Your search found 32 Results

  1. 1
    375897

    Just the numbers: The impact of U.S. international family planning assistance, 2018.

    Guttmacher Institute

    [New York, New York], Guttmacher Institute, 2018 Apr. 2 p.

    The United States -- through its Agency for International Development (USAID) -- has long been a global leader in enabling women’s access to contraceptive services in the world’s poorest countries. Empowering women with control over their own fertility yields benefits for them, their children and their families. It means fewer unintended -- and often high-risk -- pregnancies and fewer abortions, which in poor countries are often performed under unsafe conditions. Better birth spacing also makes for healthier mothers, babies and families, and pays far-reaching dividends at the family, society and country levels.
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  2. 2
    374404

    Policy brief on the case for investing in research to increase access to and use of contraception among adolescents.

    Helzner JF; Sussman L

    Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2015 Mar. 4 p.

    This document outlines why governments and donors should invest now in research to help determine and implement the most effective and efficient ways to enable adolescents to access and use contraception. It summarizes the findings of a longer technical report.
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  3. 3
    375215

    Union of the Comoros. Adolescent contraceptive use. Data from l'Enquete Demographique et de Sante et a Indicateurs Multiples aux Comores (EDSC-MICS), 2012.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Human Reproduction Programme [HRP]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Nov. 4 p. (WHO/RHR/16.20)

    These facts sheets present information from 58 countries on adolescents’ (ages 15-19) contraceptive use by marital status. In addition, key information, such as reasons for non-use of contraception, as well as where adolescents obtain their contraceptive method, is included. The Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) program www.dhsprogrogram.com conducts nationally representative surveys in low- and middle-income countries. We use the most recently collected data from any country where 1) a survey has been conducted in the past 10 years (2006-2016) and 2) the data are publically available. Analyses of DHS in the fact sheets are weighted according to DHS guidance to be nationally representative. The data provided is aimed to help policymakers and programme planners reduce inequities in service provision and access by understanding adolescents’ current sources of contraception, utilised methods, and reasons why they are not using contraception.
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  4. 4
    375214

    Republic of Chad. Adolescent contraceptive use. Data from l'Enquete Demographique et de Sante et a Indicateurs Multiples au Tchad (EDST-MICS), 2014-15.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Human Reproduction Programme [HRP]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Nov. 4 p. (WHO/RHR/16.19)

    These facts sheets present information from 58 countries on adolescents’ (ages 15-19) contraceptive use by marital status. In addition, key information, such as reasons for non-use of contraception, as well as where adolescents obtain their contraceptive method, is included. The Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) program www.dhsprogrogram.com conducts nationally representative surveys in low- and middle-income countries. We use the most recently collected data from any country where 1) a survey has been conducted in the past 10 years (2006-2016) and 2) the data are publically available. Analyses of DHS in the fact sheets are weighted according to DHS guidance to be nationally representative. The data provided is aimed to help policymakers and programme planners reduce inequities in service provision and access by understanding adolescents’ current sources of contraception, utilised methods, and reasons why they are not using contraception.
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  5. 5
    375213

    Republic of Cameroon. Adolescent contraceptive use. Data from l'Enquete Demographique et de Sante et a Indicateurs Multiples du Cameroun (EDSC-MICS), 2011.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Human Reproduction Programme [HRP]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Nov. 4 p. (WHO/RHR/16.18)

    These facts sheets present information from 58 countries on adolescents’ (ages 15-19) contraceptive use by marital status. In addition, key information, such as reasons for non-use of contraception, as well as where adolescents obtain their contraceptive method, is included. The Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) program www.dhsprogrogram.com conducts nationally representative surveys in low- and middle-income countries. We use the most recently collected data from any country where 1) a survey has been conducted in the past 10 years (2006-2016) and 2) the data are publically available. Analyses of DHS in the fact sheets are weighted according to DHS guidance to be nationally representative. The data provided is aimed to help policymakers and programme planners reduce inequities in service provision and access by understanding adolescents’ current sources of contraception, utilised methods, and reasons why they are not using contraception.
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  6. 6
    375212

    Burkina Faso. Adolescent contraceptive use. Data from l'Enquete Demographique et de Sante et a Indicateurs Multiples du Burkina Faso (EDSBF-MICS), 2010.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Human Reproduction Programme [HRP]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Nov. 4 p. (WHO/RHR/16.16)

    These facts sheets present information from 58 countries on adolescents’ (ages 15-19) contraceptive use by marital status. In addition, key information, such as reasons for non-use of contraception, as well as where adolescents obtain their contraceptive method, is included. The Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) program www.dhsprogrogram.com conducts nationally representative surveys in low- and middle-income countries. We use the most recently collected data from any country where 1) a survey has been conducted in the past 10 years (2006-2016) and 2) the data are publically available. Analyses of DHS in the fact sheets are weighted according to DHS guidance to be nationally representative. The data provided is aimed to help policymakers and programme planners reduce inequities in service provision and access by understanding adolescents’ current sources of contraception, utilised methods, and reasons why they are not using contraception.
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  7. 7
    375211

    Republic of Benin. Adolescent contraceptive use. Data from l'Enquete Demographique et de Sante du Benin (EDSB), 2011-2012.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Human Reproduction Programme [HRP]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Nov. 4 p. (WHO/RHR/16.15)

    These facts sheets present information from 58 countries on adolescents’ (ages 15-19) contraceptive use by marital status. In addition, key information, such as reasons for non-use of contraception, as well as where adolescents obtain their contraceptive method, is included. The Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) program www.dhsprogrogram.com conducts nationally representative surveys in low- and middle-income countries. We use the most recently collected data from any country where 1) a survey has been conducted in the past 10 years (2006-2016) and 2) the data are publically available. Analyses of DHS in the fact sheets are weighted according to DHS guidance to be nationally representative. The data provided is aimed to help policymakers and programme planners reduce inequities in service provision and access by understanding adolescents’ current sources of contraception, utilised methods, and reasons why they are not using contraception.
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  8. 8
    337896

    Position statement on condoms and the prevention of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2015 Jul 7. [8] p.

    Condoms are a critical component in a comprehensive and sustainable approach to the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are effective for preventing unintended pregnancies. Male and female condoms are the only devices that both reduce the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and prevent unintended pregnancy. Condoms have played a decisive role in HIV, STI and pregnancy prevention efforts in many countries. Condoms remain a key component of high-impact HIV prevention programmes. Quality-assured condoms must be readily available universally, either free or at low cost. Programmes promoting condoms must address stigma and gender-based and socio-cultural factors that hinder effective access and use of condoms. Adequate investment in and further scale up of condom promotion is required to sustain responses to HIV, other STIs, and unintended pregnancy. (Excerpts)
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  9. 9
    359598
    Peer Reviewed

    Women, abortion and the new technical and policy guidance from WHO.

    Fathalla MF; Cook RJ

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2012 Sep 1; 90(9):712.

    The World Health Organization’s (WHO) update of its 2003 publication Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems has responded to a major neglected public health need of women. The substantial revisions in the 2012 update reflect developments in safe abortion methods and clinical care, providing guidance about the range of safe options available to women seeking elective abortion. Women’s participation in the choice of abortion method, pain control and post-abortion contraception is a crucial element, seeing as unsafe induced abortion is not only public health problem but also a human rights issue. The report discusses developments in the application of human rights principles in policy-making and in legislation related to induced abortion. National courts and regional and international human rights bodies, such as the United Nations treaty monitoring bodies, have increasingly applied these principles to facilitate women’s transparent access to safe abortion services.
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  10. 10
    358773

    Preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries. WHO guidelines.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, 2011. 195 p.

    The purpose of these guidelines is to improve adolescent morbidity and mortality by reducing the changes of early pregnancy and its resulting poor health outcomes. The publication's two main objectives are to: 1) identify effective interventions to prevent early pregnancy by influencing factors such as early marriage, coerced sex, unsafe abortion, access to contraceptives and acces to maternal health services by adolescents; and 2) provide an analytical framework for policy-makers and programme managers to use when selecting evidence-based interventions that are most appropriate for the needs of their countries and contexts. The document provides a summary of the recommendations for each of the six major outcomes presented in this guideline. Both action and research recommendations are listed.
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  11. 11
    358252
    Peer Reviewed

    Adaptation of the World Health Organization's Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use for the United States.

    Curtis KM; Tepper NK; Jamieson DJ; Marchbanks PA

    Contraception. 2013 May; 87(5):513-516.

    BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently adapted global guidance on contraceptive use from the World Health Organization (WHO) to create the US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use (US SPR). The WHO guidance includes evidence-based recommendations on common, yet sometimes complex, contraceptive management questions. STUDY DESIGN: We determined the need and scope for the adaptation, conducted 30 systematic reviews of the scientific evidence and convened a meeting of health care professionals to discuss translation of the evidence into recommendations. RESULTS: The US SPR provides recommendations on contraceptive management issues such as how to initiate contraceptive methods, what regular follow-up is needed, and how to address problems, including missed pills and side effects such as unscheduled bleeding. CONCLUSION: The US SPR is intended to serve as a source of clinical guidance for providers in assisting women and men to initiate and successfully use contraception to prevent unintended pregnancy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  12. 12
    334447

    Preventing HIV and unintended pregnancies: Strategic framework 2011-2015. In support of the Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive. 2nd ed.

    Inter-Agency Task Team for Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Mothers, and their Children

    [New York, New York], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2012. [108] p.

    We are at a turning point for delivering on the promise to end child and maternal mortality and improve health -- marked by bold new commitments. This strategic framework supports one such commitment, the 'Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive'. It offers guidance for preventing HIV infections and unintended pregnancies -- both essential strategies for improving maternal and child health, and eliminating new paediatric HIV infections. This framework should be used in conjunction with other related guidance that together address all four prongs of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This document focuses on strengthening rights-based polices and programming within health services and the community.
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  13. 13
    350203
    Peer Reviewed

    Unintended pregnancy: worldwide levels, trends, and outcomes.

    Singh S; Sedgh G; Hussain R

    Studies In Family Planning. 2010 Dec; 41(4):241-50.

    Unintended pregnancy can carry serious consequences for women and their families. We estimate the incidence of pregnancy by intention status and outcome at worldwide, regional, and subregional levels for 2008, and we assess recent trends since 1995. Numbers of births are based on United Nations estimates. Induced abortions are estimated by projecting from recent trends. A model-based approach is used to estimate miscarriages. The planning status of births is estimated using nationally representative and small-scale surveys of 80 countries. Of the 208 million pregnancies that occurred in 2008, we estimate that 41 percent were unintended. The unintended pregnancy rate fell by 29 percent in developed regions and by 20 percent in developing regions. The highest unintended pregnancy rates were found for Eastern and Middle Africa and the lowest for Southern and Western Europe and Eastern Asia. North America is the only region in which overall and unintended pregnancy rates have not declined. We conclude with a brief discussion of global and regional program and policy implications.
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  14. 14
    348758
    Peer Reviewed

    Revision of the 'missed pill' rules.

    Mansour D

    Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2011 Jul; 37(3):128-31.

    This commentary focuses on guidance around 'missed pill' rules. It discusses the simplification of these rules taken on by the UK's Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) in 2010 with the aim to produce standardized guidance on the starting of combined hormonal contraceptives and on 'missed pills.'
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  15. 15
    345477
    Peer Reviewed

    Adaptation of the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use for use in the United States.

    Curtis KM; Jamieson DJ; Peterson HB; Marchbanks PA

    Contraception. 2010 Jul; 82(1):3-9.

    BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently adapted global guidance on contraceptive use from the World Health Organization (WHO) to create the United States Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC). This guidance includes recommendations for use of specific contraceptive methods by people with certain characteristics or medical conditions. STUDY DESIGN: CDC determined the need and scope for the adaptation, conducted 12 systematic reviews of the scientific evidence and convened a meeting of health professionals to discuss recommendations based on the evidence. RESULTS: The vast majority of the US guidance is the same as the WHO guidance and addresses over 160 characteristics or medical conditions. Modifications were made to WHO recommendations for six medical conditions, and recommendations were developed for six new medical conditions. CONCLUSION: The US MEC is intended to serve as a source of clinical guidance for providers as they counsel clients about contraceptive method choices. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  16. 16
    332676

    Emergency contraceptive pills: the word from medical professionals.

    Alford S

    Washington, D.C., Advocates for Youth, [2009]. [8] p. (From Research to Practice)

    This article defines and describes emergency contraception, its effectiveness, available forms, conditions of its availability in the United States, regimen specifics, efficacy, modes of action, safety and screening issues, side effects, and barriers and ways to dismantle them, especially for young women. Statements on emergency contraception from prominent health organizations are also provided.
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  17. 17
    342791
    Peer Reviewed

    An evidence-based approach to postpartum use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in breastfeeding women.

    Rodriguez MI; Kaunitz AM

    Contraception. 2009 Jul; 80(1):4-6.

    This article reviews the evidence and safety of immediate depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use in lactating postpartum women. It presents the benefits for mothers and infants, the concerns, the safety issues, and states that existing data are not sufficient to limit DMPA use postpartum in women at high risk for unintended pregnancy.
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  18. 18
    331738

    Less is more in helping women understand what to do when they miss contraceptive pills.

    Family Health International [FHI]

    [Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, [2006]. [2] p. (Research Briefs on Hormonal Contraception)

    Unintended pregnancies resulting from women missing their oral contraceptive pills could be reduced if women better understood what to do when they forget to take their daily pill. Research from Family Health International demonstrates that instructions explaining the steps to take when pills are missed are more readily comprehended when in graphic format, featuring simplified information.
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  19. 19
    192349

    Strategic approaches to the prevention of HIV infection in infants. Report of a WHO meeting. Morges, Switzerland, 20-22 March 2002.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of HIV / AIDS

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of HIV / AIDS, 2003. 22 p.

    To further guide its contribution to global efforts to reach the UNGASS goal, WHO organized a meeting from 20 to 22 March 2002 with the following specific objectives: to review the likely contribution of current strategic approaches to preventing HIV infection in infants and young children in different epidemiological situations and settings for service delivery; to provide guidance to WHO on priority areas of work for preventing HIV infection in infants within the frame of its mandate, strategic directions and core functions. Annexes 1 and 2 outline the meeting agenda and list of participants. The first day, participants reviewed programme experiences related to preventing HIV infection in infants and young children and discussed how the strategy of the United Nations agencies in this area could be refined and strengthened. Some historical background on the development and implementation of intervention to prevent the mother-to-child transmission of HIV was briefly reviewed. Through plenary presentations, group work and plenary discussions, the elements of a comprehensive strategic approach were defined. During the second day of the meeting, participants focused their attention on the specific role of WHO in global efforts to achieve the UNGASS goal. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    192147

    WHO information update: Considerations regarding reuse of the female condom.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2002 Jul. [4] p.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends use of a new male or female condom for every act of intercourse where there is a risk of unplanned pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted infection, including HIV. Since access to female condoms may be limited and reuse of female condoms has been reported, WHO has convened two consultations to address considerations regarding such reuse. Based on these consultations, WHO does not recommend or promote reuse of female condoms. Recognizing the urgent need for risk-reduction strategies for women who cannot or do not access new condoms, the consultation developed a draft protocol for safe handling and preparation of female condoms intended for reuse. This protocol is based on the best available evidence, but has not been extensively studied for safety and has not been evaluated for efficacy in human use. Given the diversity of cultural and social contexts and personal circumstances under which female condom reuse may be acceptable, feasible and safe, and since the balance of risks and benefits varies according to individual settings, the final decision on whether or not to support reuse of the female condom must ultimately be taken locally. WHO continues to support research on female condom reuse and will disseminate relevant information, study results and guidelines for policy makers as additional data on reuse become available. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    192541

    WHO recommendations [letter]

    Mansour D

    Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2004 Apr; 30(2):131.

    May I congratulate the Journal and the Clinical Effectiveness Unit for continuing to produce excellent Guidance for those of us working in the field of reproductive health. The wide dissemination of these articles will ensure uniformity and quality in contraception provision in primary and secondary care. I have, however, one concern. This has been alluded to in a recent article describing the consensus process for adapting the World Health Organization (WHO) Selected Practice Recommendations for UK Use. As a result of the relaxation of some of the more cautious rules a very small number of women may become pregnant. An obvious example is giving Depo- Provera injections 2 weeks late (i.e. at 14 weeks) without any precautionary measures. The Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use were developed to improve and extend contraceptive provision in developing countries. In developed countries, however, those becoming pregnant may take a more litigious view particularly when patient information leaflets and the Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) state contrary and more cautious advice. In addition, new evidence regarding follicular development potential suggests that more, rather than less, caution may be advisable. Could the Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care or the University of Aberdeen be sued? (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    174266

    WHO pronouncement on the reuse of female condoms.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Progress in Reproductive Health Research. 2002; (59):5.

    WHO recommends use of a new male or female condom for every act of intercourse where there is a risk of unplanned pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted infection, including HIV and, based on two expert consultations, does not recommend or promote reuse of female condoms. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    173637

    [Reproductive health. UNFPA mobilizes its troups against supply insecurity] Sante de la procreation. Le FNUAP mobilise ses troupes contre l'insecurite des approvisionnements.

    Toubon R

    Equilibres and Populations. 2002 Jun-Jul; (78):[2] p..

    UNFPA representatives from 25 Francophone countries of Western and Central Africa met in Abidjan to discuss operational goals based upon their field experience, in the attempt to advance plan development for attaining Cairo Conference goals in each target country. Currently across all of Sub-Saharan Africa, each man 15-49 years old has on average only 4 condoms per year with which to protect himself and his sex partners against STDs and unwanted pregnancy. However, each of these men will on average engage in approximately 120 sexual acts during that year. Significant unmet contraceptive need therefore exists. Countries need to invest the political will and material resources needed to realize the goal of providing all human beings, by 2015, with universal access to reproductive health services.
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  24. 24
    127947

    Population and development linkages: new research priorities after the Cairo and Beijing conferences.

    Sadik N; Bukman P

    The Hague, Netherlands, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], 1996. 23 p. (NIDI Hofstee Lecture Series 13)

    This document contains the text of the 1996 Hofstee Lecture organized by the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute. The 1996 lecture, entitled "Population and Development Linkages: New Research Priorities after the Cairo and Beijing Conferences," was delivered by Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund. Dr. Sadik suggested that research is needed to explore 1) the interrelations between population, sustainable development, and the environment and 2) to improve design and implementation of more effective reproductive health programs and solve methodological problems. After sketching the linkages between population and development, her lecture analyzed research needs to clarify the population/development relationship in terms of macroeconomic linkages, population/environment linkages (for rural and for urban environments), microeconomic linkages (such as education, poverty, and unintended poverty), and macro-microeconomic linkages. The next part of her lecture presented sociocultural research and operations research proposals to identify the constraints on full access to reproductive health services and to improve quality of care. Dr. Sadik concluded that results of investigations in the areas of methodological development; conceptual clarification; and substantive, theoretical, and applied research should be consolidated into databases to enhance policy development and measurement of progress in meeting the goals of the world population conferences. In response to this lecture, Dr. Piet Bukman of the Netherlands discussed the problem of achieving food security and the urgent need for an effective population policy that will adopt short-term as well as longterm measures to limit global population growth.
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  25. 25
    098580

    Pregnancy -- unplanned, unwanted and aborted.

    SAFE MOTHERHOOD NEWSLETTER. 1994 Mar-Jun; (14):10.

    Recent studies conducted by the World Health Organization's Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction reveal high rates of unwanted pregnancy and illegal abortion in selected developing countries. In a Colombian study, 30% of women undergoing illegal abortion could not explain why they became pregnant, 40% believed that a woman bears sole responsibility for contraception, and almost 50% did not know when the likelihood for conception was greatest. In a study of pharmacists and herb vendors in Mexico, only 35% of those in the former group and none of those in the latter group could describe the mechanism of action of modern contraceptives, despite the fact that they were frequently consulted about pregnancy prevention. 25% of abortion seekers in a Cuban study had used no contraceptive method and the abortion ratio was highest (2 for every live birth) among women under 20 years old. The majority of the unwanted pregnancies occurring to contraceptive users involves use of an IUD that is not appropriate for young, nulliparous women. Finally, a study conducted in Tanzania found that a third of illegal abortions involved women under 17 years of age. 90% of whom had no knowledge of a family planning method.
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