2000 strategic plan. A central area of focus and concern in the plan was the need to better understand and provide for young people's sexual and reproductive health concerns and needs. Although many adults attempt to deny it, young people do have sexual relationships, even when cultural rules do not permit it. The human and sexual rights of young people are included in the recently issued IPPF Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights.
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  14. 14
    119231

    On the pill: a social history of oral contraceptives in America, 1950-1970.

    Watkins ER

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, UMI Dissertation Services, 1996. [3], viii, 336 p. (UMI No. 9631613)

    This dissertation presents a social history of oral contraceptives (OCs) in the US during the period 1950-70. Chapter 1 examines the factors which combined to give birth to the OC. These include the state of scientific knowledge, sexual mores, women's role and status, interest in population control, and the influence of Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick, the role of the pharmaceutical industry, clinical trials, and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Chapter 2 covers the introduction of the OC and its reception by physicians, Planned Parenthood, patients, and the media (by examining coverage on health effects, moral effects, the Roman Catholic debate, and population control). The third chapter relates ways the popular press cloaked the OC in social and moral terms during the mid-1960s by reviewing sociological research on premarital sex, demographic research on contraceptive unsafe, the role of the media, and the effect of the OC on population control efforts. Chapter 4 discusses medical controversy and public concern surrounding side effects and complications associated with OC use. Specific topics include early reports on blood clotting and on cancer, reports of the World Health Organization, FDA, and American Medical Association, and responses of physicians and patients to these reports. The final chapter follows the OC into the political arena by reporting on hearings held on "competitive problems in the drug industry" and on the OC. The response of the media, Planned Parenthood, patients, physicians, and feminists is presented, and debates over informed consent and the package insert are noted. The dissertation concludes that the unresolved medical controversies did not compel women to abandon the OC but caused women to worry about their health while taking it. Thus, informed consent procedures were given serious consideration, and the percentage of married women taking the OC dropped from 36 in 1973 to 20 in 1982. The OC's legacy to women is the belief in their right to simple, safe, and reliable contraception.
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  15. 15
    104856

    WHO's narrative research method. The study of young people's behaviour by young people themselves.

    Friedman H

    PLANNED PARENTHOOD CHALLENGES. 1995; (1):46-8.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Adolescent Health Program has developed the Narrative Research Method, a way to identify the most common contemporary patterns of sexual relationships among young people as seen by themselves. Using the method, a study begins with a workshop in which about 20 knowledgeable people of both sexes aged 18-25, usually youth leaders, create a story through role play which they believe to be representative of the sexual lives of young people in their communities. The story is then converted into a questionnaire and taken into the field by the participants for verification among representative samples of other young people in their communities. Following this data collection, the original workshop participants attend a second workshop to analyze the data. The most typical aggregated story is identified, followed by any differences between the way sampled individuals may have responded on the basis of sex, age, or urban/rural residence, with findings subsequently disseminated following in-depth statistical analysis as the basis for relevant action. The method was first used among more than 12,000 people in English- and French-speaking Africa aged 10-24 years. Preliminary findings from the aggregate African data indicate that adolescent sexual behavior is not promiscuous. Instead, relationships begin slowly and progress over time with boys gently pressuring girls into having sexual intercourse. After a period of courting, couples eventually have sex. Contraception is not used, the girl becomes pregnant, and parents eventually become involved with unwelcome fallout and consequences for both partners. Help from adults throughout the process is rarely sought. A lack of knowledge, information, trust, and communication lay at the heart of this process. A more open approach is needed to adolescent sexuality, with adolescents provided the knowledge, skills, and material means to prevent unprotected sexual intercourse and the attendant potential consequences.
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  16. 16
    103892
    Peer Reviewed

    Implementing the Cairo agenda.

    Johnson BR

    Lancet. 1995 Apr 8; 345(8954):875-6.

    If the current rate of contraceptive prevalence holds constant, the global population will double in 43 years, with almost all of the anticipated growth in developing countries. Over the past two decades, understanding has increased of the relationships among population, the environment, and sustainable economic development. This better understanding has led to a focus of attention upon human development and reproductive health, especially women's health and status. By improving people's lives through better education, health, economic opportunities, and the protection of their reproductive rights, it is assumed that people will want and have fewer children. These concepts were widely debated during the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo and were eventually embraced by most of the participating delegations. Women's health advocates, physicians, social scientists, family planning managers, and health policymakers have worked hard since the ICPD to bring an high level of global attention and acceptance to the ideals articulated in the final ICPD document. Acceptance represents progress and a certain degree of global consensus on population and development issues, but difficult and costly efforts to realize the goals of the ICPD remain to be implemented. Countries should focus upon the achievable. Salient issues in developing countries will likely be the cost and sustainability of new human development/reproductive health programs, program effectiveness in reducing continued high levels of fertility, and the social and cultural appropriateness of new programs. With regard to this latter concern, most ideals of women's health, adolescent sexuality, empowerment, and rights are decidedly Western. Developing countries, however, are already dealing with a wide range of Western-oriented social, political, and economic reforms. They must now face the concept of empowering women and re-examining their approach to adolescent sexuality. Care must therefore be taken to avoid a backlash against the people and institutions which are the focus of human development and reproductive health programs.
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  17. 17
    099473

    Sexual behaviour research and HIV / AIDS.

    Aggleton P

    GLOBAL AIDSNEWS. 1994; (3):7-8.

    Starting in the late 1980s, The World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) coordinated and supported a number of large-scale, random-sample surveys aimed mostly at determining the patterns of sexual behavior in the general population. This was in addition to examining behavior between sex workers and their clients, and among gay and bisexual men. The general population surveys found wide variations in the extent of premarital sex. For instance, while less than 10% of never-married men aged 15-19 in Burundi reported intercourse in the past year, the figure in Guinea Bissau was more than 50%. For young women, the proportions were 3% and 30% respectively. In Singapore, 3% of never-married men aged 15-19 reported sex in the past year, compared with 29% in Thailand. The proportion of men aged 15-49 reporting sex outside regular partnerships in the past year also varied widely (Burundi 8%, Central African Republic 14%, Cote d'Ivoire 50%, Lesotho 42%, Philippines [Manila] 15%, Sri Lanka 3%, and Thailand 30%). Divergent levels of condom use during commercial sex reflected differences in availability and cultural norms. Early in 1991, GPA's Steering Committee on Social and Behavioral Research identified research on the social and contextual factors affecting risk-related sexual activity as a high priority. A prototype research protocol was developed and used to brief selected potential principal investigators from countries in Africa, Central and Southern America, and South and South-East Asia, who were interested in preparing proposals for studies funded by GPA. As a large proportion of infections occur among young people, GPA's research support will focus primarily on the contextual factors affecting risk-related sexual activity among teenagers and young adults. It will examine how young people learn about sexual issues and sexual meanings, the contexts in which sexual activity takes place, and how sex is explained and understood.
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  18. 18
    090857

    Tracking teen troubles.

    DISPATCHES. 1993 Oct; (3):1.

    A narrative research approach was developed by the World Health Organization, the World Assembly of Youth, the World Organization of the Scout Movement, and the UNFPA in which researchers study the sexual behavior or young people by simply listening to the accounts of individual youths. The method specifically examines how adolescents describe their first sexual experience and its aftermath. Respondents explain their behavior without moralistic critique from interviewers. Beginning in 1988, teens in 11 sub-Saharan African countries talked about their sexual encounters. Youth leaders from each country drew upon these experiences to create a typical story about the adolescent sexual experience. Stories were then converted into questionnaires for teens to fill out. The method has subsequently been tested by 13,000 teens. Its developers are working on action programs in a number of countries. Data thus far suggest that sexual relations develop between 2 people over time, with the boy generally showing more interest than the girl. Contraception is not used and no reference is made to the possibility of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Families are informed about neither the relationship nor the resulting pregnancy, at least at first. Boys try to evade responsibility for pregnancies when they are suspected and abortion is considered a major option. Families take over when they find out about the pregnancy, but the girl's fate also depends on the attitude of the boy's family. 25% of girls report being chased from home and turning to commercial sex work to earn a living, 33% report a pregnancy problem, and 20% report contracting a STD.
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  19. 19
    082284

    Sexual relations in the rural area of Mlomp (Casamance, Senegal).

    Enel C; Pison G

    In: Sexual behaviour and networking: anthropological and socio-cultural studies on the transmission of HIV, edited by Tim Dyson. Liege, Belgium, Editions Derouaux-Ordina, [1992]. 249-67.

    Using a modified form of the WHO partner relations survey questionnaire on a sample of 222 adults, the authors explore seasonal out-migration from the rural area of Mlomp, Senegal, as it relates to coital frequency. Generally low levels of coital frequency were revealed. Unmarried individuals had sex less often than those married. Among married couples, 19% had last intercourse 1-6 days previously and 20% had last intercourse more than 1 year previously. Eliminating those never having experienced sexual intercourse and those having last sex at least 1 year previously, mean duration in the group since last intercourse was about 2 months. A taboo against postpartum sex and the absence of married men during the dry season of palm wine harvesting partially account for these long periods of relative abstinence. Coital frequency is also probably influenced by the overlap of menstrual cycles, seasonal out-migration cycles, and pregnancy and lactation. The authors note that while men are away from their homes during seasonal harvests, however, they definitely partake of extramarital sex. Accordingly, efforts must be made to educate these men about condoms and the risks of unprotected sexual intercourse.
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  20. 20
    081433

    Adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Report of the workshop, CIE, Paris, 8-11 July 1991.

    Brandrup-Lukanow A; Mansour S; Hawkins K

    Paris, France, Centre International de l'Enfance, 1992. 96 p.

    The risk-taking and sexual experimentation norms of adolescence place adolescents at risk of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases of increasing prevalence. Young people experience high rates of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, and others prostitute themselves and/or are sexually abused by adults and/or peers. While it is imperative that the reproductive and sexual health needs of youths be addressed and met, most societies around the world fail to meet service demand. Moreover, adults typically fail to convey clear and unbiased messages to adolescents about sexuality. Adolescents need to be empowered to make their own decisions about their individual sexuality. Messages and care about sexuality should realistically endorse sex as a natural and enjoyable part of life. A 4-day workshop on youth and sexuality was jointly organized by the French Foundation International Children Center (CIE), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ). It was held as a forum in which experiences from projects involving or addressing youths in various countries with different economic, cultural, and religious environments and in various settings could be shared and analyzed. It is hoped that workshops proceedings will ultimately help in the development of strategies to expand and improve services for youths worldwide. This publication of workshop proceedings includes abridged versions of the 14 papers presented, main issues addressed in the plenary and working group discussions, participant recommendations, and open questions which will require further research in the future. Youth, culture, and sexuality, baseline research, service delivery, sexuality education, evaluation, and policy issues of program development are considered, followed by a description of the organizations and a participant list. Authors may be contacted directly for additional information should the reader be so inclined. Furthermore, CIE, IPPF, and GTZ invite reader feedback on the publication.
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  21. 21
    050861

    An overview of teenage pregnancy in the Caribbean.

    Jagdeo TP

    In: I International Meeting on Sexual and Reproductive Health in Teenagers and Young Adults. Proceedings. Mexico City, Mexico, Academia Mexicana de Investigacion en Demografia Medica, 1986. 38-45.

    The International Planned Parenthood federation (IPPF) and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) Ltd. have made concerted efforts to help young people in the Caribbean where women traditionally gave birth at an early age. As a result, data on age-specific fertility rates for teenagers for 1950, 1970, and 1980 showed that for each Caribbean country, adolescent fertility rates were higher 30 years ago than they are today. Since the 1950s adolescent fertility rates declined steadily in most countries except for Dominica, Jamaica, Montserrat, and St. Lucia where the rates increased somewhat in the 1960s before dipping below the levels observed in 1950. However, adolescent fertility rates still exceed 100/1000. Adolescent fertility rates in 1980 were as high as 120 in Guyana, 125 in Grenada, 133 in Jamaica, 143 in St. Kitts- Nevis, 157 in St. Lucia, and 164 in St. Vincent. Teenagers account for almost 60% of all first births, and half of these are to women 17 or younger. Adolescents are more prone to have prolonged labor, cervical laceration, Cesarean section, and toxemia. Their babies are more likely to be underweight, small-for-date, and premature. Pregnancy is the major reason for dropping out of school. Social and cultural institutions did not support teenage pregnancy; the church preached against it; parents discouraged and published it; and schools expelled pregnant girls. Yet, it occurred because a Caribbean community pattern of conforming to peers was replicated. This is especially true among lower income families where visiting unions and common-law liaisons predominate early and premarital pregnancies are the norm. Studies showed that the children of lower income families are raised within fragile primary social support systems. Misconceptions also proliferate including the idea that an adolescent can be too young to get pregnant, that pregnancy is the result of frequent and regular intercourse and that withdrawal and rhythm are reliable methods of contraception. Fewer than 3 out 10 sexually active adolescents were using a contraceptive in all countries except Trinidad and Tobago and Montserrat. This means that 7 out of every 10 sexually active teenagers are running the risk of having a child too early in their lives.
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  22. 22
    073922
    Peer Reviewed

    Changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior: consequences for health and development.

    Friedman HL

    JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH. 1992 Jul; 13(5):345-50.

    The changing patterns of adolescent sexual behavior and changing conditions are described for the developing world, as well as reproductive health methodologies of the WHO in dealing with these changes. The lessons learned and future directions are also presented. Adolescence is viewed as a dynamic transition period. There are nonuniform changes in biological, physical, and social development. Sexuality is a fundamental quality of human life, which is important for health, happiness, individual development, and preservation of the human race. Health in a WHO definition is not just the absence of disease or infirmity. It is physical, mental, and social well being. The changes which have impact on sexuality are 1) the predominance (>50%) of the world's population <25 years and predominance living in developing countries (33% or 1.5 billion are between 10-24 years and 80% are living in developing countries), 2) the plethora of youth living in unstructured and impoverished living conditions, 3) the communication explosion across cultural boundaries, and 4) the increase in travel, tourism, and migration. There are models, pressures, and opportunities for sexual contact. Nuclear families, single-parent families, and no families are replacing the extended multigenerational families of traditional societies. Puberty is coming earlier. The traditional patterns of marriage are described and contrasted with western youth with unparalleled freedom to make decisions. The pressures of early premarital intercourse are reflected in unwanted pregnancies, induced abortions, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS or HIV infection. Unsafe abortion has the increasing risk of septic abortions, illness, future infertility, and death. General trends in marriage in developed and developing countries are provided. The WHO use multiple approaches: the Narrative Research Approach, which involves adolescent workshops and role plays that are turned into questionnaires; the Grid Approach, which explores interdisciplinary stages of adolescent health; the Counseling Skills Training workshop which strengthens interpersonal communication skills; the Gatekeeper Design, which directs systematic questions to key policy makers who turn the questions to managers and administrators who do the same for service providers in order to make appropriate and effective policy changes the User/System Interaction model, which uses youth and service provider input to determine the suitability of services; and Drama, which is used to measure audience reaction. The involvement of youth in the process is an important lesson learned, and all who have contact with youth need the same set of information. Dialogue dispels the greatest enemy, fear.
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  23. 23
    065305

    Youth services in Ethiopia.

    Meredith P

    PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE. 1990 Dec; 19(3):13-4.

    Departing from the usual family planning education format in teenage counseling, the IPPF is funding youth centers providing contraception as well as education in Ethiopia, Kenya, Togo, Tunisia, and Turkey. The development concern is for a cost efficient and effective center with minimal criticism. 2 experimental Mexican models were used in the Ethiopian youth centers. Both models utilize young adult coordinators who supervise young promoters, however each operates differently. Mexican staff trained their African counterparts and a detailed project manual will be available soon. The Ethiopian youth centers utilizing NGO's and the private sector have been permitted freedom from central control. Alarming statistics include: 20.8% of pregnancies are teenaged; 20.8% of hospital reported abortions are teenaged; the contraceptive prevalence rate is 2%; population increased by 3% per year with the average children per woman of 7.5. Addis Ababa's youth project provides services to mostly zone 5 school aged adolescents who are informed and eager to purchase condoms, although they are not able to purchase them commercially. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association (REYA) with its 200,000 membership, is increasing its contribution to expanding the network of promoters. Promoters are used to register those receiving free condoms, but the recommendation to cease this practice of registration is in, and replace it with the sale of 50 US cents per condom.
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  24. 24
    201809

    Adolescents: planning contraceptive and counselling services.

    Meredith P

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1986. [ix], 130 p.

    This publication is a practical guide to help those family planning, or planned parenthood, associations (FPAs) who wish to establish contraception and counseling services for young people. It draws its examples from the considerable experience of selected European countries in what can be controversial and difficult areas. Published as part of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) Youth Year 1985, it is hoped this information will be relevant to FPAs and other organizations in both developed and developing countries. The introduction describes IPPF Europe's Regional Adolescent Services Project (RASP) (1982-1985) that attempted to provide family planning services closely tailored to the needs and expectations of adolescents. Section 2 looks at adolescent sexuality and contraception . Section 3 examines several actual contraceptive and counseling programs for adolescents. Section 4 summarizes service provision. Section 5 tells how to set up a contraceptive/counseling service for adolescents. Section 6 describes new projects. Section 7 discusses opposition. The appendices contain the project questionnaire, the IPPF policy on youth, and a statement on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
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  25. 25
    043359

    AIDS: an African viewpoint.

    Kibedi W

    DEVELOPMENT FORUM. 1987 Mar; 15(2):1, 6.

    The author presents arguments to refute what he considers alarmist, unsupported generalizations about the origin and soread of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) in Africa. The first myth is that AIDS originated in Africa, after a green monkey bit a man. There is no concrete evidence to support this theory. Moreover, if it were true, AIDS would have been known for years; there would be effective herbal remedies and folk traditions about the danger of green monkey bites. The syndrome is so distinctive, for example the oral candidiasis and striking wasting disease, called "slim" disease, that it would have been recognized long ago. Finally, numbers of cases have peaked in America first, a few years ago, and are now beginning to surge in some areas of Africa. A second myth is that countries are not reporting cases out of embarrassment. The author claims that reports to the WHO show far more cases of AIDS in the U.S. and Europe, and even if the 1000 cases in Africa as of 1986 were 1000-fold underestimated, they would be nowhere near the 5 or 10 million often printed. The third myth, that AIDS is out of control in Africa, is unsupported when the efforts of countries like Uganda are considered. Uganda has an extensive media campaign, significant funds relegated to fighting AIDS, foreign experts called in, blood testing equipment on order and in use in 2 hospitals. AIDS is only a problem in a few urban areas.
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