Your search found 35 Results

  1. 1
    374600

    Text and context: evaluating peace agreements for their ‘gender perspective’.

    Bell C

    New York, New York, UN Women, 2015 Oct. 32 p.

    Since approximately 1990, peace processes involving the negotiation of formal peace agreements between the protagonists to conflict have become a predominant way of ending violent conflicts, both within and between States. Between 1990 and 2015 1,168 peace agreements have been negotiated in around 102 conflicts, on a wide definition of peace agreements to include agreements at all stages of the negotiations. Peace agreements are therefore important documents with significant capacity to affect women’s lives. However, a range of obstacles for women seeking to influence their design and implementation persists. These include difficulties with accessing talks, achieving equal influence at talks, raising issues of concern for women, and achieving material gains for women as an outcome of the peace process. This report examines what ‘a gender perspective’ in peace agreements might mean, assesses numerous peace agreements from between 1 January 1990 and 1 January 2015 for their ‘gender perspective, and produces data on when women have been specifically mentioned in those peace agreements.
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  2. 2
    372982

    The little data book on gender.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2016. [234] p.

    This pocket guide is a quick reference for users interested in gender statistics. The book presents gender-disaggregated data for more than 200 economies in an easy country-by-country reference on demography, education, health, labor force, political participation and the Millennium Development Goals. The book’s summary pages cover regional and income group aggregates.
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  3. 3
    383369

    Serving up change? Gender mainstreaming and the UNESCO–WTA partnership for global gender equality.

    Szto C

    Sport in Society. 2015 Sep 14; 18(8):895-908.

    In 2006, UNESCO partnered with the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) claiming that women's tennis can help foster gender equality. This partnership was based on the notion that the empowerment of women and girls is integral to sustainable international development; yet, girls and women are positioned as both the barrier and solution to development. This document analysis uses the UNESCO–WTA project in Cameroon to critique the problematic nature of development assumptions and the approach of gender mainstreaming while contextualizing women's empowerment as a loaded term that often ignores social, political, and economic constraints. The implications of this analysis serve to reiterate calls for sport for development and peace initiatives to situate both sport and gender in their local contexts. It is also important to question the lack of accountability and transparency demonstrated by this particular corporate social responsibility partnership.
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  4. 4
    354057
    Peer Reviewed

    Defining empowerment: perspectives from international development organisations.

    Hennink M; Kiiti N; Pillinger M; Jayakaran R

    Development in Practice. 2012 Apr; 22(2):202-215.

    Empowerment has become a mainstream concept in international development but lacks clear definition, which can undermine development initiatives aimed at strengthening empowerment as a route to poverty reduction. In the present article, written narratives from 49 international development organisations identify how empowerment is defined and operationalised in community initiatives. Results show a conceptual framework of empowerment comprising six mechanisms that foster empowerment (knowledge; agency; opportunity; capacity-building; resources; and sustainability), five domains of empowerment (health; economic; political; resource; and spiritual), and three levels (individual; community; and organisational). A key finding is the interdependence between components, indicating important programmatic implications for development initiatives.
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  5. 5
    332831

    The world's women 2010: Trends and statistics.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistics Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2010. [284] p. (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/19)

    The World’s Women 2010: Trends and Statistics is the fifth issue of The World’s Women and is being produced to coincide with the first-ever World’s Statistics Day, 20.10.2010. The current issue highlights the differences in the status of women and men in eight areas -- population and families, health, education, work, power and decision-making, violence against women, environment and poverty. Analyses are based mainly on statistics from international and national statistical sources. The World’s Women 2010 shows that progress towards gender equality has been made in some areas, such as school enrolment, health and economic participation. At the same time the report shows that much more needs to be done to close the gender gap in critical areas such as power and decision-making and violence against women.
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  6. 6
    298995

    Considering the role of men in gender agenda setting: conceptual and policy issues.

    Erturk Y

    Feminist Review. 2004; 78:3-21.

    The international gender equality agenda evolved into one of mainstreaming a gender perspective into all policies and programmes. Within this process, the role of men gained increasing attention in the debates on gender equality. This resulted in the inclusion of 'men's role' as one of the themes of the agenda of the Commission on the Status of Women for the year 2004. While this is another step forward in the global efforts for achieving equality between women and men, its potential risks should not be overlooked. Therefore, it is necessary to revisit the concept of gender and carefully assess and monitor how the role of men is included in the agenda. This article starts with the premise that gender inequalities are the product of historically determined gender order in which the differentially assigned male female attributes are unequally structured in layers of privileged and subordinate positions of masculinities and femininities. The concept of patriarchy is brought back into the analysis to capture the interlinkages between the various status hierarchies that lead to shifts in hegemonic forms of masculinity that reproduces itself under diverse and changing conditions. Thus, while the article attempts to account for the generic and universal characteristics of gender inequality, at the same time, it draws attention to its specific socio-cultural manifestations. Finally, policy guidelines are offered for the consideration of the role of men in gender agenda setting. Accordingly, it is suggested that men's initiatives for alternative masculinities are acknowledged and that the questions regarding which men, in what kinds of alliances and for which end are reflected upon in formulating policies. (author's)
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  7. 7
    296436

    Marginalization of women in the media: what the United Nations should do.

    Gill S

    UN Chronicle. 2003 Dec; 40(4):[4] p..

    The media, as an important agent of socialization in the modern world, either support or contest cultural conceptions, and have a significant impact on the social construction of gender. The media's effects operate at the level of gender belief systems, affecting individual "beliefs and opinions about males and females, and about the purported qualities of masculinity and femininity". The mass media have been found to play a critical role in maintaining the gender-power imbalance, "passing on dominant, patriarchal/sexist values". But such a situation is not inherent in the nature of media. They can instead be agents of development and progress if guided by clear, socially relevant policies. Their hoped-for positive contribution to women's advancement will only take place in the context of a framework that clearly defines policy objectives, maps out actions and decisions which comprise the particular policy, defines the minimum standards to be met by all participants in the process, and provides mechanisms for assessing progress towards policy objectives. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    296422

    The despotic power of husbands. - Protection of women's rights.

    Perutz MF

    UN Chronicle. 1998 Winter; 35(4):[2] p..

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the enshrinement of its essential rights in international law is one of the great achievement of our civilization. In a large part, we owe their formulation to the great jurist Hersch Lauterpacht, Professor of international law in the University of Cambridge from 1937 to 1954. In 1945, he published a seminal book, An International Bill of the Rights of Man, which became the basis of much that is in the United Nations Declaration and the Conventions that followed it. According to him: "The idea of the inherent rights of man, ultimately superior to the State itself, is the continuous thread in the historical pattern of legal and political thought. In antiquity, their substance has been a denial of the absoluteness of the State and its unconditional claim to obedience; the assertion of the value and freedom of the individual as against the State; the view that the power of the State and of its ruler is derived ultimately from the assent of those who compose the political community; the insistence that there are limits to the power of the State to interfere with man; the right to do what he considers his duty." (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    282060
    Peer Reviewed

    Under the gaze of the 'big nations': refugees, rumours and the international community in Tanzania.

    Turner S

    African Affairs. 2004; 103:227-247.

    In most academic literature refugees are portrayed either as those who lack what national citizens have or as a threat to the national order of things. This article explores the effects of being excluded in such a way, and argues that Burundian refugees in a camp in northwest Tanzania find themselves in an ambiguous position, being excluded from the national order of things — secluded in the Tanzanian bush — while simultaneously being subject to state-of-the-art humanitarian interventions — apparently bringing them closer to the international community. The article explores the ways in which refugees in the camp relate to the international community. Ambiguous perceptions of the international community are expressed in rumours and conspiracy theories. These conspiracy theories create a kind of ontological surety by presenting the Hutu refugees as the victims of a grand Tutsi plot supported by ‘the big nations’. Finally, the article argues that refugees — being excluded from the nationstate and being subject to the government of international NGOs — seek recognition from the international community rather than any nationstate. This does not, however, destabilize the hegemony of the nation-state, as refugees perceive their own position as temporary and the international community as the guarantor of a more just international order in the long run. (author's)
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  10. 10
    276381

    Civil society, community participation and empowerment in the era of globalization.

    Waring M

    Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 May. [8] p. (Spotlight No. 1)

    In the early days of the second wave of the women’s movement, we had our own stories of community participatory development. In 1978 we knew of Lois Gibbs and the women of the Love Canal region of New York whose houses were built on twenty thousand tons of toxic waste; the entire neighbourhood was sick. Gibbs identified that men, women, and children in the area suffered from many conditions—cancer, miscarriages, stillbirths, birth defects, and urinary tract diseases. She collected the evidence. Through petitions, public meetings and use of the media, the Love Canal community took on the School Board, the State and Federal governments, and finally the President. They were rehoused and compensated, and left a legacy to the USA in the form of the Environmental Protection Agency. Similarly, the work of Maria Mies and her students in the early 1980s in Cologne introduced us to ‘action research’. Their research involved women across the city in the collection of evidence of domestic violence sufficient to convince the police and city councillors of the urgent need for the first shelters for battered women. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    276377

    Ten principles for challenging neoliberal globalization.

    Mandhane R; Symington A

    Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2003 Dec. 8 p. (Women’s Rights and Economic Change No. 6; Facts and Issues)

    Every day and in almost every aspect of life, gender equality and women’s rights are affected by economic policy. Choices and opportunities regarding education, health care, employment, and childcare, for example, are all directly impacted by national economic agendas and international financial forces. Women therefore have a lot to lose when economic policies do not take gender discrimination and gender roles into account. At the same time, women’s rights can be advanced through economic policies that put their concerns, needs, and livelihoods at the centre of the analysis. Neoliberal globalization, which is the dominant driving force for economic policies throughout the world today, is therefore a crucial focus of gender equality advocates. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    274003

    Gender analysis in health: a review of selected tools.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Gender and Women’s Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Gender and Women's Health, 2002. x, 83 p.

    This critical review of tools for gender analysis and their application to health was carried out to support who’s Gender Team in identifying possible strategies for implementing the Gender Policy for who. One component of implementation is providing who staff with support in a) understanding why it is necessary to address the impact of gender on health and health services and b) knowing how to address this impact as it pertains to their own field of work. Since many agencies facing similar tasks have developed tools for mainstreaming gender, it seemed appropriate for the Gender Working Group to consider their usefulness for health rather than immediately embarking on a process of developing its own tools. This review is intended as background for use by anyone working on or interested in gender and health, and particularly by who staff working on gender issues. It assumes an understanding of the who Gender Policy for who, and of the challenges in mainstreaming gender. It is therefore written in a shorthand form, aiming simply to clarify the content of different tools, and to what extent they could be used in support of implementing who’s Gender Policy. There is a complementary volume to this review which is designed as an educational tool for those not necessarily familiar with gender analysis, which provides an overview of gender tools that may be used for integrating gender issues in health. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    186930

    Getting representation right for women in development: accountability, consent and the articulation of women's interests.

    Fierlbeck K

    In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 31-43.

    Consent, as a basis of political authority, remains a forcefully compelling principle because it recognizes so many of the human qualities - autonomy, dignity, responsibility - which we collectively value. But to revere the concept of consent means that we must respect the unpalatable decisions made by others and respect, in turn, means than we cannot ultimately challenge the autonomy of the decision-makers. Thus the more we respect consent, the less capable we are of investigating the context of choice; and the less satisfied we are with the context of choice, the less respect we have for the principle of consent in practice. To break this circle we must be willing to probe and to query the choices and decisions of 'autonomous' agents; for consent itself is not only a moral construct but, more tangibly, a potently political device for ensuring obedience. Instruments of such palpable power must always be carefully and consistently scrutinized, and we must be brave enough to say whether consent has been won at too high a price. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    186931

    Making development organizations accountable: the organizational, political and cognitive contexts.

    Kardam N

    In: Getting institutions right for women in development, edited by Anne Marie Goetz. London, England, Zed Books, 1997. 44-60.

    Most of the development literature considers accountability either as a political or an organizational issue and few consider it as a cognitive issue. All three must be examined in order to acquire a broader understanding of accountability. Accountability has to do with the organizational characteristics (goals, procedures, staffing, incentive systems) of all agencies involved, as well as with the political context, that is, the political commitment of the stakeholders to a project, whether the options of 'exit' and 'voice' are available and whether democratic accountability exists. Finally, accountability cannot be discussed without understanding the 'discourse' underlying a particular policy area, in our case gender policy. How do different stakeholders define 'gender issues'? On what basis should resources be allocated to women? The perceived cause of gender constraints will also determine what solutions are proposed. To what extent is there agreement between different stakeholders on the nature of the issue and the proposed solutions? These are some of the questions we might ask as we explore gendered institutions. Therefore, I will begin by analysing the conditions that limit and promote accountability within these three major categories: the organizational context, the political context and the cognitive context. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    178133

    Towards sustainable peace in Sierra Leone.

    Funke N; Solomon H

    Pretoria, South Africa, Africa Insitute of South Africa, Peace and Governance Programme, 2002. vi, 14 p. (Africa Institute Occasional Paper No. 68; Peace and Governance Programme No. 4)

    If lasting peace is to be sustained, it is important that preventive diplomacy be effectively applied in future, something which has thus far not always been managed successfully. The mistakes that have been made in the past can serve as a guideline to formulate a series of recommendations for the future. First, it is essential to define the concept preventive diplomacy. The next step is to describe the dimensions of the conflict in Sierra Leone. Bilateral negotiations between parties, appeals by international actors and the threat or use of force in the maintenance and restoration of regional balances of power are selected as a few key preventive tools for analysis. Finally, recommendations are made in this volume about how preventive diplomacy should be applied in future to prevent the country's fragile peace from falling apart yet again. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    168058

    Power in sexual relationships: an opening dialogue among reproductive health professionals.

    Population Council; United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Interagency Gender Working Group

    New York, New York, Population Council, 2001. vii, 56 p.

    This document summarizes the proceedings of a meeting held in March 2001 in Washington, District of Columbia. The meeting was co-sponsored by the Population Council and US Agency for International Development's Inter-agency Gender Working Group's Men and Reproductive Health Subcommittee. Gender-based power inequalities hinder communication between partners, limit the ability of individuals and couples to talk about or achieve desired child spacing and family size goals, limit effective use of reproductive health services, undercut men's and women's attainment of sexual health and pleasure, and increase substantially their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The contents of this document include discussions on the evidence of power in sexual relationships; field-based efforts on service delivery, community, and socialization; and comments from the community of donors and implementing agencies.
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  17. 17
    106158

    Global communications: democratic access for women.

    Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion

    MEDIA DEVELOPMENT. 1995; 42(2):38-9.

    In preparation for the 1995 World Conference on Women, women of the Latin American Information Agency prepared a statement for the UN about the importance of communications and information in the contemporary world and the role of women in the media. The statement includes the following specific suggestions: 1) that the UN promote the democratization of communications with a gender focus, 2) that women be assured access to new communications technologies that empower their communicational capacity, 3) that steps be taken to ensure that media content projects a positive and nondiscriminatory image of women, and 4) that guidelines be drawn up to promote labor equality between the genders and a greater presence of women in decision-making positions in the media.
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  18. 18
    133787

    Going back. Population.

    Singh JS

    EARTH TIMES. 1996 Jun 13; 1, 10.

    Various concepts of the family, reproductive health, and women's empowerment, issues thought settled at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Beijing Conference, were again debated in Istanbul. The family was recognized at the ICPD as the basic unit of society, albeit with its varying forms around the world. Beijing reaffirmed the definition after some discussion. However, during the Habitat II preparatory process, an attempt was made to focus upon the concept of the family as the basic societal unit and to place the reference to its various forms elsewhere. While paragraph 18 of the Habitat Agenda which deals with the issue was largely cleared at the third preparatory meeting, the language on various forms of the family remains in brackets, to be negotiated in Istanbul. References to reproductive health are in brackets in paragraphs 87 and 96. Debate over the definition of gender in Beijing and during the Habitat process was finally settled in favor of the existing UN understanding of the meaning of the word. Other controversies on gender issues remain to be settled.
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  19. 19
    130820
    Peer Reviewed

    Addressing the demographic imperative through health, empowerment, and rights: ICPD implementation in Bangladesh.

    Germain A

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1997; 7 Suppl 4:33-6.

    It has been debated since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) whether the ICPD program of action constitutes population policy. Opponents of the ICPD reproductive health approach argue that vertical family planning programs will be more cost-effective, while proponents counter that the reproductive health approach will be more cost-effective in meeting demographic goals. The program of action calls for social investments to be made by development agencies and budgets, not from family planning budgets. The roles of population professionals and agencies in the program are to conduct relevant research and advocate for broader policy change. The case of Bangladesh is examined. The following issues need to be researched in both Bangladesh and worldwide in order to support the implementation of the ICPD program of action: the situation of young people, the significance of sex and gender in reproductive and health-seeking behavior, the decision-making environment, and applied demographic research into the costs and benefits of reproductive health services. Professionals working in the field of population need to get involved in assessing and promoting changes in broader national development policies.
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  20. 20
    127352
    Peer Reviewed

    The child survival revolution: a critique.

    Schuftan C

    FAMILY PRACTICE. 1990; 7(4):329-32.

    The author examines the Child Survival Revolution (CSR), a UNICEF program to promote growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breastfeeding, and immunizations in the Third World. These health interventions are know as GOBI. GOBI-FF is GOBI together with the provision of food and family planning services. The author explores the hypothesis that the CSR cannot work in isolation and that it must be linked to other, more fundamental changes in political and economic power structures. He also debates whether the success of these interventions is inextricably linked to their acceptance and implementation at the grassroots level. Background, individual choice, GOBI and CSR, and the efficacy and implementation of GOBI are discussed. CSR-GOBI cannot work in isolation and any program success will eventually come from participation and acceptance at the local level.
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  21. 21
    086745

    [Resolution No.] 1991/18. Violence against women in all its forms [30 May 1991].

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council

    ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OFFICIAL RECORDS. 1991; Suppl 1:20-1.

    This document contains the text of a 1991 UN Resolution on violence against women. After reviewing previous UN action on this issue and noting that the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women fails to explicitly address violence, the resolution recommends that member states 1) recognize that violence against women can be countered by a variety of measures, 2) remember that violence against women results from male-female power imbalances, 3) prohibit violence against women, and 4) protect women from all forms of mental or physical violence and that 1) an international instrument be developed to address this issue explicitly, 2) the UN Secretary-General convene a meeting of experts on this issue, 3) governments train criminal justice and health care personnel to ensure justice in equality issues, and 4) researchers investigate the causes of violence against women.
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  22. 22
    119855

    Reproductive health programs supported by USAID: a progress report on implementing the Cairo Program of Action.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Center for Population, Health and Nutrition

    [Washington, D.C.], USAID, 1996 May. [3], 20 p.

    This report details progress made by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) in implementing the Program of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The report contains an introduction and an overview of the USAID program. USAID reproductive health programs have: 1) provided leadership for a supportive policy environment through multilateral, regional, and country-level initiatives; 2) developed innovative techniques for operations, biomedical, social science research and for evaluation; and 3) implemented reproductive health programs that promote access and quality in family planning and other reproductive health services, maternal health, women's nutrition, postabortion care, breast feeding, sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention and control, integrated reproductive health programs, programs and services for youth, prevention of such harmful practices as female genital mutilation, male involvement, reproductive health for refugees and displaced people, and involvement of women in the design and management of programs. USAID programs to advance girls' and women's education and empowerment have forwarded women's legal and political rights, increased access to credit, and developed integrated programs for women. Priority challenges and directions for the future include: 1) determining the feasibility, costs, and effectiveness of reproductive health interventions; 2) improving understanding of reproductive health behavior; 3) continuing development of service delivery strategies; and 4) mobilizing resources for reproductive health.
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  23. 23
    115016
    Peer Reviewed

    A view from Turkey: men as well as women.

    Angin Z; Shorter FC

    HEALTH TRANSITION REVIEW. 1996 Apr; 6(1):101-3.

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program of action mainly focuses upon empowering women so that they can make their own reproductive decisions using contraception and health care provided by health systems. However, male reproductive health also should be considered, thereby requiring attention to urology and infertility, as well as gynecology in the reproductive health services. The program of action, however, fails to consider men except for when they are asked to support women. Men are asked to support and not interfere with women, consistent with the North American feminist demand that women have total control. The authors consider the truth about the prevailing generalities about men's and women's roles and relationships. Their positions are based upon ethnographic field research among working-class people in Istanbul during 1994 and 1995. The narratives assembled through their research warn against presuming knowledge of whether the man or the woman controls fertility. One cannot say that the use of male methods of contraception means that men have absolute power over fertility control.
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  24. 24
    098150

    Rape as a metaphor for modernity.

    Banuri T

    Development. 1994; (1):6-9.

    The "rape of nature" is language out of context that does not serve the interests of the oppressed. The act of oppression can be gauged in terms of successful outcomes. The outcomes can be assessed in a variety of ways. Modernity can be taken as an "attitude that makes fair gain of any vulnerable group." The guiding principles can be confused with the manifestations of modernity. Modernity is taken within population, development, and gender discussions to justify itself. Blame for disfunction is diffused by blaming nonmodernity (for instance, the Nazis or the American slave owners, or the ignorant farmer or landholder, ancient patriarchal customs, male domination, religion, lack of modern knowledge). The solution to problems is modernity. Prior violence and oppression are used to justify continued violence and oppression. Population growth only becomes a problem when man as individual or collective entity loses the sense of the limits of nature. The environment is being destroyed by man's knowledge and the breakdown of barriers between man and nature. Modernity has brought with it political violence, intolerance, genocide, ethnic cleansing, terrorization of whole societies, the epidemic of civil wars, and the persecution of minorities and other unwanted people. Humanity speaks in an impersonal voice; the alternative is to talk about technical things in a personal and embodied way. Rape is an apt description of modernity literally and metaphorically. Feminists demand the spoken language of women. Violence is the silencing of voices. Modernity has seen an increase in the violence towards nature, individuals, bodies, and communities. Knowledge is related to the privilege of an impersonal and objective attitude toward people or nature that predisposes violence. The thought is that superior knowledge will dominate nature. Vulnerable groups everywhere are armed to prevent the "never again" will we be the objects of violence. The use of rape in this context has the danger of potentially becoming an impersonal objectification. The alternative for sustainable development is to accept vulnerability and place ourselves in others' trust, which requires subjectivity, dialogue, and empowerment and local, national, and global governance to obstruct local tyrannies. Reciprocity of interests must prevail.
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  25. 25
    096861

    Summary of the Working Group on Political Processes.

    Keysers L

    In: Reproductive Health and Justice. International Women's Health Conference for Cairo '94, January 24-28, 1994, Rio de Janeiro. New York, New York, International Women's Health Coalition, 1994. 31-3.

    Although political activists in attendance at the International Women's Health Conference for Cairo 1994 differed in terms of strategies and tactics proposed to ensure women's reproductive rights, they were able to compile a list of organizational guidelines to enhance women's political impact. Reproductive rights activists are urged to both strengthen the movement internally through networking and monitoring and form alliances with other social movements. To ensure that reproductive rights become part of the development agenda, women must work inside the official process while simultaneously maintaining the own agenda and accountability to their constituencies. Although co-optation remains a danger, outsiders have limited power without allies inside the official development establishment and insiders cannot be effective without backing from outsiders in the women's movement. Women's demands must never be subsumed under population policies and activists should be militant in denouncing population control policies that do not place women's needs in a central position. Professional female politicians and lobbyists must encourage women at the grass-roots level to articulate their demands and then translate these into social policy proposals. Resisted must be the practice of some international bodies to appoint so-called women's experts top-down or attempts by donors to use the women's movement to meet their own agendas. Solidarity--where differences become a source of power--and unity are urged as the women's movement prepares for the Cairo conference.
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